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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4753 matches for " Michelle Cox "
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Dashboards for Monitoring Congestion and Crashes in Interstate Work Zones  [PDF]
Michelle Mekker, Howell Li, Ed Cox, Darcy Bullock
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2019.91002
Abstract: Work zones present challenges to safety and mobility that require agencies to balance limited resources with vital traffic management activities. Extensive literature exists regarding the impact of congestion and recommendations for work zone design to provide safe and efficient traffic operations. However, it is often infeasible or unsafe to inspect every work zone within an agency’s jurisdiction, so it is important to obtain operational feedback regarding congestion and crashes in work zones to prioritize inspection activities. This paper outlines the use of connected vehicle speed data and crash report data to identify operational performance problems in work zones. This is a way to provide feedback to queuing models used to design maintenance-of-traffic (MOT) plans. A weekly work zone report and dashboards were developed for use by the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) for the purpose of assessing and improving both mobility and safety in work zones. The study has developed a mile-hours of congestion graph, frequency of speed delta heat map, congestion profile graph, and the Route Builder interactive application to comprehensively visualize work zone performance. This weekly report provides a mechanism for agency staff to maintain situational awareness of which work zones were most challenging for queues and during what periods those were likely to occur. In one case study, the reports were used to identify and mitigate operational performance problems in a work zone within 4 weeks, reducing congestion and crash rates. The integration of these data provided project managers with quantitative information about traffic mobility and performance of work zones for informed decision-making during the construction season.
Reading an ESL Writer’s Text
Paul Kei Matsuda,Michelle Cox
Studies in Self-Access Learning Journal , 2011,
Abstract: This paper focuses on reading as a central act of communication in the tutorial session. Writing center tutors without extensive experience reading writing by second language writers may have difficulty getting past the many differences in surface-level features, organization, and rhetorical moves. After exploring some of the sources of these differences in writing, the authors present strategies that writing tutors can use to work effectively with second language writers.
Poverty Perceptions of Pre-Service Teachers and Social Work Candidates
Becky J. Cox,Cherry Watts,Michelle Horton
Journal of Studies in Education , 2011, DOI: 10.5296/jse.v2i1.1099
Abstract: What perceptions do pre-service teachers and social work candidates have about poverty in schools or in the social services workplace? Poverty is a topic that these students will encounter in a real way in both training and in their chosen careers. College students experienced a glimpse of poverty during a poverty simulation based on actual poverty situations. The purpose of the poverty simulation is to allow pre-service teachers and social work candidates to gain a greater understanding of what it is like for those who live in poverty, and how the children and adults in this situation may have a different focus than their own. A pretest and posttest survey was utilized to gather data providing insight into college students’ perceptions of poverty before and after participating in the poverty simulation. Several characteristic factors were examined including gender, age, and ethnicity. Personal reflections indicated changes in attitudes and understanding.
Elevating SOX2 Levels Deleteriously Affects the Growth of Medulloblastoma and Glioblastoma Cells
Jesse L. Cox, Phillip J. Wilder, Michelle Desler, Angie Rizzino
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044087
Abstract: Medulloblastomas and glioblastomas are devastating tumors that respond poorly to treatment. These tumors have been shown to express SOX2 and overexpression of SOX2 has been correlated with poor prognosis. Although knockdown of SOX2 impairs the growth and tumorigenicity of brain tumor cells, it was unclear how elevating SOX2 levels would affect their fate. Interestingly, studies conducted with neural stem cells have shown that small increases or decreases in the level of this transcription factor significantly alter their fate. Here, we report that elevating SOX2 3-fold above endogenous levels in U87 and U118 glioblastoma, and DAOY medulloblastoma cells significantly impairs their ability to proliferate. We extended these findings and determined that elevating SOX2 in DAOY cells remodels their cell-cycle profile by increasing the proportion of cells in the G1-compartment, and induces the expression of genes associated with differentiation. Furthermore, we show that elevating SOX2 leads to a dramatic induction of CD133 expression in DAOY cells, yet inhibits the ability of both CD133+ and CD133? cells to form neurospheres. Together, these findings argue that SOX2 levels must be carefully controlled in glioblastomas and medulloblastomas to maintain their fate. Equally important, our data suggests that increases in the expression of SOX2 during brain tumor progression are likely to be linked closely with changes in other critical genes that work in concert with SOX2 to enhance the tumorigenicity of brain tumors. Importantly, we demonstrate that this is also likely to be true for other cancers that express SOX2. Moreover, these studies demonstrate the advantage of using inducible promoters to study the effects of SOX2 elevation, as compared to gene expression systems that rely on constitutive expression.
