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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1534 matches for " Mika Ohta "
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Clinical Characteristics of Respiratory Tract-Associated Streptococcus pyogenes at General Japanese Hospital in 2014  [PDF]
Masaaki Minami, Ryoko Sakakibara, Taichi Imura, Mika Watanabe, Hideo Morita, Naoto Kanemaki, Michio Ohta
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2015.312005
Abstract:

Streptococcus pyogenesis most popularpathogen caused respiratory tract infection disease. This study was conducted to find out the recent clinical characteristics of Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from respiratory tract at Japanese hospital in 2014. Streptococcus pyogenes was identified by standard laboratory procedure. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by micro dilution assay according to CLSI recommendation. Respiratory tract isolates were defined as isolation from pharynx, nasal discharge, tonsillar, and sputum. Total one hundred sixty-one Streptococcus pyogenes were isolated among which 136 were from respiratory tract and 25 were from non- respiratory tract. Respiratory tract-associated Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated among which 102 were from male and 59 were from female. The age incidence among 0 - 1 years age group was 8, among 1 - 18 years age group, 131 (p < 0.01), among 19 - 64 years age group, 17 (p < 0.01), and in 65-years it was 5. Although we investigated the relationship between season and bacterial isolation, we did not find any significant differences between respiratory tract and no respiratory tract isolation. However, our study revealed that clarithromycin was less antimicrobial effective in respiratory tract disease than in no respiratory tract disease significantly (p < 0.01). Although several antibiotics such as penicillin are still effective against Streptococcus pyogenes, incidence of Streptococcus pyogenes infection is not decreasing worldwide. Our study suggests the need for continuous epidemiological surveillance of Streptococcus pyogenes.

Clinical Characteristics of Haemophilus influenzae at General Hospital in the Central Region of Japan  [PDF]
Masaaki Minami, Ryoko Sakakibara, Taichi Imura, Mika Watanabe, Hideo Morita, Naoto Kanemaki, Michio Ohta
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2016.46003
Abstract:
Haemophilus influenzae is an important pathogen that caused several infection diseases, such as sinusitis, otitis media, sepsis, and meningitis. This study was conducted to find out the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Haemophilus influenzae isolates at general hospital in the central region of Japan from December 2015 to January 2016. Haemophilus influenzae was identified by standard laboratory procedure. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by micro dilution assay according to CLSI recommendation. One hundred ninety-one Haemophilus influenzae were isolated, among which 95 (49.7%) were from male and 96 (50.3%) were from female. The age incidence of (0) years, (≤2) years, (≤5) years, and (6≤) years groups were 22(11.5%), 92(48.2%), 61(31.9%), and 16(8.4%), respectively. Positive samples were received mostly from the nasal discharge (177/92.7%), sputum (6/3.1%), tonsillar (6/3.1%), and pharynx (2/1.0%). Ceftriaxone was the most active antibiotics with 100% susceptible rates, followed by ciprofloxacin (99.5%) and minocycline (99%) in our study. Furthermore, we categorized four patterns: beta lactamase-negative ampicillin-sensitive strain (BLNAS), beta lactamase-negative ampicillin-re- sistant strain (BLNAR), beta lactamase-positive ampicillin resistant strain (BLPAR), and beta lactamase-positive amoxicillin-clavulanic acid-resistant strain (BLPACR) from those ampicillin susceptible results. The numbers of female were significant greater than those of male in BLPAR (p = 0.0336). With respect to antimicrobial susceptible pattern, there was no minocycline and piperacillin resistant strain in both BLNAS and BLNAR (p < 0.0001). Haemophilus influenzae infection spreads worldwide and inadequate use of antibiotics contributes to uptake of their new antimicrobial resistance. Continuous antimicrobial surveys are need for control the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance to reduce the morbidity and mortality.
