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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 679 matches for " Mika Venoj?rvi "
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Association of ADIPOQ gene variants with body weight, type 2 diabetes and serum adiponectin concentrations: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study
Niina Siitonen, Leena Pulkkinen, Jaana Lindstr?m, Marjukka Kolehmainen, Johan G Eriksson, Mika Venojrvi, Pirjo Ilanne-Parikka, Sirkka Kein?nen-Kiukaanniemi, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Matti Uusitupa
BMC Medical Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-12-5
Abstract: Participants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study were randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention group or a control group. Those whose DNA was available (n = 507) were genotyped for ten ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Associations between SNPs and baseline body weight and serum adiponectin concentrations were analysed using the univariate analysis of variance. The 4-year longitudinal weight data were analysed using linear mixed models analysis and the change in serum adiponectin from baseline to year four was analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test. In addition, the association of SNPs with the risk of developing T2DM during the follow-up of 0-11 (mean 6.34) years was analysed by Cox regression analysis.rs266729, rs16861205, rs1501299, rs3821799 and rs6773957 associated significantly (p < 0.05) with body weight at baseline and in the longitudinal analyses. The rs266729 C allele and the rare minor alleles of rs2241766 and rs2082940 were associated with an increased adjusted hazard ratio of developing T2DM. The differences in baseline serum adiponectin concentrations were seen according to rs16861210, rs17366568, rs2241766, rs6773957 and rs2082940 and differences in the change of serum adiponectin levels from baseline to the four year examination were seen according to rs16861205, especially in subjects who were able to lose weight during the first year of intervention.These results from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study support the concept that genetic variation in ADIPOQ locus contributes to variation in body size and serum adiponectin concentrations and may also modify the risk of developing T2DM.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and obesity are increasing worldwide. Although this is mainly due to environmental factors, such as changes in diet and lifestyle, much evidence for genetic predisposition to these complex traits exist [1].Adiponectin is an adipokine, and its plasma levels are decreased in obesity [2], T2DM [3], ins
Exercise training with dietary counselling increases mitochondrial chaperone expression in middle-aged subjects with impaired glucose tolerance
Mika Venojrvi, Sirkka Aunola, Raivo Puhke, Jukka Marniemi, Helena H?m?l?inen, Jukka-Pekka Halonen, Jaana Lindstr?m, Merja Rastas, Kirsti H?llsten, Pirjo Nuutila, Osmo H?nninen, Mustafa Atalay
BMC Endocrine Disorders , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6823-8-3
Abstract: Exercise training, combined with dietary counselling, increased the expression of mitochondrial chaperones HSP60 and glucose-regulated protein 75 (GRP75) in the vastus lateralis muscle in the IGTslow group and that of HSP60 in the IGTfast group. In cytoplasmic chaperones HSP72 or HSP90 no changes took place. In the IGTslow group, a significant positive correlation between the increased muscle content of HSP60 and the oxygen radical absorbing capacity values and, in the IGTfast group, between the improved VO2max value and the increased protein expression of GRP75 were found. Serum uric acid concentrations decreased in both sub-groups and serum protein carbonyl concentrations decreased in the IGTfast group.The 2-year intervention up-regulated mitochondrial HSP expressions in middle-aged subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. These improvements, however, were not correlated directly with enhanced glucose tolerance.Diabetes and its complications are increasing as major causes of mortality and morbidity in the developed countries [1]. Insulin resistance and diabetes are associated with increased oxidative stresmpaired cellular defence systems [2-4]. We have recently shown in rats that streptozotocin-induced diabetes (SID) increase oxidative stress and resulted in impaired heat shock protein (HSP) responses in liver and skeletal muscle tissue [2]. HSPs are a family of proteins that promote cell survival after a wide variety of environmental stresses. The most widely studied HSP family is the 70-kDA family, which contains the constitutive HSP73 and inducible HSP72 forms. HSP72 plays a central role in protein synthesis, translocation, folding and assembly/disassembly of multimetric protein complexes as molecular chaperones [5]. In type 2 diabetic subjects, insulin resistance correlates with decreased expression of HSP72 in skeletal muscle [6]. HSP60 and glucose-regulated protein 75 (GRP75) are located in the mitochondria, where they are involved in the trafficking and pr
