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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2517 matches for " Mikako Yoshida "
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Pelvic floor function and advanced maternal age at first vaginal delivery  [PDF]
Mikako Yoshida, Ryoko Murayama, Maki Nakata, Megumi Haruna, Masayo Matsuzaki, Mie Shiraishi, Hiromi Sanada
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.34A005
Abstract:

Purpose: The study aimed to show differences in temporal recovery of pelvic floor function within 6 months postpartum between women having their first delivery at an advanced age and those having their first delivery at a younger age. Methods: Seventeen women (age: 35.5 ± 3.5, BMI: 21.1 ± 3.2) were studied at about 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after vaginal delivery. Urinary incontinence was assessed by the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form. Pelvic floor function was assessed by the anteroposterior diameter of the levator hiatus using transperineal ultrasound. Women who delivered for the first time at 35 years and/or older were defined as being of advanced maternal age. Results: Nine of 17 women (52.9%) were of advanced maternal age and 5 experienced postpartum stress urinary incontinence. Four of these 5 women (80.0%) were of advanced maternal age. The anteroposterior diameter of the levator hiatus at rest was significantly greater in the advanced maternal age women than in the younger maternal age women at 3 and 6 months postpartum (p < 0.01). Among the continent women, the anteroposterior diameter of the levator hiatus at rest was significantly greater in the advanced maternal age women than in the younger maternal age women at 6 months postpartum (p = 0.004). However, among the advanced maternal age women, all parameters of the anteroposterior diameter of the levator hiatus were not significantly different between the women with and without stress urinary continence. Conclusion: Recovery of pelvic floor function following delivery may be delayed in women of advanced maternal age at first delivery because of the damage to the pelvic floor during pregnancy and vaginal delivery, resulting in increase in the incidence of stress urinary incontinence.

The effects of an exercise program on health-related quality of life in postpartum mothers: A randomized controlled trial  [PDF]
Megumi Haruna, Etsuko Watanabe, Masayo Matsuzaki, Erika Ota, Mie Shiraishi, Ryoko Murayama, Mikako Yoshida, SeonAe Yeo
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.53058
Abstract:

Background and Objective: There is controversy on the psychological effects of postpartum exercise. The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a postpartum exercise program on health-related quality of life and psychological well-being. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial in Tokyo, Japan. The intervention groups participated in ball-exercise classes (weekly exercise of 90 minutes for four weeks) at three months postpartum. The exercise class included the following: 1) greeting and warm-up; 2) aerobic exercise involving bouncing on an exercise ball 55 or 65 cm in diameter; 3) rest and self-introduction; 4) stretching and cooling down. The primary outcome measure was health-related Quality of Life (QOL) assessed using the MOS Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36v2). The secondary outcome measures were Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) scores. The intervention group was compared to the control group at four months postpartum. Results: Of the 120 women screened, 110 women met the study criteria. Nine could not be included and the remaining 101 were allocated randomly into intervention and control groups (50 and 51 participants respectively). Analysis of covariance adjusting for baseline values indicated that the SF36 subscales of physical functioning (p = 0.018) and vitality (p = 0.016) significantly improved in the intervention group compared to the control group, although there were no significant differences between the groups in the SF36 Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores. The RSES increased in the intervention group (p = 0.020) compared to the control group. No significant group differences were observed in EPDS scores. Conclusions: The postpartum exercise class program provided to healthy postpartum women appears to have contributed to promoting health-related QOL and self-esteem.

