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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 623 matches for " Michetti Grazia "
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Inflammation as a Link between Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
Faloia Emanuela,Michetti Grazia,De Robertis Marco,Luconi Maria Paola,Furlani Giorgio,Boscaro Marco
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/476380
Abstract: The metabolic syndrome is a complex of clinical features leading to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus in both sexes. Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are considered the main features determining the negative cardiovascular profile in metabolic syndrome. The aim of this paper is to highlight the central role of obesity in the development of a chronic low-grade inflammatory state that leads to insulin resistance, endothelial and microvascular dysfunctions. It is thought that the starting signal of this inflammation is overfeeding and the pathway origins in all the metabolic cells; the subsequent increase in cytokine production recruits immune cells in the extracellular environment inducing an overall systemic inflammation. This paper focuses on the molecular and cellular inflammatory mechanisms studied until now.
Inflammation as a Link between Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
Faloia Emanuela,Michetti Grazia,De Robertis Marco,Luconi Maria Paola,Furlani Giorgio,Boscaro Marco
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/476380
Abstract: The metabolic syndrome is a complex of clinical features leading to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus in both sexes. Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are considered the main features determining the negative cardiovascular profile in metabolic syndrome. The aim of this paper is to highlight the central role of obesity in the development of a chronic low-grade inflammatory state that leads to insulin resistance, endothelial and microvascular dysfunctions. It is thought that the starting signal of this inflammation is overfeeding and the pathway origins in all the metabolic cells; the subsequent increase in cytokine production recruits immune cells in the extracellular environment inducing an overall systemic inflammation. This paper focuses on the molecular and cellular inflammatory mechanisms studied until now. 1. Introduction Metabolic syndrome represents one of the major public health challenges worldwide. Different definitions are available describing overlapping but not identical population [1]. The first description goes back to 1988 when Reaven described Syndrome X as the association of insulin resistance, elevated glucose, hypertension, low HDL cholesterol, and augmented VLDL triglycerides [2]. However he did not include obesity, now identified as one of the essential criterion, especially visceral obesity [1]. Overweight and obesity progress to metabolic syndrome through pathophysiological mechanisms at the moment largely unclear. It has been hypothesized that the state of chronic low-grade inflammation associated with excess adipose tissue may explain the development of the obesity-related pathologies, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. This inflammatory response is different from the classical responce defined by the cardinal signs of redness, swelling, heat, and pain [3, 4]. Furthermore, it plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance that triggers the associated comorbidities of metabolic syndrome, such as atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, hypertension, prothrombotic state, and hyperglycemia [5–8]. 2. Metabolic Syndrome 2.1. Prevalence and Definition The metabolic syndrome is identified as a condition of increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in both sexes. Subjects with metabolic syndrome have three times risk of suffering a heart attack or stroke, twice of dying from such an event, and fivefold greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus when compared to people without the metabolic syndrome [9]. It
Perinatal S100B Protein Assessment in Human Unconventional Biological Fluids: A Minireview and New Perspectives
Diego Gazzolo,Fabrizio Michetti
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/703563
Abstract: Growing evidence is now available on the use of S100B protein as a valuable marker of brain damage and its role as a neurotrophic factor. Bearing in mind, among different S100B protein properties that are still being investigated, the possibility of measuring this protein in different biological fluids renders it suitable for use in several disciplines. This is the case with perinatal medicine where even more noninvasive techniques are particularly desirable in order to ensure the minimal handling diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. In this setting, the present minireview reports data on the presence and the usefulness of S100B protein as brain damage marker and as a neurotrophic factor in the so-called unconventional biological fluids such as saliva and human milk, respectively. Results offer new possibilities for the use of S100B in perinatal medicine as a key-protein for the investigations focusing on central nervous system development and damage. 1. Introduction The term S100B refers to a member of a multigenic family of calcium-modulated proteins first identified in 1965 by Moore [1], each of which exhibits a unique pattern of tissue- or cell type-specific expression; the term S100 refers to their solubility in a 100%-saturated solution with ammonium sulfate. To date at least 25 proteins have been identified as belonging to the S100 protein family, characterized by the presence of a pair of so-called EF-hand (i.e., helix-loop-helix) calcium-binding motifs, first discovered in the crystal structure of parvalbumin, that induce conformational changes of the protein after binding to calcium. Most S100 proteins exist as dimers (frequently homodimers) within cells and are generally expressed and distributed in a cell-definite fashion, indicating a conserved biological role. In this setting, S100B is a homodimer of the beta subunit, mainly concentrated in the nervous system and in the adipose tissue. In the nervous system S100B appears to be most abundant in glial cells and its presence in specific neuronal subpopulations has also been described [2–6]. S100B is present intracellularly and extracellularly; it is believed to regulate several cellular functions (protein phosphorylation, protein degradation, calcium homeostasis, cell locomotion, transcription factors, cell proliferation and differentiation, enzymes, regulation of receptor function, cytoskeleton) while its biological intracellular role has not yet been completely elucidated in unifying terms. An extracellular biological role is also attributed to S100B, which is secreted by astrocytes as a
Endogenous Instability in Credit-Constrained Emerging Economies with Leontief Technology
Cristiana Mammana,Elisabetta Michetti
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/196494
Abstract: This work provides a framework to analyze the role of financial development as a source of endogenous instability in emerging economies subject to moral hazard problems. We propose and study a dynamic model describing a small open economy with a tradeable good produced by internationally mobile capital and a country specific input, using Leontief technology. We demonstrate that emerging markets could be endogenously unstable since large capital inflows increase risk and exacerbate asymmetric information problems, according to empirical evidences. Using bifurcation and stability analysis, we describe the properties of the system attractors, we assess the plausibility for complex dynamics and, we find out that border collision bifurcations can emerge due to the fact that the state space is piecewise smooth. As a consequence, when a fixed or periodic point loses its stability, the final dynamics may become suddenly chaotic. This fact may explain how financial crises occurred in emerging economies.