Resistance coefficient during ice slurry flow through pipe sudden constriction
?. Mika
Archives of Foundry Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: Due to the adverse environmental effects of some commonly-used refrigerants, efforts are still underway to find new cooling mediumsthat would be safer to the ozone layer and would not increase the greenhouse effect. Ice slurry as a new ecological coolant suits theprocesses requiring the preservation of constant and equal temperature in the cooling process of the full section of the cooled solid. Thanks to that, ice slurry can find a wide potential application in such branches of industry, as heat treatment, materials engineering, or foundry. In this paper, flow systems which are commonly used in fittings elements such as diameter’s reductions in ice slurry pipelines, are experimentally investigated. In the study reported in this paper, the consideration was given to the specific features of the slurry flow in which the flow qualities depend mainly on the volume fraction of solid particles. The results of the experimental studies on the flow resistance, presented herein, enabled to determine the resistance coefficient during the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction. The volume fraction of solid particles in the slurry ranged from 5 to 30%. The recommended and non-recommended range of the Reynolds number for the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction were presented in this paper. The experimental studies were conducted on a few variants of the most common reductions of copper pipes. Further studies on the determination of the resistance coefficient in the remaining fittings elements of the pipeline were recommended in the paper as well as the further theoretical studies intended to determine the theoretical relations to calculate the resistance coefficient in all the fittings elements in the pipeline (on the basis of the experimental studies) and to elaborate the calculation pattern of the entire ice slurry system.
Effects of Ospemifene on Drug Metabolism Mediated by Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Humans in Vitro and in Vivo
Miia Turpeinen,Jouko Uusitalo,Terhi Lehtinen,Marita Kailaj?rvi,Olavi Pelkonen,Jouni Vuorinen,Pasi Tapanainen,Camilla Stjernschantz,Risto Lammintausta,Mika Scheinin
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms140714064
Abstract: The objective of these investigations was to determine the possible effects of the novel selective estrogen receptor modulator, ospemifene, on cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated drug metabolism. Ospemifene underwent testing for possible effects on CYP enzyme activity in human liver microsomes and in isolated human hepatocytes. Based on the results obtained in vitro, three Phase 1 crossover pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in healthy postmenopausal women to assess the in vivo effects of ospemifene on CYP-mediated drug metabolism. Ospemifene and its main metabolites 4-hydroxyospemifene and 4'-hydroxyospemifene weakly inhibited a number of CYPs (CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2C8, and CYP2D6) in vitro. However, only CYP2C9 activity was inhibited by 4-hydroxyospemifene at clinically relevant concentrations. Induction of CYPs by ospemifene in cultured human hepatocytes was 2.4-fold or less. The in vivo studies showed that ospemifene did not have significant effects on the areas under the plasma concentration-time curves of the tested CYP substrates warfarin (CYP2C9), bupropion (CYP2B6) and omeprazole (CYP2C19), demonstrating that pretreatment with ospemifene did not alter their metabolism. Therefore, the risk that ospemifene will affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are substrates for CYP enzymes is low.
Human Capital Production Function in Strategic Management  [PDF]
Marko Kesti, Antti Syv?j?rvi
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2015.61002
Abstract: Research-based view studies indicate that companies can distinguish themselves in competition through a profound understanding of their resources and through continuous improvement of their human competencies. It seems that human competencies form an intangible asset, which in turn forms sustainable, unique strengths that are key to firm-specific superior performance. Evidence-based human resource management argues that gaining competitive advantage through human capital development should be verified and estimated scientifically. This article presents the scientifically solid theory of Human Capital Production Function, which explains tangible and intangible human capital’s worth to business scorecards in terms of profit and loss account metrics. This article illustrates how Human Capital Production Function explains human resource management’s essential role in supporting strategic aims in either achieving cost advantage or differentiation advantage.
