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Modifica??es microclimáticas provocadas por estufa com cobertura plástica
Pezzopane, José Eduardo Macedo;Pedro Júnior, Mário José;Ortolani, Altino Aldo;
Bragantia , 1995, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051995000200021
Abstract: the use of plastic greenhouse has increased in southern brazil, but the modifications in the microclimate are not well known. therefore, this research was developed at campinas, state of s?o paulo, brazil, aiming to characterize the changes in air temperature and humidity and soil temperature in a low texture plastic greenhouse. the results showed that the values of maximum air temperature were higher in the greenhouse when compared to outside and the highest values were avoided by opening the side courtines. during cool nights, mainly, with clear sky and no wind, when the temperature reached values below 10°c, the minimum air temperature values in the greenhouse were higher than the observed in the open field plot. the relative humidity, when the greenhouse was closed, showed higher values than at the open greenhouse conditions when the humidity was equal to the external conditions. also it was possible to notice that the maximum and minimum soil temperature showed higher values in the greenhouse.
Determination of Evapotranspiration and Water Use Efficiency in Crop Production  [PDF]
Kazeem O. Rauff, Saheed A. Shittu
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.69101
Abstract: The main concern in cultivating crops has always been water availability. To increase food production, water plays a major role after securing a large portion of land area. Knowledge of the factors influencing crop water use efficiency and hope to increase the efficiency has continued to be an objective in many modern studies. The gap between irrigation supply and demand is increasing from year to year as a result of an increase in population growing rate and people moving from place to place. Searching for new water may be a too difficult and very expensive process, so the shortest and easiest way is to maximize the water use efficiency throughout optimizing water use efficiency and the first step on that is determination of the actual crop water requirements.
Altera??es microclimáticas causadas pelo uso de tela plástica
Pezzopane, José E. M.;Oliveira, Paulo C. de;Reis, Edvaldo F. dos;Lima, Juli?o S. de S.;
Engenharia Agrícola , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-69162004000100002
Abstract: the objective of this study was to determine the micrometeorological alterations caused by plastic screen uses in agriculture. the experiment with lettuce was carried out in alegre (20o45?s, 41o28?w - 150 m), espírito santo state, brazil, during september to december, 1996. measurements were done under plastic screen with 0; 30; 50, and 70% of solar radiation reduction (attenuation) according to commercial specification. results showed that attenuation was less than commercial specification and there was a diurnal fluctuation as a function of solar zenital angle. a reduction in soil temperature under shading was also observed.
Modifica??o parcial do ambiente de cultivo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' sobre diferentes porta-enxertos: efeito sobre a produ??o e o teor de sólidos solúveis
Ferreira, Maria Aparecida;Pedro Júnior, Mário José;Santos, Antonio Odair;Hernandes, José Luiz;
Bragantia , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87052004000300014
Abstract: in the traditional regions of grape growers, where the incidence of rain is concentrated on the stage of fruit development and maturation, the search for improved crop management strategies is justified, aiming at attenuate the impact of it on yield quality. an experiment with grapevine "cabernet sauvignon" cultivated on rootstocks iac 766, iac 572 and ripária do traviú was carried out in jundiaí, s?o paulo state, brazil, under plastic greenhouse. the search was focused on the microclimate modification in the environment of cultivated grapes from its conduction in partially modified crop cultivation environment (plastic cover with open sides), as well as evaluates the impact on the crop yield and fruit sugar concentration, comparing results to simultaneous data gathered in a open sky cultivation environment. results showed that the use of plastic cover to cultivate grapes has implied a decrease in the levels of solar radiation to 85.4% and an increase in the maximum temperatures in 1.3 oc. separated analysis for crop environment shown that "cabernet sauvignon" cultivated on rootstock "iac 766" and "iac 572" achieved the best performance (yield and sugar concentration) being superior to the "riparia do traviú". comparing data from cultivation environments used in the experiment revealed no statistical differences on yield; however the sugar concentration was higher for the set of open sky cultivation environment.
Matura??o de uvas Moscato Giallo sob cultivo protegido
Chavarria, Geraldo;Santos, Henrique Pessoa dos;Zanus, Mauro Celso;Marodin, Gilmar Arduíno Bettio;Chala?a, M?nica Zucolloto;Zorzan, Cristiano;
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-29452010005000014
Abstract: plastic overhead cover (poc) is a recent viticultural practice in grapevine cultivation. if maybe changes the plant microclimate and the ripening profile. the purpose of this work was to evaluate the poc influence on ripening evolution of grapes moscato giallo. the experiment was carried out in 2005/06 and 2006/07 seasons, in a vineyard covered with an impermeable plastic cloth (2.65 m x 160 ?m), being left five rows without covering (control). berries were collected (three replicates of 100 units for treatment) weekly in each area (poc and control). these berries were evaluated regarding weight, diameter and must composition (ph, obrix, titratable acidity, malic and tartaric content). at harvest it was characterized also the musts of covered and uncovered grapes (obrix, reduced sugar, relative density, total acidity, tartaric and malic content, ph and must yield). poc modifies the microclimate in canopy and clusters influencing the grape ripening. due to reduction of photosynthetically active radiation, that late sugar accumulation, the poc grapevines should be harvest after compared to conventional grapes.
