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Genetics of Endometrial Cancers
Tsuyoshi Okuda,Akihiko Sekizawa,Yuditiya Purwosunu,Masaaki Nagatsuka,Miki Morioka,Masaki Hayashi,Takashi Okai
Obstetrics and Gynecology International , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/984013
Abstract: Endometrial cancers exhibit a different mechanism of tumorigenesis and progression depending on histopathological and clinical types. The most frequently altered gene in estrogen-dependent endometrioid endometrial carcinoma tumors is PTEN. Microsatellite instability is another important genetic event in this type of tumor. In contrast, p53 mutations or Her2/neu overexpression are more frequent in non-endometrioid tumors. On the other hand, it is possible that the clear cell type may arise from a unique pathway which appears similar to the ovarian clear cell carcinoma. K-ras mutations are detected in approximately 15%–30% of endometrioid carcinomas, are unrelated to the existence of endometrial hyperplasia. A -catenin mutation was detected in about 20% of endometrioid carcinomas, but is rare in serous carcinoma. Telomere shortening is another important type of genomic instability observed in endometrial cancer. Only non-endometrioid endometrial carcinoma tumors were significantly associated with critical telomere shortening in the adjacent morphologically normal epithelium. Lynch syndrome, which is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder of cancer susceptibility and is characterized by a MSH2/MSH6 protein complex deficiency, is associated with the development of non-endometrioid carcinomas. 1. Introduction Endometrial cancer is the most common cancer of the female reproductive tract with 150,000 new cases diagnosed annually worldwide. Approximately 90% of endometrial cancers are sporadic, and the remaining 10% are hereditary. Bokhman have generally categorized endometrial cancer into two broad groups of tumors using both clinical and histopathological variables: estrogen-dependent endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (EECs), or type I, and non-endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (NEECs), or type II tumors (Table 1) [1]. It should be noted that this model is not strict, and only a minority of endometrial cancer may exhibit shared characteristics. For example, mixed serous and endometrioid tumors are being increasingly recognized. Approximately 70% to 80% of new cases are classified as EECs, and other 10% to 20% are designated as NEEC tumors [1]. EECs are strongly associated with the estrogen-related pathway and arise in association with unopposed estrogen stimulation [2]. In contrast, NEECs are unrelated to the estrogen pathways and arise in the background of atrophic endometrium [3]. EECs typically occur in premenopausal and younger postmenopausal women and are usually low-grade and have a favorable outcome, whereas NEECs occur in older postmenopausal
Effect of Individual Differences in Construal Level on Procrastination: Moderating Role of Intelligence Theories  [PDF]
Miki Terada
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.84032
Abstract: The relationship between individual differences in construal level and self-control, including procrastination was investigated by examining the following hypotheses. 1) People with high level of construal would procrastinate less when learning a task than those with low level of construal; and 2) theories of intelligence would moderate the effect of construal level on procrastination. These hypotheses were tested by using survey data. Results indicated that people with a low construal level procrastinated more. Results also indicated the moderating role of intelligence theories on the relationship between Behavior Identification Form (BIF) score and procrastination. This study is expected to expand our understanding of construal level theory and individual differences. The findings are also expected to clarify the relationship between construal level and procrastination.
Multiple granulomatous lung lesions in a patient with Epstein-Barr-virus-induced mononucleosis and new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report
Aki Sakurai, Shinichi Shimizu, Shinichiro Morioka, Tetsuo Fujita, Ryogo Ema, Yoshihiro Miki, Kazuhiro Tomita, Toru Nakamura, Futoru Toyoda, Yoshiro Otsuki, Hiroshi Kobayashi, Hidenori Nakamura
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-6-191
Abstract: A 36-year-old Japanese man, who had been diagnosed with Epstein-Barr-virus-induced infectious mononucleosis, new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus, and secondary Sj?gren’s syndrome three weeks previously, presented to our facility with fever and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed multiple small nodules in both lungs. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage revealed lymphocytosis with predominance of T lymphocytes. A histological examination of a lung biopsy taken during video-assisted thoracic surgery showed randomly distributed tiny granulomatous lesions with infiltration of eosinophils. The differential diagnoses included hypersensitivity pneumonitis, sarcoidosis, and pulmonary involvement of Crohn’s disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Sj?gren’s syndrome, but the clinical and pathological findings were not consistent with any of these. Our patient’s condition did not improve; therefore, prednisolone therapy was started because of the possibility of specific immunological reactions associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. After steroid treatment, our patient showed radiological and clinical improvement.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient developing randomly distributed multiple granulomatous lung lesions with eosinophilic infiltrates after Epstein-Barr virus infection and systemic lupus erythematosus. On the basis of our data, we hypothesize that Epstein-Barr virus infection altered the immune response of our predisposed patient and contributed to the pathogenesis of the lung lesions. Our patient’s clinical response to steroid treatment was excellent.
