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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 372417 matches for " Michael S. Smith "
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PRODUCT INNOVATION AND THE GROWTH OF THE LARGE FIRM: THE CASE OF AIR LIQUIDE, 1902-1930
Michael S. Smith
Essays in Economic & Business History , 1999,
Abstract: This paper traces the early development of Air Liquide, the world’s largest producer of industrial gases. By illustrating the dynamism of French industrial capitalism in the early twentieth century, the Air Liquide story calls into question the image of the French as also-rans in the Second Industrial Revolution. The story of Air Liquide also shows that geographical expansion and product diversification do not always lead to adoption of the multidivisional form (as in the case of Du Pont). Instead, Air Liquide remained a relatively small corporation at the center of a cluster of related firms. This paper suggests that the timing of product diversification may explain the differing organizational histories of Air Liquide and Du Pont.
Missing Value Imputation With Unsupervised Backpropagation
Michael S. Gashler,Michael R. Smith,Richard Morris,Tony Martinez
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Many data mining and data analysis techniques operate on dense matrices or complete tables of data. Real-world data sets, however, often contain unknown values. Even many classification algorithms that are designed to operate with missing values still exhibit deteriorated accuracy. One approach to handling missing values is to fill in (impute) the missing values. In this paper, we present a technique for unsupervised learning called Unsupervised Backpropagation (UBP), which trains a multi-layer perceptron to fit to the manifold sampled by a set of observed point-vectors. We evaluate UBP with the task of imputing missing values in datasets, and show that UBP is able to predict missing values with significantly lower sum-squared error than other collaborative filtering and imputation techniques. We also demonstrate with 24 datasets and 9 supervised learning algorithms that classification accuracy is usually higher when randomly-withheld values are imputed using UBP, rather than with other methods.
A Minimal Architecture for General Cognition
Michael S. Gashler,Zachariah Kindle,Michael R. Smith
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: A minimalistic cognitive architecture called MANIC is presented. The MANIC architecture requires only three function approximating models, and one state machine. Even with so few major components, it is theoretically sufficient to achieve functional equivalence with all other cognitive architectures, and can be practically trained. Instead of seeking to transfer architectural inspiration from biology into artificial intelligence, MANIC seeks to minimize novelty and follow the most well-established constructs that have evolved within various sub-fields of data science. From this perspective, MANIC offers an alternate approach to a long-standing objective of artificial intelligence. This paper provides a theoretical analysis of the MANIC architecture.
The Intestinal Flora Is Required to Support Antibody Responses to Systemic Immunization in Infant and Germ Free Mice
Esi S. Lamousé-Smith, Alice Tzeng, Michael N. Starnbach
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027662
Abstract: The presence of a complex and diverse intestinal flora is functionally important for regulating intestinal mucosal immune responses. However, the extent to which a balanced intestinal flora regulates systemic immune responses is still being defined. In order to specifically examine whether the acquisition of a less complex flora influences responses to immunization in the pre-weaning stages of life, we utilize a model in which infant mice acquire an intestinal flora from their mothers that has been altered by broad-spectrum antibiotics. In this model, pregnant dams are treated with a cocktail of antibiotics that alters both the density and microbial diversity of the intestinal flora. After challenge with a subcutaneous immunization, the antibiotic altered flora infant mice have lower antigen specific antibody titers compared to control age-matched mice. In a second model, we examined germ free (GF) mice to analyze how the complete lack of flora influences the ability to mount normal antibody responses following subcutaneous immunization. GF mice do not respond well to immunization and introduction of a normal flora into GF mice restores the capacity of these mice to respond. These results indicate that a gastrointestinal flora reduced in density and complexity at critical time points during development adversely impacts immune responses to systemic antigens.
Solution-based targeted genomic enrichment for precious DNA samples
Aiden E Shearer, Michael S Hildebrand, Richard JH Smith
BMC Biotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6750-12-20
Abstract: We developed a solution-based TGE method for downstream Illumina sequencing in a non-automated workflow, adding standard Illumina barcode indexes during the post-hybridization amplification to allow for sample pooling prior to sequencing. The method utilizes Agilent SureSelect baits, primers and hybridization reagents for the capture, off-the-shelf reagents for the library preparation steps, and adaptor oligonucleotides for Illumina paired-end sequencing purchased directly from an oligonucleotide manufacturing company.This solution-based TGE method for Illumina sequencing is optimized for small- or medium-sized laboratories and addresses the weaknesses of standard protocols by reducing the amount of input DNA required, increasing capture yield, optimizing efficiency, and improving reproducibility.