Problems behind Education for All (EFA): The Case of Sierra Leone
Mikako Nishimuko
Educate~ , 2007,
Abstract: This paper discusses Sierra Leone’s commitment to EFA and the possibility of unintended consequences if its success is measured only by results showing quantitative gains while downplaying the decline in the quality of the education offered. Equal access to quality education is an integral part of EFA. With donors’ assistance, the government has made a strong commitment to achieve the international goal of EFA. A free primary education policy introduced in 2000 has led to rapid progress in terms of access to schooling. However, fieldwork research based on observation of schools, interviews with teachers, and questionnaires from pupils, parents and teachers in 27 schools in five towns, shows that the quality of the education provided has been compromised due to the rapid increase in the number of enrolled children; a high teacher-pupil ratio, a shortage of teaching and learning materials, school buildings and furniture, and low motivation on the part of teachers are quite common. This paper also argues for the role of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in supplementing government efforts to expand educational access of acceptable quality, especially when the government’s capacity to deliver education is weak.
Access to Primary Education in Sierra Leone: the perceived gap between policy and practice, and the role of religious affiliation and British aid
Mikako Nishimuko
Educate~ , 2006,
Abstract: This research paper is based on my PhD pilot study, in which I examined issues of access to primary education in Sierra Leone and its partnership with Britain. Prior to the fieldwork, I piloted a questionnaire with parents aiming to investigate the difficulties which underlie regular access to schooling in Sierra Leone. In the country, religious affiliation crucially informs patterns of education provision. I hypothesised that religion had a strong connection to how education was perceived and accessed in Sierra Leone. This short article presents the results of the pilot study and focuses on two issues: 1) parents’ perception of the role and influence of main stream religions in the country, Christianity and Islam, and 2) whether British aid is viewed as having played a significant role in alleviating the financial burdens and therefore widening access and participation in education.
Gas and dust budget of the Large Magellanic Cloud
Mikako Matsuura
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Recent observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope enable us to study the mid-infrared dust excess of Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Using mid-infrared spectra, together with photometric data from the SAGE programme, we establish a colour selection of carbon-rich AGB stars with intermediate and high mass-loss rates. We also established mass-loss rate versus colour relations for carbon-rich AGB stars. The integrated mass-loss rate over all intermediate and high mass-loss rate carbon-rich AGB candidates in the LMC is 8.5x10^-3 solar mass per year. This number could be almost doubled if oxygen-rich stars are included. Gas mass-loss rate from these stars is 4-5x10^-4 solar mass per year per kpc2 in the bar and1x10^-4 solar mass per year per kpc^2 outside of the bar. AGB stars are one of the most important dust sources in the LMC, and the dominant gas source outside of the bar. As a consequence of recent increases in the star-formation rate, supernovae are the most important gas source in the LMC bar and around 30 Dor. These differences in dust and gas sources impact on the gas-to-dust ratio and dust properties of the local ISM, because the injection from SNe could have a higher gas-to-dust ratio, resulting in a higher gas-to-dust ratio for the ISM in certain regions of the LMC.
Spitzer observations of molecules and dust in evolved stars in nearby galaxies
Mikako Matsuura
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921310010720
Abstract: Molecules and dust are formed in and around the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and supernovae (SNe), and are ejected into the interstellar medium (ISM) through the stellar wind. The dust and gas contain elements newly synthesised in stars, thus, dying stars play an important role on chemical enrichment of the ISM of galaxies. However, quantitative analysis of molecules and dust in these stars had been difficult beyond our Galaxy. The high sensitivity instruments on board the Spitzer Space Telescope have enabled us to study dust and molecules in these stars in nearby galaxies. Nearby galaxies have wide range of metallicities, thus the impact of the metallicity on dust and gas production can be studied. This study will be useful for chemical evolution of galaxies from low to high metallicities.
Revealing infrared populations of nearby galaxies using the Spitzer Space Telescope
Mikako Matsuura
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921310002619
Abstract: Due to their brightness in infrared, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are in important evolutionary stage to be understood at this wavelength. In particular, in next decades, when the infrared optimised telescopes, such as the JWST and the ELT are in operation, it will be essential to include the AGB phase more precisely into the population synthesis models. However, the AGB phase is still one of the remaining major problems in the stellar evolution. This is because the AGB stellar evolution is strongly affected by the mass-loss process from the stars. It is important to describe mass loss more accurately so as to incorporate it into stellar evolutionary models. Recent observations using the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) enabled us to make a significant progress in understanding the mass loss from AGB stars. Moreover, the SST large surveys contributed to our understanding of the role of AGB stars in chemical enrichment process in galaxies. Here we present the summary of our recent progress.
Observational studies of mass loss from AGB stars
Mikako Matsuura
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921312010733
Abstract: It is important to properly describe the mass-loss rate of AGB stars, in order to understand their evolution from the AGB to PN phase. The primary goal of this study is to investigate the influence of metallicity on the mass-loss rate, under well determined luminosities. The luminosity of the star is a crucial parameter for the radiative driven stellar wind. Many efforts have been invested to constrain the AGB mass-loss rate, but most of the previous studies use Galactic objects, which have poorly known distances, thus their luminosities. To overcome this problem, we have studied mass loss from AGB stars in the Galaxies of the Local Group. The distance to the stars have been independently measured, thus AGB stars in these galaxies are ideal for understanding the mass-loss rate. Moreover, these galaxies have a lower metallicity than the Milky Way, providing an ideal target to study the influence of metallicity on the mass-loss rate. We report our analysis of mass loss, using the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Herschel Space Observatory. We will discuss the influence of AGB mass-loss on stellar evolution, and explore AGB and PN contribution to the lifecycle of matter in galaxies.
Presence of Viral Genome in Urine and Development of Hematuria and Pathological Changes in Kidneys in Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) after Inoculation with Dengue Virus
Meng Ling Moi,Tsutomu Omatsu,Takanori Hirayama,Shinichiro Nakamura,Yuko Katakai,Tomoyuki Yoshida,Akatsuki Saito,Shigeru Tajima,Mikako Ito,Tomohiko Takasaki,Hirofumi Akari,Ichiro Kurane
Pathogens , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/pathogens2020357
Abstract: Common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus) developed high levels of viremia, clinical signs including fever, weight loss, a decrease in activity and hematuria upon inoculation with dengue virus (DENV). Presence of DENV genome in urine samples and pathological changes in kidneys were examined in the present study. Levels of DENV genome were determined in 228 urine samples from 20 primary DENV-inoculated marmosets and in 56 urine samples from four secondary DENV-inoculated marmosets. DENV genome was detected in 75% (15/20) of marmosets after primary DENV infection. No DENV genome was detected in urine samples from the marmosets with secondary infection with homologous DENV (0%, 0/4). Two marmosets demonstrated hematuria. Pathological analysis of the kidneys demonstrated non-suppressive interstitial nephritis with renal tubular regeneration. DENV antigen-positive cells were detected in kidneys. In human dengue virus infections, some patients present renal symptoms. The results indicate that marmosets recapitulate some aspects of the involvement of kidneys in human DENV infection, and suggest that marmosets are potentially useful for the studies of the pathogenesis of DENV infection, including kidneys.
Diagnosis and Evaluation of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Mikako Obika,Hirofumi Noguchi
Experimental Diabetes Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/145754
Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of elevated liver function tests results, after the commonly investigated causes have been excluded, and frequently coexists with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) because the conditions have common risk factors. As both T2DM and NAFLD are related to adverse outcomes of the other, diagnosis and valuation of fatty liver is an important part of the management of diabetes. Although noninvasive methods, such as biomarkers, panel markers, and imaging, may support a diagnostic evaluation of NAFLD patients, accurate histopathological findings cannot be achieved without a liver biopsy. As it is important to know whether steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis are present for the management of NAFLD, liver biopsy remains the gold standard for NAFLD diagnosis and evaluation. Therefore, new investigations of the pathogenesis of NAFLD are necessary to develop useful biomarkers that could provide a reliable noninvasive alternative to liver biopsy.
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