Otolith features and growth of juvenile Opsaridium microcephalum (Pisces: Cyprinidae) from the southwestern shoreline of Lake Malawi
Shinsuke Morioka
African Zoology , 2011,
Abstract: Sanjika,Opsaridium microcephalum, were collected from two sites (Nkhotakota and Chia) along the southwestern shoreline of Lake Malawi. The sagitta of the otolith was arrowheadshaped with an obvious nucleus. Increments in the sagittae were observable until the bases of the rostra but invisible in the rostra. The asteriscus was oval-shaped with an ambiguous nucleus, leading to difficulty in identifying the first increment. The lapillus was ‘a’-shaped with an obvious nucleus and increments were observable from the nucleus to the margin. The lapillus was therefore considered the most suitable structure for interpreting daily growth increments in this species. The estimated hatching months of fish based on lapilli increment counts were from November to July, suggesting that this species has a long breeding period of at least eight months per year. The growth rate of fish born in the rainy season (0.74mmTL per day) was higher than those in the dry season (0.56mmTL per day). This growth difference was considered to be due to the difference in water temperature in the lake.
Human Dignity and the Manipulation of the Sense of Happiness: From the Viewpoint of Bioethics and Philosophy of Life
Masahiro Morioka
Journal of Philosophy of Life , 2012,
Abstract: If our sense of happiness is closely connected to brain functions, it might become possible to manipulate our brain in a much more refined and effective way than current methods allow. In this paper I will make some remarks on the manipulation of the sense of happiness and illuminate the relationship between human dignity and happiness. The President’s Council on Bioethics discusses this topic in the 2003 report Beyond Therapy, and concludes that the use of SSRIs might make us “feel happy for no good reason at all, or happy even when there remains much in one’s life to be truly unhappy about.” I will extend their line of thought through two thought experiments. In the first, a “perfect happiness” drug is given to a person, and in the second a happiness device with an on/off switch is placed inside a person. The first case leads us to conclude that a life with dignity means a life free from domination by the sense of happiness and the sense of unhappiness. The second case leads us to conclude that a life with dignity requires substantive freedom to choose unhappiness. At the end of this paper, I present a new interpretation of “human dignity,” that is, “a life with dignity means a life in which we are able to explore our own life, equipped with both happiness and unhappiness, without regret, through relationships with others, without being exploited by the desires of anyone, and without being dominated by our own desires.”
Systems Analysis of ATF3 in Stress Response and Cancer Reveals Opposing Effects on Pro-Apoptotic Genes in p53 Pathway
Yujiro Tanaka, Aya Nakamura, Masaki Suimye Morioka, Shoko Inoue, Mimi Tamamori-Adachi, Kazuhiko Yamada, Kenji Taketani, Junya Kawauchi, Miki Tanaka-Okamoto, Jun Miyoshi, Hiroshi Tanaka, Shigetaka Kitajima
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026848
Abstract: Stress-inducible transcription factors play a pivotal role in cellular adaptation to environment to maintain homeostasis and integrity of the genome. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is induced by a variety of stress and inflammatory conditions and is over-expressed in many kinds of cancer cells. However, molecular mechanisms underlying pleiotropic functions of ATF3 have remained elusive. Here we employed systems analysis to identify genome-wide targets of ATF3 that is either induced by an alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) or over-expressed in a prostate tumour cell line LNCaP. We show that stress-induced and cancer-associated ATF3 is recruited to 5,984 and 1,423 targets, respectively, in the human genome, 89% of which are common. Notably, ATF3 targets are highly enriched for not only ATF/CRE motifs but also binding sites of several other stress-inducible transcription factors indicating an extensive network of stress response factors in transcriptional regulation of target genes. Further analysis of effects of ATF3 knockdown on these targets revealed that stress-induced ATF3 regulates genes in metabolic pathways, cell cycle, apoptosis, cell adhesion, and signalling including insulin, p53, Wnt, and VEGF pathways. Cancer-associated ATF3 is involved in regulation of distinct sets of genes in processes such as calcium signalling, Wnt, p53 and diabetes pathways. Notably, stress-induced ATF3 binds to 40% of p53 targets and activates pro-apoptotic genes such as TNFRSF10B/DR5 and BBC3/PUMA. Cancer-associated ATF3, by contrast, represses these pro-apoptotic genes in addition to CDKN1A/p21. Taken together, our data reveal an extensive network of stress-inducible transcription factors and demonstrate that ATF3 has opposing, cell context-dependent effects on p53 target genes in DNA damage response and cancer development.