Pathways Involved in the Synergistic Activation of Macrophages by Lipoteichoic Acid and Hemoglobin
Kathleen H. Cox, Michelle E. Cox, Virginia Woo-Rasberry, David L. Hasty
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047333
Abstract: Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a Gram-positive cell surface molecule that is found in both a cell-bound form and cell-free form in the host during an infection. Hemoglobin (Hb) can synergize with LTA, a TLR2 ligand, to potently activate macrophage innate immune responses in a TLR2- and TLR4-dependent way. At low levels of LTA, the presence of Hb can result in a 200-fold increase in the secretion of IL-6 following macrophage activation. Six hours after activation, the macrophage genes that are most highly up-regulated by LTA plus Hb activation compared to LTA alone are cytokines, chemokines, receptors and interferon-regulated genes. Several of these genes exhibit a unique TLR4-dependent increase in mRNA levels that continued to rise more than eight hours after stimulation. This prolonged increase in mRNA levels could be the result of an extended period of NF-κB nuclear localization and the concurrent absence of the NF-κB inhibitor, IκBα, after stimulation with LTA plus Hb. Dynasore inhibition experiments indicate that an endocytosis-dependent pathway is required for the TLR4-dependent up-regulation of IL-6 secretion following activation with LTA plus Hb. In addition, interferon-β mRNA is present after activation with LTA plus Hb, suggesting that the TRIF/TRAM-dependent pathway may be involved. Hb alone can elicit the TLR4-dependent secretion of TNF-α from macrophages, so it may be the TLR4 ligand. Hb also led to secretion of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), which synergized with LTA to increase secretion of IL-6. The activation of both the TLR2 and TLR4 pathways by LTA plus Hb leads to an enhanced innate immune response.
Socioeconomic status and hospital utilization among younger adult pneumonia admissions at a Canadian hospital
Margaret J McGregor, Robert J Reid, Michael Schulzer, J Mark Fitzgerald, Adrian R Levy, Michelle B Cox
BMC Health Services Research , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-6-152
Abstract: Four hundred and thirty-four (434) individuals were included in this retrospective, longitudinal cohort analysis of adult patients less than 65 years old admitted to a large teaching hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia. Hospital chart review data were linked to population-based health plan administrative data. Chart review was used to gather data on demographics, illness severity, co-morbidity, functional status and other measures of case mix. Two different types of administrative data were used to determine hospital LOS and the occurrence of all-cause re-admission to any hospital within 30 days of discharge. SES was measured by individual-level financial hardship (receipt of income assistance or provincial disability pension) and neighbourhood-level income quintiles.Those with individual-level financial hardship had an estimated 15% (95% CI -0.4%, +32%, p = 0.057) longer adjusted LOS and greater risk of early re-admission (adjusted OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.38, 5.09). Neighbourhood-level income quintiles, showed no association with LOS or early re-admission.Among hospitalized pneumonia patients less than 65 years, financial hardship derived from individual-level data, was associated with an over two-fold greater risk of early re-admission and a marginally significant longer hospital LOS. However, the same association was not apparent when an ecological measure of SES derived from neighbourhood income quintiles was examined. The ecological SES variable, while useful in many circumstances, may lack the sensitivity to detect the full range of SES effects in clinical studies.Modern epidemiology studies have established a clear association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health status even after standardization for all known confounders. Low SES has been shown to be an independent predictor of higher mortality rates [1,2], higher disease prevalence [3,4], higher hospitalization rates [5-7], and poorer treatment response and prognosis [8,9] for a wide range of illness
Increased expression of the chemokines CXCL1 and MIP-1α by resident brain cells precedes neutrophil infiltration in the brain following prolonged soman-induced status epilepticus in rats
Erik A Johnson, Thuy L Dao, Michelle A Guignet, Claire E Geddes, Andrew I Koemeter-Cox, Robert K Kan
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-8-41