Uncinula necator (Schow) Burr., the Causal Agent of Grape Powdery Mildew: Infection Potential and Microclimate
Zoran Miladinovi?,Petar Vuk?a,Novica Mileti?
Pesticidi i Fitomedicina , 2007,
Abstract: Microclimate in Podgorica vineyards and its effect on the formation, maturing and rupturing of cleistothecia, and disease outbreak, was studied. An analysis of collected data on minimum and maximum temperatures and precipitation over the periods November-April (2001/2002, 2002/2003 and 2003/2004) and April-July (2002, 2003 and 2004) and their comparison with the average values over a 50-year period, indicate that neither temperature nor precipitation act as a limiting factor for disease outbreak and development in Podgorica vineyards. Over the trial period, conditions were favourable for the formation and maturing of cleistothecia between November and April. Asum of 1100oC mean daily temperature was reached by mid-March.From bud burst to end of vine flowering, the conditions were again nearly optimal both for ascospore release from cleistothecia and primary infection, and for secondary infection. Initial symptoms appeared on lower leaves and inflorescences. Cleistothecia appeared inall green parts of grapevine. In 2002, and 2004, conditions were favourable for a secondary infection of bunches, leaves and canes from April to mid-July. Conditions for secondary infection were less favourable in the second half of June 2003. That year was characterized by warmer weather with less rainfall, especially in June and July. In 2004, precipitation and temperature were lower than in 2002, which resulted in a slightly less severe outbreak of disease.
Mathematical modeling of formation of indoor climate
Yakovlev Pavel Viсtorovich,Yakovleva Ekaterina Pavlovna
Vestnik Astrahanskogo Gosudarstvennogo Tehni?eskogo Universiteta. Seria: Upravlenie, Vy?islitel?naa Tehnika i Informatika , 2012,
Abstract: The theoretical researches of heat and mass transfer processes in the area are carried out, and their impact on the climate is studied. The researches have been made, and the characteristics of the mathematical modeling of calculating velocity and temperature ranges in the rooms that have a different architectural design have been analyzed. The features of the boundary conditions and air properties are revealed.
Bryophyte mass to stem length ratio: A potential metric for eco-physiological response to land use  [PDF]
Jason A. Hubbart, Elliott Kellner
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2013.31001
Abstract:

Methods of analysis are needed that quantitatively characterize the response of organisms to anthropogenic disturbance. Herein a method is presented that characterizes bryophyte morphological variability in response to timber harvest treatments (clearcut and partial cut). Samples (n = 6196) of the semi-aquatic bryophyte Brachythecium frigidum were collected from clearcut, partial cut and full forest stream reaches between August 2003 and October 2005 and analyzed to obtain mass to stem length ratios (M:SL). Results show that relative to a full forest (i.e. full canopy cover condition), average M:SL ratios were reduced approximately 18% in the partial cut and 37% in the clearcut, indicating a decrease in biomass per unit stem length with increasing harvest intensities. Increased light intensities and higher air temperatures resulting from decreased canopy cover in the harvest treatments corresponded to lower M:SL ratios (0.31 and 0.24 for the partial cut and clearcut, respectively). Results quantify the morphological response of B. frigidum to habitat perturbation, thereby validating the method as a useful assessment of anthropogenic disturbance in post-timber harvest environments. Additional work should be conducted to test the method in other physiographic regions and to isolate bryophyte response to alterations of distinct environmental variables.

Características microclimáticas de primavera-ver?o, no Horto Florestal (S?o Paulo)
Mello, Maria Helena de A;Oliveira, Manoel Carlos de;Nunes, Lucí H;Garcia, Amauri D;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 1987, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33061987000300025
Abstract: the horto florestal lies within the cantareira mountain range in the north of s?o paulo city, bordering a forest reserve. geologically, precambrian rocks occurs in its area. the soil are mainly podsols red-yellow intergrading to latosols red-yellow. the highland tropical forest covered the area and still appears in the adjacent forest reserve. the purpose of the present research is to understand horto florestal microclimate, during the spring-summer, and its relation to topography and vegetation. a microclimate diversification related either to temperature or humidity was recognized.
Intensidade da ramulose sob semeadura convencional e direta do algodoeiro
Salvatierra, Daniela Kubiak de;Chiavegato, Ederaldo José;Silva, Ariana Vieira e;
Bragantia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87052009000200018
Abstract: during the years of 2004/05 and 2005/06, in piracicaba, state of s?o paulo, experiments were carried out with cotton crop under conventional tillage seeding and no-tillage. the seeding was performed over the mulching of millet, with the objective to evaluate if such mulching could interfere on temperature, leaf wetness duration (lwd) and development of ramulosis in cotton crop. it was also used the favorability index for the based on ramulosis cotton crop to explain the development differences of the disease the two seeding systems. weather variables data were measured by an of acquisition data platform of the experimental area. the disease was measured by scales from 1 to 5 and the average was submitted to a statistic analysis. the difference on ramulosis severity between cotton crop under conventional tillage and conventional seeding was due to specific interactions for each period where many variables were involved (stage of the development of the plant and the macro and microclimatic conditions). the favorability index had a good relation with the increase of the ramulosis severity between both seeding systems. ramulosis severity can be higher in conventional production system than in systems that uses mulching, particularly in periods when the index values are high: association of rain periods with crop susceptibility to the pathogen. when the index is lower than 0,500 effective increases on ramulosis severity is not observed in any seeding system.
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