Trend of Respiratory Tract-Associated Streptococcus dysgalactiae Subsp. Equisimilius at General Japanese Hospital from 2013 to 2015  [PDF]
Masaaki Minami, Ryoko Sakakibara, Taichi Imura, Mika Watanabe, Hideo Morita, Naoto Kanemaki, Michio Ohta
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2016.412002
Abstract:
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilius are pathogenic bacteria which cause various infectious diseases from acute pharyngitis to streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Although Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilius infection has been increasing recently, the recent characteristic investigation of respiratory tract associated Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilius has not been performed in Japan. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between respiratory tract and norespiratory tract associated Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilius by investigating the recent clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptible patterns of 98Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilius isolated during 2013-2015 in Japan. There was significant difference of gender between respiratory tract and no respiratory tract associated Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilius. No Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilius from no respiratory tract were found under 18 years-old patients. The prevalence of clindamycin non susceptible Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilius isolates from respiratory tract was significant greater than those from non-respiratory tract. We also analyzed the relationship between respiratory tract associated Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilius and Streptococcus pyogenes in 2014.There was no significant difference of gender between Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilius and Streptococcus pyogenes. The numbers of Streptococcus pyogenes-infected patients were significantly greater than those of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilius-infected patients in children from 1 to 18 years old. From antimicrobial resistance, we found that the numbers of clarithromycin resistant Streptococcus pyogenes were greater than those of clarithromycin resistant Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilius among respiratory tract isolation. Our results suggest that the clinical and antimicrobial susceptible patterns are useful for screening the respiratory tract associated Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilius infection.
Clinical Characteristics of Vaginal Discharge Associated Streptococcus pyogenes at General Japanese Hospital  [PDF]
Masaaki Minami, Ryoko Sakakibara, Mika Watanabe, Hideo Morita, Naoto Kanemaki, Michio Ohta
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.61002
Abstract:
Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) is popular pathogen caused various infectious disease. This study was conducted to find out the recent clinical characteristics of S. pyogenes isolates from vaginal discharge at Japanese hospital. S. pyogenes was identified by standard laboratory procedure. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by microdilution assay according to CLSI recommendation. Total 61 S. pyogenes were isolated from vaginal discharge. The major age incidence among 0 - 10 years age group was 14 (23%), among 21 - 30 years age group, 7 (11.5%), among 31 - 40 years age group, 13 (21.3%), among 51 - 60 years age group, 8 (13.1%), and among 61 - 70 years age group, 11 (18%). The numbers of ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin no-susceptible S. pyogenes from 0 - 10, 31 - 40, and 61-70 years age group were higher than those from other groups. The numbers of clindamycin and minocycline no susceptible S. pyogenes from 0 - 10, and 21 - 40 years age group were higher than those from other group. Furthermore, our study revealed that clarithromycin was completely ineffective in 21 - 30 years age group (p < 0.05). As the numbers of under and not less than 13 year age group were 15, and 46, respectively, the number of adult cases was higher than the number of child cases. Clarithromycin no-susceptible rate was highest and minocycline no-susceptible rate was lowest in both group. There was no significant difference of antimicrobial susceptible trends between under and not less than 13 year age groups. Our study suggests the need for continuous epidemiological surveillance of vaginal discharge associated S. pyogenes because the trend of infectious disease epidemiology is always changing drastically.