Functionally Incremental Sentence Processing and Reanalysis Difficulty in Head-Final Agglutinative Language  [PDF]
Shingo Tokimoto, Miki Uetsuki
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2015.51003
Abstract: This paper quantitatively expresses the degrees of processing difficulties caused by syntactically different reanalyses in Japanese sentences by questionnaire and self-paced reading experiments with non-syntactic factors strictly controlled. We propose the functionally incremental processing for Japanese sentences and we demonstrate that our hypothesis is effective to explain the degree of the processing difficulty in various sentence types. The peculiarity of Japanese processing and the relevance of our results to the human sentence processing model are discussed.
Rejection Sensitivity, Self-Efficacy, and Learning Strategy: Mediating and Moderating the Role of Basic Needs Satisfaction  [PDF]
Miki Terada, Taishi Kawamoto
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.83028
Abstract: Rejection sensitive people often experience interpersonal difficulties, resulting in dissatisfaction with their need for relatedness. However, whether they are satisfied with their autonomy and competence, or experience difficulties from these factors other than in interpersonal relationships, remains largely unexplored. This study examined the influence of rejection sensitivity and need satisfaction (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) on learning strategy and self-efficacy. We found that competence satisfaction mediates the relationship between rejection sensitivity and self-efficacy. In addition, hierarchical regression analysis revealed a significant three-way interaction of rejection sensitivity, autonomy, and competence satisfaction with learning strategy. Competence satisfaction has a positive effect when individuals have low rejection sensitivity and are satisfied with autonomy need, whereas autonomy satisfaction has a positive effect when individuals have high rejection sensitivity and are dissatisfied with their competence levels. This suggests that autonomy and competence satisfaction levels are important for the understanding of psychological difficulties in rejection sensitive individuals.
The Correlation between Sexuality and Family Functioning among Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Japan  [PDF]
Yoshiko Miki, Naohiro Hohashi
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2018.810054
Abstract: Purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between the sexuality of patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and family functioning. Methods: The study took the form of a self-administered questionnaire survey, utilizing the Sexuality Satisfaction Index for IBD (SEXSI-IBD) for measuring sexuality and the Survey of Family Environment Survey of Family Environment (SFE) for measuring family functioning. SEXSI-IBD consists of 28 items and five domains, and SFE consists of 30 items and five domains. The participants were recruited at 15 self-help groups and 14 hospitals. Results: Of 146 participants, 48.6% were male and 52.4% female, with an average age of 41.1 years. A significant correlation was observed between the item average score of SEXSI-IBD and Overall Satisfaction Score (OSS) of SFE. Significant correlations were observed in two domains of the SEXSI-IBD, “Daily interaction” and “Sexual communication,” and in all five domains of the SFE. In particular, for “Daily interaction,” the strongest correlation was observed in the SFE’s “Macro system” and “Family internal environment system.” A correlation was observed between the “Physical contact importance” in SEXSI-IBD and the “Macro system” in the OSS of the SFE. Conclusions: Sexuality correlates with family functioning not only in the family internal environment system but also in the family external environment system. Through an approach aimed at elevating the degree of satisfaction for sexuality, it becomes possible to improve family functioning and realize a sense of family well-being.
Distributed Intelligent Lighting System by Performing New Model for Illuminance and Color Temperature in the Workplace  [PDF]
Mohammed Hajjaj, Mitsunori Miki
Intelligent Control and Automation (ICA) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ica.2019.101001
Abstract: A new approach has been proposed to improve the performance of the in-telligent lighting system by estimating personal illuminance and desired color temperature at the workplace. We are considering the problem of using the sensing devices manually for the intelligent lighting system. The lighting control system has not become useful without sensing devices to measure the provided illuminance and color temperature. In this paper, we have used the property of light for the color temperature to estimate the level of color temperature for each user at the workplace. The new method will give personal illuminance for each user at the workplace and decrease the power consumption of the environment as well. As a result, the proposed method of the intelligent lighting system has realized the target of illuminance and color temperature for each user at the workplace by adapting dimming levels using illuminance sensing information for each user. Thus, the energy of the workplace has reduced by using a distributed luminance to realize the target for each user.
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