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Aim: The study’s aim is to examine the coping strategies from a perspective of intergenerational transmission. Methods: A self-report questionnaire was completed by 504 students, their parents, and their grandparents. Tools on the questionnaire assessed crisis perception as well as levels of sense of humor, sense of mastery, and self-esteem, as independent variables, and crisis-coping strategies, as the dependent variable. Results: Findings indicated that there was intergenerational transmission of the problem-focused coping strategy in general, and of the intra-personal resources of self-esteem, and sense of mastery, in particular. The major theoretical contribution of the study is in extending the concept of intergenerational transmission to include an additional realm; findings also substantiated and reinforced previous knowledge regarding the strategies for coping with stress and crises among various age groups. Conclusions: In terms of applicability, recognizing the phenomenon of intergenerational transmission provides a clinical tool that increases the possibility of coping with complex problems. In addition, it suggests the need to increase clients’ awareness of the significant effects of intergenerational transmission.
Dark energy has been introduced in order to explain the
observed acceleration of the expansion of our Universe. It seems to be
distributed almost uniformly and it has an essential influence on the present
value of the Hubble constant which characterizes the rate of this expansion. The
Newtonian theory of gravitation is formulated so that the laws of conservation
of energy and momentum hold. However, the Universe is designed so that the
total amount of energy is slowly, but continually increasing, since its expansion
is accelerating. Our examples show that even the Solar System
and also our Galaxy imperceptibly expand thanks to dark energy whose origins are tiny antigravity forces. We claim that these forces
appear due to the finite speed of gravitational interaction, which causes
gravitational aberration effects. We show that effects of dark energy are
observable; they are not only globally, but also in local systems. These effects can be
measured and are comparable with the present value of the Hubble constant.