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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 125916 matches for " Michael W. Riggs "
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Cathelicidin-like Helminth Defence Molecules (HDMs): Absence of Cytotoxic, Anti-microbial and Anti-protozoan Activities Imply a Specific Adaptation to Immune Modulation
Karine Thivierge equal contributor,Sophie Cotton equal contributor,Deborah A. Schaefer,Michael W. Riggs,Joyce To,Maria E. Lund,Mark W. Robinson,John P. Dalton,Sheila M. Donnelly
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002307
Abstract: Host defence peptides (HDPs) are expressed throughout the animal and plant kingdoms. They have multifunctional roles in the defence against infectious agents of mammals, possessing both bactericidal and immune-modulatory activities. We have identified a novel family of molecules secreted by helminth parasites (helminth defence molecules; HDMs) that exhibit similar structural and biochemical characteristics to the HDPs. Here, we have analyzed the functional activities of four HDMs derived from Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica and compared them to human, mouse, bovine and sheep HDPs. Unlike the mammalian HDPs the helminth-derived HDMs show no antimicrobial activity and are non-cytotoxic to mammalian cells (macrophages and red blood cells). However, both the mammalian- and helminth-derived peptides suppress the activation of macrophages by microbial stimuli and alter the response of B cells to cytokine stimulation. Therefore, we hypothesise that HDMs represent a novel family of HDPs that evolved to regulate the immune responses of their mammalian hosts by retaining potent immune modulatory properties without causing deleterious cytotoxic effects.
Buchrezension "Konstruktion europ ischer Identit ten in r umlich-politischen Konflikten"
C. Due,D W. Riggs
Social Geography (SG) & Discussions (SGD) , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/sg-5-25-2010
Abstract: Resettlement in Australia can be a stressful experience for migrants who are largely expected to quickly assimilate into the broader Australian culture. This expectation is heightened for those people who arrive as refugees, and particularly those who arrive without humanitarian visas and must endure mandatory detention. For both migrants and refugees, attempts at establishing themselves or developing a sense of belonging to their new community are likely significantly hindered by the welcome (or otherwise) they are provided with and the terms upon which inclusion is offered. This paper uses a multi-method approach to examine how these issues of belonging and inclusion played out in the use of space in two South Australian primary schools that include a programme (NAP) for new arrived students. The paper considers the way in which NAP and non-NAP students utilise playground spaces, and compares and contrasts these observations with the views of teachers at the schools. Specifically, the findings indicate that NAP students were largely relegated to the margins of the playground and experienced difficulty in claiming school spaces as their own. The paper concludes by making suggestions for schools on the basis of the findings, with a focus upon examining the power relations that exist between NAP and non-NAP students and the role of schools in developing a global understanding of inclusion and exclusion.
Playing at the edges: use of playground spaces in South Australian primary schools with new arrivals programmes
C. Due,D. W. Riggs
Social Geography Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/sgd-6-1-2010
Abstract: There is a large body of work that documents the ongoing marginalisation of refugees and other migrants from Non-English Speaking Backgrounds (NESB) in Australia. Much of this work has discussed the way in which the Australian space is constructed according to a particular set of "values" to which NESB migrants and refugees must adhere if they are to be seen as "belonging" in the country. For refugee and migrant children, the construction of space in this way is frequently encountered within the schools into which they are placed in order to learn English in New Arrivals Programmes (NAPs). This paper uses a multi-method approach to examine the use of space in two primary schools in which there are NAPs. The paper considers the way in which NAP and non-NAP children utilise playground spaces, and compares and contrasts these observations which the views of teachers at the schools. The paper concludes that the marginalisation of NESB refugees and migrants in the broader Australian community is reflected in the primary school space, in which it is difficult for NAP children to claim space as their own. Finally, suggestions based on this research are offered for ways in which schools could become more inclusive, and more reflective of their position in a global society. Future research in this area could include a more detailed analysis of the power relations between NAP children and their classmates as they exit the program, and could also incorporate a larger cross-section of schools.
THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF STRENGTH AND POWER QUALITIES TO VERTICAL JUMP HEIGHT OF ELITE BEACH VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS DURING THE COUNTER-MOVEMENT AND SQUAT JUMP
Riggs, Michael P.,Sheppard, Jeremy M.
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise , 2009,
Abstract: Despite the inclusion of beach volleyball as an Olympic discipline with a fully professional world tour, little research has been published that has examined the physical qualities of internationally competitive athletes. Thirty international-standard beach volleyball athletes (14 male, 16 female) performed countermovement jumps (CMJ) and squat jumps (SJ) on a force platform. Ground reaction force (GRF) was collected from three SJ separated by 30 seconds passive rest, followed by three CMJ separated by 30 seconds passive rest. Significant differences (P<0.01) between male and female groups were found for all measured GRF characteristics of the SJ and CMJ, with the exception of peak rate of force development, relative peak force, power and relative average power for the CMJ test. For centre of mass displacement (jump height) the male mean was 8.33cm greater than the female mean. The strongest positive correlations with female jump height were SJ: Relative Peak Power (r=0.90); CMJ: Relative Average Power (r=0.67) The strongest positive correlations with male jump height were SJ: Relative Peak Power (r=0.94); Male CMJ: Relative Peak Power (r=0.83). No significant difference (P<0.05) was shown between male and female stretch shortening cycle (SSC) performance as examined by a prestretch augmentation and eccentric utilisation ratios for jump height and peak power. The findings of this study suggest that relative peak and average power outputs are factors highly associated with vertical jump height in elite male and female beach volleyball players.
The decomposability problem for torsion-free abelian groups is analytic complete
Kyle Riggs
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We discuss the decomposability of torsion-free abelian groups. We show that among computable groups of finite rank this property is $\Sigma^0_3$-complete. However, when we consider groups of infinite rank, it becomes $\Sigma^1_1$-complete, so it cannot be characterized by a first-order formula in the language of arithmetic.
Young Child Homicide and Accidental Death Rates in the United States, 1940-2005: Classification Issues in Mutually Exclusive Events  [PDF]
Jack E. Riggs, Gerald R. Hobbs
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.22019
Abstract: Events that are mutually exclusive, collectively exhaustive, and have a constant sum must be negatively correlated. This study examined whether non-motor vehicle accidental deaths and homicides in young US children displayed a period of time when this rule governing mutually exclusive events was applicable. Homicide and non-motor vehicle accident mortality rates in boys and girls, aged 1 to 4 years old, in the United States from 1940 to 2005 were analyzed. Homicide mortality rates increased sharply in young boys when the accident mortality rate dropped to about 25/100,000; and in young girls, when the accident mortality dropped to about 18/100,000. This increase in child homicide mortality rates corresponded to a time period when the sum of homicide rates and non-motor vehicle accident rates in these children were relatively constant, making these rates of unnatural deaths mutually exclusive, collectively exhaustive, and having a nearly constant sum. Homicide rates in young US children were relatively stable both before and after this critical constant sum time period. These findings suggest that the increase in homicide rates in young US children appear to have reflected the necessary negative correlation between mutually exclusive, collectively exhaustive, and constant sum events, rather than an actual increase in societal violence directed against young children.
The Dependence of Reported Homicide Rates on Reported Non-Motor Vehicle Accident Death Rates in US Young Children and Infants, 1940-2007  [PDF]
Jack E. Riggs, Gerald R. Hobbs
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.31002
Abstract: An analysis of the relationship between reported homicides and reported non-motor vehicle accident deaths in young children and infants was performed. Reported young child (aged 1 to less than 5 years) and infant (aged less than 1 year) homicide and non-motor vehicle accident mortality rates in boys and girls in the United States from 1940 to 2007 were analyzed using the 4-parameter logistic model. Homicide rate growth over time displayed sigmoid curves with inflection points near 1968 in young children and near 1984 in infants. Using the maximum and minimum homicide rate asymptotes from those analyses over time, 4-parameter logistic model between homicide rates and non-motor vehicle mortality rates suggests that 84.2% and 94.2% of the variation in young child homicide rates, in boys and girls respectively, can be explained by variation in the corresponding non-motor vehicle accident mortality rates and that 69.4% and 66.3% of the variation in infant homicide rates, in boys and girls respectively, was explained by variation in the corresponding non-motor vehicle accident mortality rates. These findings are consistent with the thesis that changing propensities in the classification of young child and infant deaths as either homicides or non-motor vehicle accident deaths, rather than actual changes in societal violence, may explain a substantial proportion of the reported increases in homicide rates in young children and infants. Moreover, the observation that increases in homicide rates in young children and infants were separated in time by nearly 16 years further supports this thesis.