EFFECTS OF FATIGUE ON FRONTAL PLANE KNEE MOTION, MUSCLE ACTIVITY, AND GROUND REACTION FORCES IN MEN AND WOMEN DURING LANDING
Michael P. Smith,Phillip S. Sizer,C. Roger James
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Women tear their Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) 2-8 times more frequently than men. Frontal plane knee motion can produce a pathological load in the ACL. During a state of fatigue the muscles surrounding the knee joint may lose the ability to protect the joint during sudden deceleration while landing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of fatigue and gender on frontal plane knee motion, EMG amplitudes, and GRF magnitudes during drop- jump landing. Pretest-posttest comparison group design was used. Twenty-six volunteers (14 women; 12 Men; Mean ± standard deviation age = 24.5 ± 2.7 yrs; height = 1.73 ± 0.09 m; mass = 74.3 ± 11.8 kg) participated in the study. Knee frontal plane ranges of motion and positions, ground reaction force peak magnitudes, and surface EMG RMS amplitudes from five lower extremity muscles (vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, medial hamstring, lateral hamstring, and lateral gastrocnemius) were obtained during the landing phase of a drop-jump. MANOVA and ANOVA indicated that peak GRF significantly (p < 0.05; 2.50 ± 0.75 BW vs. 2.06 ± 0.93 BW) decreased during fatigued landings. No other variables exhibited a fatigue main effect, although there was a significant (p < 0.05) fatigue by gender interaction for the frontal plane range of motion from initial contact to max knee flexion variable. Follow-up analyses failed to reveal significant gender differences at the different levels of fatigue for this variable. Additionally, no variables exhibited a significant gender main effect. Single subject analysis indicated that fatigue significantly altered frontal plane knee motion, peak GRF, and EMG in some subjects and the direction of differences varied by individual. Fatigue altered some aspects of landing performance in both men and women, but there were no gender differences. Additionally, both group and single subject analyses provided valuable but different information about factors representing neuromuscular control during drop-jump landing
THE METABOLIC DEMANDS OF KAYAKING: A REVIEW
Jacob S. Michael,Kieron B. Rooney,Richard Smith
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: Flat-water kayaking is one of the best-known competitive canoeing disciplines in Australia and across the European countries. From a stationary start, paddlers are required to paddle their kayaks with maximal effort along the length of the competing distance. The ultimate criterion of kayak performance is the time taken to paddle a designated competition distance. In flat-water racing, events are contested over 500 and 1000 metres. To approximate the ultimate criterion over these distances, the velocity of the kayak should be measured. Furthermore, other factors that affect performance, such as force, power, technique and aerobic fitness, would all provide a valuable insight to the success of the kayak paddler. Specific research performed examining the physiological demands on kayak paddlers demonstrate high levels of both aerobic power and anaerobic capacity. It is the purpose if this review to present the published physiological data relating to men's and women's kayaking. With a number of recent publications, a need for an updated review is necessary. The present review summarises recent data on anthropometrics, physiological characteristics of successful and unsuccessful kayak athletes and methods of physiological testing. Due to the fact that more data have been reported for male competitors than for their female counterparts, the demands of kayaking on male athletes will be the main focus for this review. The review also suggests areas for future research into flatwater kayaking performance. Understanding the physiological requirements of kayaking can assist coaches and athletes in a number of ways. During competition or training, such information is helpful in the selection of appropriate protocols and metabolic indices to monitor an athlete's performance improvements and assess an athlete's suitability for a particular race distance. Furthermore, it may aid the coach in the development of more specific training programs for their athletes.
The Impact of Nuclear Reaction Rate Uncertainties on Evolutionary Studies of the Nova Outburst
W. Raphael Hix,Michael S. Smith,Anthony Mezzacappa,Sumner Starrfield,Donald L. Smith
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1063/1.1291740
Abstract: The observable consequences of a nova outburst depend sensitively on the details of the thermonuclear runaway which initiates the outburst. One of the more important sources of uncertainty is the nuclear reaction data used as input for the evolutionary calculations. A recent paper by Starrfield, Truran, Wiescher, & Sparks (1998) has demonstrated that changes in the reaction rate library used within a nova simulation have significant effects, not just on the production of individual isotopes (which can change by an order of magnitude), but on global observables such as the peak luminosity and the amount of mass ejected. We present preliminary results of systematic analyses of the impact of reaction rate uncertainties on nova nucleosynthesis.
Nuclear Reaction Rate Uncertainties and their effects on Nova Nucleosynthesis Modeling
W. Raphael Hix,Michael S. Smith,Anthony Mezzacappa,Sumner Starrfield,Donald L. Smith
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: The nucleosynthesis and other observable consequences of a nova outburst depend sensitively on the details of the thermonuclear runaway which initiates the outburst. One important source of uncertainty in our current models is the nuclear reaction data used as input for the evolutionary calculations. We present preliminary results of the first analyses of the impact on nova nucleosynthesis of all reaction rate uncertainties considered simultaneously.
The European Union as a Global Trade Actor: Challenges and Opportunities
Michael SMITH
Dokuz Eylül üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi , 2010,
Abstract: This article reviews the challenges and opportunities confronting the European Union in its trade and broader commercial policies, in what is a period of transition. The article begins by evaluating the foundations of the EU’s ‘actorness’ in trade policy, and in particular by identifying three underlying logics of EU policy development: the ‘internal’ logic, the ‘external’ logic and the ‘identity’ logic. The interaction between these logics is seen as driving the ways in which the EU enters into global trade relationships, and as accounting for tensions and contradictions in a number of areas. Subsequent sections of the article deal with the images presented by the EU in trade policy, with the EU’s changing position in world trade, with the current trade agenda and the new agenda of broader commercial policy. The article finishes with a review of potential future issues in EU trade and commercial policies, and with a reassessment of the ‘three logics’ and their interaction.
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