Resistance coefficient during ice slurry flow through pipe sudden constriction
?. Mika
Archives of Foundry Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: Due to the adverse environmental effects of some commonly-used refrigerants, efforts are still underway to find new cooling mediumsthat would be safer to the ozone layer and would not increase the greenhouse effect. Ice slurry as a new ecological coolant suits theprocesses requiring the preservation of constant and equal temperature in the cooling process of the full section of the cooled solid. Thanks to that, ice slurry can find a wide potential application in such branches of industry, as heat treatment, materials engineering, or foundry. In this paper, flow systems which are commonly used in fittings elements such as diameter’s reductions in ice slurry pipelines, are experimentally investigated. In the study reported in this paper, the consideration was given to the specific features of the slurry flow in which the flow qualities depend mainly on the volume fraction of solid particles. The results of the experimental studies on the flow resistance, presented herein, enabled to determine the resistance coefficient during the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction. The volume fraction of solid particles in the slurry ranged from 5 to 30%. The recommended and non-recommended range of the Reynolds number for the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction were presented in this paper. The experimental studies were conducted on a few variants of the most common reductions of copper pipes. Further studies on the determination of the resistance coefficient in the remaining fittings elements of the pipeline were recommended in the paper as well as the further theoretical studies intended to determine the theoretical relations to calculate the resistance coefficient in all the fittings elements in the pipeline (on the basis of the experimental studies) and to elaborate the calculation pattern of the entire ice slurry system.
Hsp12.6 Expression Is Inducible by Host Immunity in Adult Worms of the Parasitic Nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis
Naoki Arizono,Minoru Yamada,Tatsuya Tegoshi,Yutaka Takaoka,Mika Ohta,Toshiyuki Sakaeda
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018141
Abstract: Heat shock proteins (Hsp) are a family of stress-inducible molecular chaperones that play multiple roles in a wide variety of animals. However, the roles of Hsps in parasitic nematodes remain largely unknown. To elucidate the roles of Hsps in the survival and longevity of nematodes, particularly at the 2 most critical stages in their lifecycle, the infective-L3 stage and adult stage, which is subjected to host-derived immunological pressure, we examined the temporal gene transcription patterns of Hsp12.6, Hsp20, Hsp70, and Hsp90 throughout the developmental course of the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis by reverse transcriptase real-time PCR. Nb-Hsp70 and Nb-Hsp90 expression were observed throughout the nematode's lifecycle, while the expression of Nb-Hsp20 was restricted to adults. Interestingly, Nb-Hsp12.6 showed a biphasic temporal expression pattern; i.e., it was expressed in infective-L3 larvae and in adults during worm expulsion from immunocompetent rats. However, the activation of Nb-Hsp12.6 in adult worms was aborted when they infected permissive athymic-rnu/rnu rats and was only marginal when they infected mast-cell-deficient Ws/Ws rats, which exhibited a low response of rat mast cell protease (RMCP) II and resistin-like molecule (Relm)- β expression compared to those observed in immunocompetent rats. Moreover, the activation of Nb-Hsp12.6 was reversed when adult worms were transplanted into the naive rat intestine. These features of Nb-Hsp12.6, the expression of which is not only stage-specific in infective-L3, but is also inducible by mucosal immunity in adults, have implications for the survival strategies of parasitic nematodes in deleterious environmental conditions both outside and inside the host.
Pitfalls and Remedies in DEA Applications: How to Handle an Occurrence of Zero in Multipliers by Strong Complementary Slackness Conditions  [PDF]
Toshiyuki Sueyoshi, Mika Goto
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.55A005
Abstract: This study discusses a guideline on a proper use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that has been widely used for performance analysis in public and private sectors. The use of DEA is equipped with Strong Complementary Slackness Conditions (SCSCs) in this study, but an application of DEA/SCSCs depends upon its careful use, as summarized in the guideline. The guideline consists of the five suggestions. First, a data set used in the DEA applications should not have a ratio variable (e.g., financial ratios) in an input(s) and/or an output(s). Second, radial DEA models under variable and constant Returns to Scale (RTS) need a special treatment on zero in a data set. Third, the DEA evaluation needs to drop an outlier. Fourth, an imprecise number (e.g., 1/3) may suffer from a round-off error because DEA needs to specify it in a precise expression to operate a computer code. Finally, when a large input or output variable may dominate other variables in DEA computation, it is necessary to normalize the data set or simply to divide each observation by its average. Such a simple treatment produces more reliable DEA results than the one without any data adjustment. This study also discusses how to handle an occurrence of zero in DEA multipliers by applying SCSCs. The DEA/SCSCs can serve for a multiplier restriction approach without any prior information. Thus, the propesed DEA/SCSCs can provide more reliable results than a straight use of DEA.
