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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3311 matches for " Michelle Moerel "
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An anatomical and functional topography of human auditory cortical areas
Michelle Moerel,Federico De Martino,Elia Formisano
Frontiers in Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2014.00225
Abstract: While advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) throughout the last decades have enabled the detailed anatomical and functional inspection of the human brain non-invasively, to date there is no consensus regarding the precise subdivision and topography of the areas forming the human auditory cortex. Here, we propose a topography of the human auditory areas based on insights on the anatomical and functional properties of human auditory areas as revealed by studies of cyto- and myelo-architecture and fMRI investigations at ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla). Importantly, we illustrate that—whereas a group-based approach to analyze functional (tonotopic) maps is appropriate to highlight the main tonotopic axis—the examination of tonotopic maps at single subject level is required to detail the topography of primary and non-primary areas that may be more variable across subjects. Furthermore, we show that considering multiple maps indicative of anatomical (i.e., myelination) as well as of functional properties (e.g., broadness of frequency tuning) is helpful in identifying auditory cortical areas in individual human brains. We propose and discuss a topography of areas that is consistent with old and recent anatomical post-mortem characterizations of the human auditory cortex and that may serve as a working model for neuroscience studies of auditory functions.
Encoding of Natural Sounds at Multiple Spectral and Temporal Resolutions in the Human Auditory Cortex
Roberta Santoro,Michelle Moerel,Federico De Martino,Rainer Goebel,Kamil Ugurbil,Essa Yacoub,Elia Formisano
PLOS Computational Biology , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003412
Abstract: Functional neuroimaging research provides detailed observations of the response patterns that natural sounds (e.g. human voices and speech, animal cries, environmental sounds) evoke in the human brain. The computational and representational mechanisms underlying these observations, however, remain largely unknown. Here we combine high spatial resolution (3 and 7 Tesla) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with computational modeling to reveal how natural sounds are represented in the human brain. We compare competing models of sound representations and select the model that most accurately predicts fMRI response patterns to natural sounds. Our results show that the cortical encoding of natural sounds entails the formation of multiple representations of sound spectrograms with different degrees of spectral and temporal resolution. The cortex derives these multi-resolution representations through frequency-specific neural processing channels and through the combined analysis of the spectral and temporal modulations in the spectrogram. Furthermore, our findings suggest that a spectral-temporal resolution trade-off may govern the modulation tuning of neuronal populations throughout the auditory cortex. Specifically, our fMRI results suggest that neuronal populations in posterior/dorsal auditory regions preferably encode coarse spectral information with high temporal precision. Vice-versa, neuronal populations in anterior/ventral auditory regions preferably encode fine-grained spectral information with low temporal precision. We propose that such a multi-resolution analysis may be crucially relevant for flexible and behaviorally-relevant sound processing and may constitute one of the computational underpinnings of functional specialization in auditory cortex.
Health Promotion in Cardiac Rehabilitation Patients through the Use of a High-Intensity Interval Training Protocol  [PDF]
Michelle Tinkham
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.410059
Abstract: According to the American Heart Association’s (AHA) recent statistical update, over 2150 Americans die each day from cardiovascular disease (CVD), which equals approximately 1 death every 40 seconds; many of which were under the age of 65 years old [1]. In 2009, 386,324 people, 1 in 6 Americans, died as a result of coronary artery disease (CAD) alone [1]. They also estimate 150,000 people have “silent” heart attacks each year [1]. Even though the number of cardiovascular disease deaths has declined in the last 10 years, they still accounted for 32.3% of American deaths [1]. As a result, the AHA updated their 2020 goals to improve the nation’s cardiovascular health by 20% [1]. One of these methods is through the use of cardiac rehabilitation. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a health promotion strategy to help return cardiac patients to their previous level of functioning, increase health, decrease comorbidities and promote education and lifestyle change. For select patients, another alternative exercise plan may exist to gain even better results. High intensity interval training (HIIT) has shown positive training results for athletes and many studies show that it may also be an effective exercise modality for many cardiac patients instead of the traditional circuit training method. This article will review current literature on the effects of HIIT on CR patients as well as a sample HIIT protocol for instituting this treatment with appropriate patients.
Emotionally Competent Behaviors and Nurse Bullying: Is There a Direct Link?  [PDF]
Michelle Doas
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2015.51008
Abstract: An abundance of literature spanning many years depicts the devastating effects of nurse bullying within the profession. The evidence suggests that bullying in general is a deliberate act aimed at another person. Conceptualizing nurse bullying appears to be a key ingredient in creating both awareness and preventative strategies. Emotional competence includes a set of behaviors which are unique to each individual. These behaviors according to Goldman (1995) include, but are not limited to emotional self-assessment, accurate self-assurance, self-confidence, emotional self-control, and empathy. The majority of researchers agree that emotionally competent behaviors are impacted by both positive and negative interactions and experiences. Thus, it is hypothesized that emotionally competent behaviors are continually cultivated throughout one’s life based upon lived experiences. This article assesses direct relationships between implementation of emotionally competent behaviors as a means of combatting nurse bullying within the profession. Creating awareness of these two areas can be initial steps in cultivating the needed tools and supportive interventions to assist nurses from novice to expert to professionally mentor and role model for generations to come.
Are We Losing the Art of Actively Listening to Our Patients? Connecting the Art of Active Listening with Emotionally Competent Behaviors  [PDF]
Michelle Doas
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.56060
Abstract: Active listening is an essential communication technique that requires the listener to focus and provide feedback on what is heard. The ability to listen actively demonstrates sincerity, and assumes that nothing is being shrugged or taken for granted. As a result, active listeners strive to improve professional and personal relationships, decrease misinterpretation of information, strengthen compliance, and foster understanding. Likewise, active listening can foster trust, mutual respect, and patient compliance. This paper will explore vital connections between active listening and displaying emotionally competent behaviors. Additionally, analysis of a case study as a means of strengthening these connections while improving patient outcomes will be assessed.
Teachers’ Perceptions about the Use of Play to Facilitate Development and Teach Prosocial Skills  [PDF]
Michelle Haney, Victor Bissonnette
Creative Education (CE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2011.21006
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers’ perceptions about the use of play to promote social, emotional, and cognitive skills to support planning for a school program aimed at increasing inclusive play for young children. This research was inspired by Vivian Gussin Paley’s book, You Can’t Say You Can’t Play (1992). Participants included undergraduate students and graduate education students in the Teacher Education Program at a small liberal arts college, as well as practicing elementary school teachers. The results indicated that graduate students and practicing teachers had a more accurate understanding about the developmental benefits of incorporating play into the classroom and a greater willingness to embrace the “you can’t say you can’t play” rule to promote inclusive play and acceptance. Implications for designing a preventative program for inclusive play in young children are discussed.
Survivors’ Perspectives of Organizational Downsizing on Knowledge Sharing in a Downsized Environment  [PDF]
Patricia Michelle Hall
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2012.14004
Abstract: Organizational workforce reductions can negatively affect a company’s ability to preserve its knowledge base. The problem researched in this study was the perceived effect of downsizing on knowledge sharing among surviving employees. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived effect of downsizing on knowledge sharing. Survivors’ knowledge sharing behavior was examined in relation to 1) survivor syndrome, 2) attitude towards knowledge sharing, and 3) perceived loss of knowledge power. A quantitative correlation research design was used to investigate the relationship between downsizing and knowledge sharing. A web-based survey was used to collect data. The convenience sample consisted of 37 management employees in the Texas region of a management consultant organization. Three sets of variables were examined: 1) survivor syndrome and actual knowledge sharing behavior, 2) survivors’ attitudes toward knowledge sharing and actual knowledge sharing behavior, and 3) perceived loss of knowledge power and actual knowledge sharing behavior. Findings from a Spearman rank order correlation revealed a statistically significant positive correlation between perceived loss of knowledge power and actual knowledge sharing behavior. Understanding survivors’ reactions can assist with planning for future reductions, and lead to the development of training programs to counter the challenges.
Developing nursing curriculum to facilitate the delivery of holistic care to the military veteran  [PDF]
Michelle Beckford, Corinne Ellis
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.35054
Abstract:

Daily media coverage tells the story of challenges facing returning members of the United States Military. High rates of suicide, more than twenty per day, horrific traumatic injuries necessitating challenging physical and emotional healing, and lingering post-traumatic stress disorders warranting the most advanced methods of treatment are reported daily. As America recoils from two prolonged oversea wars, the need for prepared healthcare providers is essential not only for the Veterans Administration (VA), but also for civilian based healthcare systems. The bulk of nursing education literature seems to evidence a void regarding this segment of the population. What seems like a prime education focus remains yet to be enacted in most nursing programs. The authors have responded to this challenge, by creating curricula developed to increase nursing student awareness of veterans’ unique needs, and to prepare undergraduate nursing students to provide quality care to veterans. Through the creation of a laboratory simulation scenario, students learned how to holistically view and respond to the needs of a veteran client. Debriefing allowed for reviewing the experience and discussing concerns. Outcomes measured via pre- and post- testing survey reflected the complexity of patient care needs. Students were asked to rate their ability to identify and prioritize appropriate nursing interventions. Anecdotal feedback was positive in that students consistently expressed a need to have additional simulation experiences.

A Qualitative Exploration of South African Women’s Psychological and Emotional Experiences of Infertility  [PDF]
Athena Pedro, Michelle Andipatin
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.45040
Abstract:

Despite the high prevalence of infertility in Africa, the study of reproductive health in Africa, has for the most part, not addressed the impact of involuntary childlessness on women. In contrast, the health priority has been on fertility regulation rather than on infertility. In Sub-Saharan Africa, at least 20% - 50% of couples of reproductive age experience a fertility problem and 30% are diagnosed with infertility. This study explored a sample of South Africa women’s psychological and emotional experiences of infertility or involuntary childlessness. Utilising a qualitative methodology, 21 married women who were diagnosed with infertility were recruited. Semi-structured, indepth individual interviews were conducted and the data were analysed using thematic analysis. The results of the study indicated that the women reported emotional turmoil characterised by emotions such as disappointment and shock, anger and frustration, a deep sense of sadness and then progressed to experience a sense of acknowledgement that a problem existed. Within each of these emotional phases the emotions of hope and optimism were present. The findings of this study suggest that severe psychological and emotional tug-of-war effects accompany infertility. Possible coping strategies for women struggling with infertility are discussed.

Mammographic Features of Hidradenitis Suppurativa  [PDF]
Santo Maimone, Michelle D. McDonough
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2012.24023
Abstract: Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic suppurative inflammation of the apocrine sweat glands. Axillary, inframammary, intermammary, and peri-areolar apocrine gland involvement may be visualized mammographically. Characteristic lesions tend to be round or oval, lucent, and smooth-bordered, with or without central densities. While diagnosis made purely via mammography is unlikely, having an awareness of this entity may prove useful in patient care in regards to proper utilization of both imaging and consultative resources.
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