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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8628 matches for " Michel Salomon "
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Building a Chaotic Proved Neural Network
Jacques M. Bahi,Christophe Guyeux,Michel Salomon
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: Chaotic neural networks have received a great deal of attention these last years. In this paper we establish a precise correspondence between the so-called chaotic iterations and a particular class of artificial neural networks: global recurrent multi-layer perceptrons. We show formally that it is possible to make these iterations behave chaotically, as defined by Devaney, and thus we obtain the first neural networks proven chaotic. Several neural networks with different architectures are trained to exhibit a chaotical behavior.
Java Technology : a Strategic Solution for Interactive Distributed Applications
Husam Alustwani,Jacques M. Bahi,Ahmed Mostefaoui,Michel Salomon
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: In a world demanding the best performance from financial investments, distributed applications occupy the first place among the proposed solutions. This particularity is due to their distributed architecture which is able to acheives high performance. Currently, many research works aim to develop tools that facilitate the implementation of such applications. The urgent need for such applications in all areas pushes researchers to accelerate this process. However, the lack of standardization results in the absence of strategic decisions taken by computer science community. In this article, we argue that Java technology represents an elegant compromise ahead of the list of the currently available solutions. In fact, by promoting the independence of hardware and software, Java technology makes it possible to overcome pitfalls that are inherent to the creation of distributed applications.
Gene Similarity-based Approaches for Determining Core-Genes of Chloroplasts
Bassam AlKindy,Christophe Guyeux,Jean-Fran?ois Couchot,Michel Salomon,Jacques M. Bahi
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: In computational biology and bioinformatics, the manner to understand evolution processes within various related organisms paid a lot of attention these last decades. However, accurate methodologies are still needed to discover genes content evolution. In a previous work, two novel approaches based on sequence similarities and genes features have been proposed. More precisely, we proposed to use genes names, sequence similarities, or both, insured either from NCBI or from DOGMA annotation tools. Dogma has the advantage to be an up-to-date accurate automatic tool specifically designed for chloroplasts, whereas NCBI possesses high quality human curated genes (together with wrongly annotated ones). The key idea of the former proposal was to take the best from these two tools. However, the first proposal was limited by name variations and spelling errors on the NCBI side, leading to core trees of low quality. In this paper, these flaws are fixed by improving the comparison of NCBI and DOGMA results, and by relaxing constraints on gene names while adding a stage of post-validation on gene sequences. The two stages of similarity measures, on names and sequences, are thus proposed for sequence clustering. This improves results that can be obtained using either NCBI or DOGMA alone. Results obtained with this quality control test are further investigated and compared with previously released ones, on both computational and biological aspects, considering a set of 99 chloroplastic genomes.
Finding the Core-Genes of Chloroplasts
Bassam AlKindy,Jean-Fran?ois Couchot,Christophe Guyeux,Arnaud Mouly,Michel Salomon,Jacques M. Bahi
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Due to the recent evolution of sequencing techniques, the number of available genomes is rising steadily, leading to the possibility to make large scale genomic comparison between sets of close species. An interesting question to answer is: what is the common functionality genes of a collection of species, or conversely, to determine what is specific to a given species when compared to other ones belonging in the same genus, family, etc. Investigating such problem means to find both core and pan genomes of a collection of species, \textit{i.e.}, genes in common to all the species vs. the set of all genes in all species under consideration. However, obtaining trustworthy core and pan genomes is not an easy task, leading to a large amount of computation, and requiring a rigorous methodology. Surprisingly, as far as we know, this methodology in finding core and pan genomes has not really been deeply investigated. This research work tries to fill this gap by focusing only on chloroplastic genomes, whose reasonable sizes allow a deep study. To achieve this goal, a collection of 99 chloroplasts are considered in this article. Two methodologies have been investigated, respectively based on sequence similarities and genes names taken from annotation tools. The obtained results will finally be evaluated in terms of biological relevance.