Pitfalls and Remedies in DEA Applications: How to Handle an Occurrence of Zero in Multipliers by Strong Complementary Slackness Conditions  [PDF]
Toshiyuki Sueyoshi, Mika Goto
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.55A005
Abstract: This study discusses a guideline on a proper use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that has been widely used for performance analysis in public and private sectors. The use of DEA is equipped with Strong Complementary Slackness Conditions (SCSCs) in this study, but an application of DEA/SCSCs depends upon its careful use, as summarized in the guideline. The guideline consists of the five suggestions. First, a data set used in the DEA applications should not have a ratio variable (e.g., financial ratios) in an input(s) and/or an output(s). Second, radial DEA models under variable and constant Returns to Scale (RTS) need a special treatment on zero in a data set. Third, the DEA evaluation needs to drop an outlier. Fourth, an imprecise number (e.g., 1/3) may suffer from a round-off error because DEA needs to specify it in a precise expression to operate a computer code. Finally, when a large input or output variable may dominate other variables in DEA computation, it is necessary to normalize the data set or simply to divide each observation by its average. Such a simple treatment produces more reliable DEA results than the one without any data adjustment. This study also discusses how to handle an occurrence of zero in DEA multipliers by applying SCSCs. The DEA/SCSCs can serve for a multiplier restriction approach without any prior information. Thus, the propesed DEA/SCSCs can provide more reliable results than a straight use of DEA.
Uncovering Executive Prioritization: Evaluating Customer Value Propositions with the Pairwise Comparison Method  [PDF]
Mika Yrj?l?
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2015.81001
Abstract: Creating customer value is a managerial priority. The role of executives is to choose what type(s) of customer value to propose to customers in the form of a customer value proposition (CVP). The decision is a complex one, because executives have to compare and weigh concrete, measurable elements alongside abstract, subjective ones. The purpose of this paper is to identify themes relating to the use of the pairwise comparison method (PCM) as a tool for prioritizing customer value dimensions from the perspective of retail executives. As a result, this paper first highlights examples of PCM outputs, and second, identifies four themes that capture executive views of the PCM.
Mitochondrial Respiration Is Associated with Alloxan-Induced Mitochondrial Permeability Transition  [PDF]
Koichi Sakurai, Mika Itoh
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry (JBPC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbpc.2016.74008
Abstract: We previously showed that increased mitochondrial inner membrane permeability which is known as mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is triggered by adding succinate in the presence of the diabetogenic agent alloxan. Here, our aim was to investigate whether mitochondrial respiration is associated with alloxan-induced MPT. After mitochondria isolated from rat liver were incubated with alloxan at 37°C for 5 min, the addition of succinate immediately triggered the MPT in the presence of rotenone. However, little or no induction occurred at incubation temperatures below 25°C. Malate/glutamate also triggered MPT by alloxan in the absence of rotenone. In mitochondrial suspensions containing alloxan, succinate accelerated oxygen consumption that was completely inhibited by cyanide. These results suggest that mitochondrial respiration is associated with the alloxan-induced MPT. Alloxan radical production was investigated using ESR spectroscopy. Mitochondria incubated with succinate and alloxan elicited low signal intensity (radical formation) that increased significantly in the presence of cyanide. When the incubation of alloxan with mitochondria after the addition of succinate, a little intensity of the signal was observed, but it was remarkably increased after the addition of cyanide. Ubiquinone analogues inhibited the MPT induction. These results suggest that the initiation of MPT is associated with alloxan redox cycling via an electron transfer process at a quinone-binding site in respiratory mitochondria.