U.S. National Healthcare Expenditures: Demonstration and Explanation of Cubic Growth Dynamics  [PDF]
Jack E. Riggs, Jeffrey C. Hobbs, Gerald R. Hobbs, Todd H. Riggs
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2011.13022
Abstract: U.S. national healthcare expenditures (NHE) increased from under 28 billion dollars in 1960 to over 1.35 trillion dollars in 2000. This enormous growth threatens the sustainability of the provision of healthcare. By definition, in any year, current NHE must equal population times consumer price index (CPI) times per capita CPI-adjusted constant dollar healthcare expenditures. Linear relationships were observed over time with total population (r2 > 0.99), with CPI (r2 > 0.96), and with per capita CPI-adjusted dollar healthcare expenditures (r2 > 0.98). The finding that those three factors were well described by linear equations suggests that NHE growth should display cubic dynamics over time. NHE from 1960 through 2000 did display cubic growth dynamics (r2 > 0.99). Moreover, actual NHE from 1960 through official U.S. government NHE projections in 2019 also displayed cubic growth dynamics (r2 > 0.99). This model explains why U.S. NHE has displayed cubic growth dynamics and suggests that U.S. NHE will continue to display cubic growth dynamoics as long as increases in population, CPI, and per capita CPI-adjusted constant dollar healthcare expenditures continue to increase reasonably linearly over time.
US National Healthcare Expenditures, 1960-2000: Public and Private Cubic Growth Dynamics  [PDF]
Jack E. Riggs, Jeffrey C. Hobbs, Gerald R. Hobbs, Todd H. Riggs
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.32027
Abstract: US national healthcare expenditures (NHE) displayed cubic growth dynamics between 1960 and 2000. In any year, current NHE must equal population times consumer price index (CPI) times per capita CPI-adjusted constant dollar healthcare expenditures. Cubic growth dynamics are a consequence of the fact that essentially linear growth relationships were observed over time with total population, CPI, and per capita CPI-adjusted dollar healthcare expenditures. Similarly in any year, current private and public NHE must equal population times consumer price index (CPI) times private and public per capita CPI-adjusted constant dollar healthcare expenditures respectively. This study examined whether private and public per capita CPI-adjusted dollar healthcare expenditures displayed linear growth. Linear relationships were observed over this time period for both private per capita CPI-adjusted dollar healthcare expenditures and public per capita CPI-adjusted dollar healthcare expenditures. The finding that both of these factors were well described by linear equations suggests that that both private and public NHE growth should display cubic growth dynamics over time. From 1960 through 2000, cubic growth dynamics were observed for both private NHE and public NHE. This model suggests that shifting healthcare costs between the private and public domains will not alter the underlying cubic growth dynamics of U.S. NHE as long as per capita CPI-adjusted constant dollar private and public healthcare expenditures increase reasonably linearly over time.
The Global Kuznets Curve, 1969-2007  [PDF]
Jack E. Riggs, Jeffrey C. Hobbs, Gerald R. Hobbs, Todd H. Riggs
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.32022
Abstract: Noting increasing economic equality in three developed nations and using a theoretical economic model, Kuznets hypothesized that economic development was associated with initial increasing economic inequality followed by decreasing economic inequality. GDP and population data (1969-2007) from 36 nations and regions, comprising the entire global economy and population, demonstrate a global Kuznets curve.
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