Hybrid Genetic Algorithm and Lasso Test Approach for Inferring Well Supported Phylogenetic Trees based on Subsets of Chloroplastic Core Genes
Bassam AlKindy,Christophe Guyeux,Jean-Fran?ois Couchot,Michel Salomon,Christian Parisod,Jacques M. Bahi
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: The amount of completely sequenced chloroplast genomes increases rapidly every day, leading to the possibility to build large scale phylogenetic trees of plant species. Considering a subset of close plant species defined according to their chloroplasts, the phylogenetic tree that can be inferred by their core genes is not necessarily well supported, due to the possible occurrence of "problematic" genes (i.e., homoplasy, incomplete lineage sorting, horizontal gene transfers, etc.) which may blur phylogenetic signal. However, a trustworthy phylogenetic tree can still be obtained if the number of problematic genes is low, the problem being to determine the largest subset of core genes that produces the best supported tree. To discard problematic genes and due to the overwhelming number of possible combinations, we propose an hybrid approach that embeds both genetic algorithms and statistical tests. Given a set of organisms, the result is a pipeline of many stages for the production of well supported phylogenetic trees. The proposal has been applied to different cases of plant families, leading to encouraging results for these families.
Adaptive Pitch Transposition: Smart Auditory Spectral Shifts in Cochlear Implants  [PDF]
Kevin Struwe, Ralf Salomon
Engineering (ENG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2017.99045
Abstract: Patients with severe hearing loss have the option to get a cochlear implant device to regain their hearing. Yet, the implantation process is not always optimal, which in some cases results in a shallow insertion depth or an accidental insertion into the wrong cochlear duct. As a consequence, the patients' pitch discrimination ability is suboptimal, leading to an even more decreased vowel identification, which is vital for speech recognition. This paper presents a technical approach to solve this problem: the adaptive pitch transposition module modifies the frequency content in a fashion so that the pitch is fixed to an optimal value. To determine this value, a patient-individual best pitch is determined experimentally by evaluating speech recognition at different pitches. This best pitch is subsequently called the comfort pitch. As a result of the considerations a technical implementation is presented in principle. A system comprised of pitch detection, pitch transposition and an arbitrary chosen comfort pitch is described in depth. It has been implemented prototypically in Matlab/Octave and tested with an example audio file. The system?itself is designed as a preprocessing stage preceding cochlear implant processing.
Improved Core Genes Prediction for Constructing well-supported Phylogenetic Trees in large sets of Plant Species
Bassam AlKindy,Huda Al-Nayyef,Christophe Guyeux,Jean-Fran?ois Couchot,Michel Salomon,Jacques M. Bahi
Computer Science , 2015, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-16483-0_38
Abstract: The way to infer well-supported phylogenetic trees that precisely reflect the evolutionary process is a challenging task that completely depends on the way the related core genes have been found. In previous computational biology studies, many similarity based algorithms, mainly dependent on calculating sequence alignment matrices, have been proposed to find them. In these kinds of approaches, a significantly high similarity score between two coding sequences extracted from a given annotation tool means that one has the same genes. In a previous work article, we presented a quality test approach (QTA) that improves the core genes quality by combining two annotation tools (namely NCBI, a partially human-curated database, and DOGMA, an efficient annotation algorithm for chloroplasts). This method takes the advantages from both sequence similarity and gene features to guarantee that the core genome contains correct and well-clustered coding sequences (\emph{i.e.}, genes). We then show in this article how useful are such well-defined core genes for biomolecular phylogenetic reconstructions, by investigating various subsets of core genes at various family or genus levels, leading to subtrees with strong bootstraps that are finally merged in a well-supported supertree.