Exploring Causality between TV Viewing and Weight Change in Young and Middle-Aged Adults. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study
Harri Helaj?rvi, Tom Rosenstr?m, Katja Pahkala, Mika K?h?nen, Terho Lehtim?ki, Olli J. Heinonen, Mervi Oikonen, Tuija Tammelin, Jorma S. A. Viikari, Olli T. Raitakari
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101860
Abstract: Background Television viewing time (TV time) is associated with increased weight and obesity, but it is unclear whether this relation is causal. Methods and Results We evaluated changes in TV time, waist circumference (waist) and body mass index (BMI) in participants of the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study (761 women, 626 men aged 33–50 years in 2011). Waist and BMI were measured, and TV time was self-reported in 2001, 2007, and 2011. Changes in waist and BMI between 2001 and 2011 were studied a) for the whole group, b) in groups with constantly low (≤1 h/d), moderate (1–3 h/d), or high (≥3 h/d) TV time, and c) in groups with ≥1 hour in-/decrease in daily TV time between 2001 and 2011. BMIs in 1986 were also evaluated. We explored the causal relationship of TV time with waist and BMI by classical temporality criterion and recently introduced causal-discovery algorithms (pairwise causality measures). Both methods supported the hypothesis that TV time is causative to weight gain, and no evidence was found for reverse or bidirectional causality. Constantly low TV time was associated with less pronounced increase in waist and BMI, and waist and BMI increase was lower with decreased TV time (P<0.05). The increase in waist and BMI was at least 2-fold in the high TV time group compared to the low TV time group (P<0.05). Adjustment for age, sex, BMI/waist in 2001, physical activity, energy intake, or smoking did not change the results. Conclusions In young and middle-aged adults, constantly high TV time is temporally antecedent to BMI and waist increase.
Towards Understanding Extracellular ROS Sensory and Signaling Systems in Plants
Saijaliisa Kangasj?rvi,Jaakko Kangasj?rvi
Advances in Botany , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/538946
Abstract: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are ubiquitous metabolites in all aerobic organisms. Traditionally ROS have been considered as harmful, accidental byproducts of cellular functions involving electron transport chains or electron transfer. However, it is now recognized that controlled production of ROS has significant signaling functions, for example, in pathogen defense, in the regulation of stomatal closure, or in cell-to-cell signaling. ROS formation in subcellular compartments is critical to act as “alarm” signal in the response to stress, and the concept of ROS as primarily signaling substances has emerged. The involvement of ROS in several developmental and inducible processes implies that there must be coordinated function of signaling network(s) that govern ROS responses and subsequent processes. The air pollutant ozone can be used as a useful tool to elucidate the function of apoplastic ROS: O3 degrades in cell wall into various ROS which are interpreted as ROS with signaling function inducing downstream responses. We have used ozone as a tool in mutant screens and transcript profiling-reverse genetics to identify genes involved in processes related to the signaling function of ROS. We review here our recent findings in the elucidation of apoplastic ROS sensing, signaling, and interaction with various symplastic components. 1. Introduction Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are ubiquitous metabolites in all aerobic organisms. ROS include superoxide (? ), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (?OH), singlet oxygen (1O2), and the air pollutant ozone (O3). Traditionally ROS have been considered as harmful, accidental byproducts of cellular functions involving electron transport chains or electron transfer, where electrons are accidentally passed to molecular oxygen. Consequently, cells have effective enzymatic and chemical antioxidative defenses to remove these ROS [1, 2]. The most prominent sources of ROS in plant cells are thought to be chloroplasts and mitochondria, which both contain electron transfer chains involving multiple components. Processes that take place in peroxisomes and cytoplasm also produce ROS and the apoplast can be an important site for ROS generation, although the quantity of ROS produced is several-fold less than that of the organelles. However, it is now recognized that controlled production of ROS, for example, by the plasma membrane-localized NADPH oxidases, which produce in a controlled fashion ? to the apoplastic space, has significant signaling functions [3–5]. ROS formation in other subcellular compartments, for example,
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