Analytical model of 1D Carbon-based Schottky-Barrier Transistors
Paolo Michetti,Giuseppe Iannaccone
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1109/TED.2010.2049219
Abstract: Nanotransistors typically operate in far-from-equilibrium (FFE) conditions, that cannot be described neither by drift-diffusion, nor by purely ballistic models. In carbonbased nanotransistors, source and drain contacts are often characterized by the formation of Schottky Barriers (SBs), with strong influence on transport. Here we present a model for onedimensional field-effect transistors (FETs), taking into account on equal footing both SB contacts and FFE transport regime. Intermediate transport is introduced within the Buttiker probe approach to dissipative transport, in which a non-ballistic transistor is seen as a suitable series of individually ballistic channels. Our model permits the study of the interplay of SBs and ambipolar FFE transport, and in particular of the transition between SB-limited and dissipation-limited transport.
Spintronic devices from bilayer graphene in contact to ferromagnetic insulators
Paolo Michetti,Patrik Recher
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.125438
Abstract: Graphene-based materials show promise for spintronic applications due to their potentially large spin coherence length. On the other hand, because of their small intrinsic spin-orbit interaction, an external magnetic source is desirable in order to perform spin manipulation. Because of the flat nature of graphene, the proximity interaction with a ferromagnetic insulator (FI) surface seems a natural way to introduce magnetic properties into graphene. Exploiting the peculiar electronic properties of bilayer graphene coupled with FIs, we show that it is possible to devise very efficient gate-tunable spin-rotators and spin-filters in a parameter regime of experimental feasibility. We also analyze the composition of the two spintronic building blocks in a spin-field-effect transistor.
Bound states and persistent currents in topological insulator rings
Paolo Michetti,Patrik Recher
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.83.125420
Abstract: We analyze theoretically the bound state spectrum of an Aharonov Bohm (AB) ring in a two-dimensional topological insulator using the four-band model of HgTe-quantum wells as a concrete example. We calculate analytically the circular helical edge states and their spectrum as well as the bound states evolving out of the bulk spectrum as a function of the applied magnetic flux and dimension of the ring. We also analyze the spin-dependent persistent currents, which can be used to measure the spin of single electrons. We further take into account the Rashba spin-orbit interaction which mixes the spin states and derive its effect on the ring spectrum. The flux tunability of the ring states allows for coherent mixing of the edge- and the spin degrees of freedom of bound electrons which could be exploited for quantum information processing in topological insulator rings.
Devices with electrically tunable topological insulating phases
Paolo Michetti,Bj?rn Trauzettel
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1063/1.4792275
Abstract: Solid-state topological insulating phases, characterized by spin-momentum locked edge modes, provide a powerful route for spin and charge manipulation in electronic devices. We propose to control charge and spin transport in the helical edge modes by electrically switching the topological insulating phase in a HgTe/CdTe double quantum well device. We introduce the concept of a topological field-effect-transistor and analyze possible applications to a spin battery, which also realize a set up for an all-electrical investigation of the spin-polarization dynamics in metallic islands.
Remarks on primitive series on plane curves
Grazia Raciti
Le Matematiche , 1995,
Abstract: In this paper we relate primitive linear series on a smooth plane curve C with the following properties of zero-dimensional subschemes X of the projective plane: 1) Cayley-Bacharach "at degree a" 2) the absence of non assigned base pointson C for the linear system of curves of degree a through X. This allows us to construct examples of primitive series on C.
Elementi critici e casi-studio della VIA delle infrastrutture viarie
Grazia Napoli
Aestimum , 2005,
Abstract:
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