Chungará (Arica) , 2003, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-73562003000200005
Abstract: the extensive "second lawsuit between antonio guamanyanac and geronimo caxayauri 1588" (agn / buenos aires 9-45-5-15), studied by espinoza soriano (1983-84), throws light on friction between two kurakazgos of the rímac river basin before, during, and after the spanish invasion. this essay proposes that two brothers who figure in the lawsuit, both of them khipukamayuq (khipu masters) and kurakas, namely, condorchagua and pomachagua of yaucha (resettlement of huánchor), are the same persons as the condor chaua and poma chaua whom guaman poma drew as imperial khipukamayuq of tawantinsuyu. this essay also focuses on d. gerónimo cancho guaman, a witness in the 1588 lawsuit. he is the same person as the old kuraka of san damián whose "idolatries" figure in chapter 20 of the anonymous quechua manuscript of huarochirí ([1608?] taylor 1987). the lawsuit thus forms common ground between two main sources of andean ethnohistorical tradition. the lawsuit clarifies interests and practices of the kuraka elite which have until now been overshadowed by the narrative works' ideological content.
Seinen Tod verschlafen? Sedierung am Lebensende im Spannungsfeld zwischen Abschiednehmen und Verdr ngen
Salomon F
Journal für Neurologie, Neurochirurgie und Psychiatrie , 2007,
Abstract: Die Einstellung zu Sterben und Tod hatte im Laufe der Geschichte viele Auspr gungen. Heute ist die unmittelbare Erfahrung mit Sterben und Tod durch die gestiegene Lebenserwartung, die angewachsene Leistungsf higkeit der Medizin und die ver nderten Familienstrukturen selten geworden. Dennoch bleibt der Mensch sterblich. Damit kann er unterschiedlich umgehen. Es gibt Wege der Leugnung und Verdr ngung, aber auch eine bejahende Haltung, die den Abschied erleichtern kann. Sowohl kurative als auch palliative Medizin sind gleichwertige Ziele rztlichen Handelns, soda auch Sterbebegleitung zur rztlichen Aufgabe wird. Neben den Wünschen nach einem bestimmten Ort und einer unbelastenden Art des Sterbens tritt zunehmend der Wunsch nach Sedierung am Lebensende. Terminale Sedierung kann zum einen der Todesleugnung und -verdr ngung dienen, aber auch eine Hilfe sein, die Sterblichkeit anzuerkennen. Es werden Anregungen gegeben, sie positiv zur Sterbebegleitung und menschenwürdigen Gestaltung des Lebensendes zu nutzen.
El papel de la autoridad reguladora en la alfabetización mediática The Role of Broadcasting Regulation in Media Literacy
Eve Salomon
Comunicar , 2009, DOI: doi:10.3916/c32-2009-02-013
Abstract: La autora presenta una perspectiva global sobre las razones por las que la televisión está regulada, los mecanismos utilizados para la regulación, y qué es lo que abarca esa regulación, particularmente en sus propósitos culturales. La autora concluye con sugerencias acerca de cómo se podría tender en las naciones hacia un futuro digital convergente, incluyendo un papel más preponderante de los consejos reguladores en la promoción de la alfabetización mediática. OFCOM, el regulador del Reino Unido es un ejemplo de cómo una autoridad reguladora puede tener un papel destacado en la alfabetización mediática y la información, agregando éstas a sus actuales objetivos de adjudicación y regulación del espectro, en preparación de la convergencia digital. La regulación y auto-regulación, para ser efectivas, tendrán que apoyarse sobre una integral educación en medios. The author presents a global perspective on the reasons why television is regulated, the mechanisms used for regulation, and what regulation covers, particularly its cultural purposes. The author concludes with suggestions about how this might change as nations move to wards a converged, digital future, including an increased role for the regulator in the promotion of media literacy. The UK’s regulator, OFCOM, is used as an example of how a regulatory authority can take a leading role in media and information literacy, adding to its existing missions of allocating and regulating spectrum, in preparation for the digital switchover. Regulation and self-regulation, to be truly effective, will need to rely on extensive media literacy.
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