Uncovering Executive Prioritization: Evaluating Customer Value Propositions with the Pairwise Comparison Method  [PDF]
Mika Yrj?l?
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2015.81001
Abstract: Creating customer value is a managerial priority. The role of executives is to choose what type(s) of customer value to propose to customers in the form of a customer value proposition (CVP). The decision is a complex one, because executives have to compare and weigh concrete, measurable elements alongside abstract, subjective ones. The purpose of this paper is to identify themes relating to the use of the pairwise comparison method (PCM) as a tool for prioritizing customer value dimensions from the perspective of retail executives. As a result, this paper first highlights examples of PCM outputs, and second, identifies four themes that capture executive views of the PCM.
Mitochondrial Respiration Is Associated with Alloxan-Induced Mitochondrial Permeability Transition  [PDF]
Koichi Sakurai, Mika Itoh
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry (JBPC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbpc.2016.74008
Abstract: We previously showed that increased mitochondrial inner membrane permeability which is known as mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is triggered by adding succinate in the presence of the diabetogenic agent alloxan. Here, our aim was to investigate whether mitochondrial respiration is associated with alloxan-induced MPT. After mitochondria isolated from rat liver were incubated with alloxan at 37°C for 5 min, the addition of succinate immediately triggered the MPT in the presence of rotenone. However, little or no induction occurred at incubation temperatures below 25°C. Malate/glutamate also triggered MPT by alloxan in the absence of rotenone. In mitochondrial suspensions containing alloxan, succinate accelerated oxygen consumption that was completely inhibited by cyanide. These results suggest that mitochondrial respiration is associated with the alloxan-induced MPT. Alloxan radical production was investigated using ESR spectroscopy. Mitochondria incubated with succinate and alloxan elicited low signal intensity (radical formation) that increased significantly in the presence of cyanide. When the incubation of alloxan with mitochondria after the addition of succinate, a little intensity of the signal was observed, but it was remarkably increased after the addition of cyanide. Ubiquinone analogues inhibited the MPT induction. These results suggest that the initiation of MPT is associated with alloxan redox cycling via an electron transfer process at a quinone-binding site in respiratory mitochondria.
Full-Length Sequence of Mouse Acupuncture-Induced 1-L (Aig1l) Gene Including Its Transcriptional Start Site
Mika Ohta,Aki Sugano,Shuji Goto,Surini Yusoff,Yushi Hirota,Kotaro Funakoshi,Kenji Miura,Eiichi Maeda,Nobuo Takaoka,Nobuko Sato,Hiroshi Ishizuka,Naoki Arizono,Hisahide Nishio,Yutaka Takaoka
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep121
Abstract: We have been investigating the molecular efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA), which is one type of acupuncture therapy. In our previous molecular biological study of acupuncture, we found an EA-induced gene, named acupuncture-induced 1-L (Aig1l), in mouse skeletal muscle. The aims of this study consisted of identification of the full-length cDNA sequence of Aig1l including the transcriptional start site, determination of the tissue distribution of Aig1l and analysis of the effect of EA on Aig1l gene expression. We determined the complete cDNA sequence including the transcriptional start site via cDNA cloning with the cap site hunting method. We then analyzed the tissue distribution of Aig1l by means of northern blot analysis and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We used the semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to examine the effect of EA on Aig1l gene expression. Our results showed that the complete cDNA sequence of Aig1l was 6073 bp long, and the putative protein consisted of 962 amino acids. All seven tissues that we analyzed expressed the Aig1l gene. In skeletal muscle, EA induced expression of the Aig1l gene, with high expression observed after 3 hours of EA. Our findings thus suggest that the Aig1l gene may play a key role in the molecular mechanisms of EA efficacy.
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