Abstract: Protein levels of 4 chemokines responsible for neutrophil infiltration and activation were quantified up to 72 hours in multiple brain regions (i.e. piriform cortex, hippocampus and thalamus) following SE onset using multiplex bead immunoassays. Chemokines with significantly increased protein levels were localized to resident brain cells (i.e. neurons, astrocytes, microglia and endothelial cells). Lastly, neutrophil infiltration into these brain regions was quantified and correlated to the expression of these chemokines.We observed significant concentration increases for CXCL1 and MIP-1α after seizure onset. CXCL1 expression originated from neurons and endothelial cells while MIP-1α was expressed by neurons and microglia. Lastly, the expression of these chemokines directly preceded and positively correlated with significant neutrophil infiltration in the brain. These data suggest that following GD-induced SE, a strong chemotactic response originating from various brain cells, recruits circulating neutrophils to the injured brain.A strong induction of neutrophil attractant chemokines occurs following GD-induced SE resulting in neutrophil influx into injured brain tissues. This process may play a key role in the progressive secondary brain pathology observed in this model though further study is warranted.Soman (pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate, GD) is a G-series nerve agent that rapidly and irreversibly binds to acetylcholinesterase, causing excess acetylcholine accumulation in the central and peripheral nervous systems, which results in cholinergic crisis. A consequence of this cholinergic crisis is rapid induction of status epilepticus (SE) that can continue unabated for many hours [1]. The duration of this seizure activity increases the magnitude of neuropathology [2,3] with the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus and piriform cortex being the most severely affected [4,5]. Although initial injury occurs rapidly, a robust neuroinflammatory response can exacerbate da
Health Promotion in Cardiac Rehabilitation Patients through the Use of a High-Intensity Interval Training Protocol  [PDF]
Michelle Tinkham
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.410059
Abstract: According to the American Heart Association’s (AHA) recent statistical update, over 2150 Americans die each day from cardiovascular disease (CVD), which equals approximately 1 death every 40 seconds; many of which were under the age of 65 years old [1]. In 2009, 386,324 people, 1 in 6 Americans, died as a result of coronary artery disease (CAD) alone [1]. They also estimate 150,000 people have “silent” heart attacks each year [1]. Even though the number of cardiovascular disease deaths has declined in the last 10 years, they still accounted for 32.3% of American deaths [1]. As a result, the AHA updated their 2020 goals to improve the nation’s cardiovascular health by 20% [1]. One of these methods is through the use of cardiac rehabilitation. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a health promotion strategy to help return cardiac patients to their previous level of functioning, increase health, decrease comorbidities and promote education and lifestyle change. For select patients, another alternative exercise plan may exist to gain even better results. High intensity interval training (HIIT) has shown positive training results for athletes and many studies show that it may also be an effective exercise modality for many cardiac patients instead of the traditional circuit training method. This article will review current literature on the effects of HIIT on CR patients as well as a sample HIIT protocol for instituting this treatment with appropriate patients.
Emotionally Competent Behaviors and Nurse Bullying: Is There a Direct Link?  [PDF]
Michelle Doas
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2015.51008
Abstract: An abundance of literature spanning many years depicts the devastating effects of nurse bullying within the profession. The evidence suggests that bullying in general is a deliberate act aimed at another person. Conceptualizing nurse bullying appears to be a key ingredient in creating both awareness and preventative strategies. Emotional competence includes a set of behaviors which are unique to each individual. These behaviors according to Goldman (1995) include, but are not limited to emotional self-assessment, accurate self-assurance, self-confidence, emotional self-control, and empathy. The majority of researchers agree that emotionally competent behaviors are impacted by both positive and negative interactions and experiences. Thus, it is hypothesized that emotionally competent behaviors are continually cultivated throughout one’s life based upon lived experiences. This article assesses direct relationships between implementation of emotionally competent behaviors as a means of combatting nurse bullying within the profession. Creating awareness of these two areas can be initial steps in cultivating the needed tools and supportive interventions to assist nurses from novice to expert to professionally mentor and role model for generations to come.
Are We Losing the Art of Actively Listening to Our Patients? Connecting the Art of Active Listening with Emotionally Competent Behaviors  [PDF]
Michelle Doas
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.56060
Abstract: Active listening is an essential communication technique that requires the listener to focus and provide feedback on what is heard. The ability to listen actively demonstrates sincerity, and assumes that nothing is being shrugged or taken for granted. As a result, active listeners strive to improve professional and personal relationships, decrease misinterpretation of information, strengthen compliance, and foster understanding. Likewise, active listening can foster trust, mutual respect, and patient compliance. This paper will explore vital connections between active listening and displaying emotionally competent behaviors. Additionally, analysis of a case study as a means of strengthening these connections while improving patient outcomes will be assessed.
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