Abstract:
Associative memories are structures that store data in such a way that it can later be retrieved given only a part of its content -- a sort-of error/erasure-resilience property. They are used in applications ranging from caches and memory management in CPUs to database engines. In this work we study associative memories built on the maximum likelihood principle. We derive minimum residual error rates when the data stored comes from a uniform binary source. Second, we determine the minimum amount of memory required to store the same data. Finally, we bound the computational complexity for message retrieval. We then compare these bounds with two existing associative memory architectures: the celebrated Hopfield neural networks and a neural network architecture introduced more recently by Gripon and Berrou.

Abstract:
This paper considers the problem of inferring the structure of a network from indirect observations. Each observation (a "trace") is the unordered set of nodes which are activated along a path through the network. Since a trace does not convey information about the order of nodes within the path, there are many feasible orders for each trace observed, and thus the problem of inferring the network from traces is, in general, illposed. We propose and analyze an algorithm which inserts edges by ordering each trace into a path according to which pairs of nodes in the path co-occur most frequently in the observations. When all traces involve exactly 3 nodes, we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the reconstruction algorithm to exactly recover the graph. Finally, for a family of random graphs, we present expressions for reconstruction error probabilities (false discoveries and missed detections).

Abstract:
Conventional studies of network growth models mainly look at the steady state degree distribution of the graph. Often long time behavior is considered, hence the initial condition is ignored. In this contribution, the time evolution of the degree distribution is the center of attention. We consider two specific growth models; incoming nodes with uniform and preferential attachment, and the degree distribution of the graph for arbitrary initial condition is obtained as a function of time. This allows us to characterize the transient behavior of the degree distribution, as well as to quantify the rate of convergence to the steady-state limit.

Abstract:
Radio frequency (RF) sensing networks are a class of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) which use RF signals to accomplish tasks such as passive device-free localization and tracking. The algorithms used for these tasks usually require access to measurements of baseline received signal strength (RSS) on each link. However, it is often impossible to collect this calibration data (measurements collected during an offline calibration period when the region of interest is empty of targets). We propose adapting background subtraction methods from the field of computer vision to estimate baseline RSS values from measurements taken while the system is online and obstructions may be present. This is done by forming an analogy between the intensity of a background pixel in an image and the baseline RSS value of a WSN link and then translating the concepts of temporal similarity, spatial similarity and spatial ergodicity which underlie specific background subtraction algorithms to WSNs. Using experimental data, we show that these techniques are capable of estimating baseline RSS values with enough accuracy that RF tomographic tracking can be carried out in a variety of different environments without the need for a calibration period.

Abstract:
Most of the conventional models for opinion dynamics mainly account for a fully local influence, where myopic agents decide their actions after they interact with other agents that are adjacent to them. For example, in the case of social interactions, this includes family, friends, and other strong social ties. The model proposed in this contribution, embodies a global influence as well where, by global, we mean that each node also observes a sample of the average behavior of the entire population (in the social example, people observe other people on the streets, subway, and other social venues). We consider a case where nodes have dichotomous states (examples include elections with two major parties, whether or not to adopt a new technology or product, and any yes/no opinion such as in voting on a referendum). The dynamics of states on a network with arbitrary degree distribution are studied. For a given initial condition, we find the probability to reach consensus on each state and the expected time reach to consensus. The effect of an exogenous bias on the average orientation of the system is investigated, to model mass media. To do so, we add an external field to the model that favors one of the states over the other. This field interferes with the regular decision process of each node and creates a constant probability to lean towards one of the states. We solve for the average state of the system as a function of time for given initial conditions. Then anti-conformists (stubborn nodes who never revise their states) are added to the network, in an effort to circumvent the external bias. We find necessary conditions on the number of these defiant nodes required to cancel the effect of the external bias. Our analysis is based on a mean field approximation of the agent opinions.

Abstract:
We study a general framework for broadcast gossip algorithms which use companion variables to solve the average consensus problem. Each node maintains an initial state and a companion variable. Iterative updates are performed asynchronously whereby one random node broadcasts its current state and companion variable and all other nodes receiving the broadcast update their state and companion variable. We provide conditions under which this scheme is guaranteed to converge to a consensus solution, where all nodes have the same limiting values, on any strongly connected directed graph. Under stronger conditions, which are reasonable when the underlying communication graph is undirected, we guarantee that the consensus value is equal to the average, both in expectation and in the mean-squared sense. Our analysis uses tools from non-negative matrix theory and perturbation theory. The perturbation results rely on a parameter being sufficiently small. We characterize the allowable upper bound as well as the optimal setting for the perturbation parameter as a function of the network topology, and this allows us to characterize the worst-case rate of convergence. Simulations illustrate that, in comparison to existing broadcast gossip algorithms, the approaches proposed in this paper have the advantage that they simultaneously can be guaranteed to converge to the average consensus and they converge in a small number of broadcasts.

Abstract:
This paper provides time-dependent expressions for the expected degree distribution of a given network that is subject to growth, as a function of time. We consider both uniform attachment, where incoming nodes form links to existing nodes selected uniformly at random, and preferential attachment, when probabilities are assigned proportional to the degrees of the existing nodes. We consider the cases of single and multiple links being formed by each newly-introduced node. The initial conditions are arbitrary, that is, the solution depends on the degree distribution of the initial graph which is the substrate of the growth. Previous work in the literature focuses on the asymptotic state, that is, when the number of nodes added to the initial graph tends to infinity, rendering the effect of the initial graph negligible. Our contribution provides a solution for the expected degree distribution as a function of time, for arbitrary initial condition. Previous results match our results in the asymptotic limit.

Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the voter model with popularity bias. The influence of each node on its neighbors depends on its degree. We find the consensus probabilities and expected consensus times for each of the states. We also find the fixation probability, which is the probability that a single node whose state differs from every other node imposes its state on the entire system. In addition, we find the expected fixation time. Then two extensions to the model are proposed and the motivations behind them are discussed. The first one is confidence, where in addition to the states of neighbors, nodes take their own state into account at each update. We repeat the calculations for the augmented model and investigate the effects of adding confidence to the model. The second proposed extension is irreversibility, where one of the states is given the property that once nodes adopt it, they cannot switch back. The dynamics of densities, fixation times and consensus times are obtained.

Abstract:
We obtain closed form expressions for the expected conditional degree distribution and the joint degree distribution of the linear preferential attachment model for network growth in the steady state. We consider the multiple-destination preferential attachment growth model, where incoming nodes at each timestep attach to $\beta$ existing nodes, selected by degree-proportional probabilities. By the conditional degree distribution $p(\ell| k)$, we mean the degree distribution of nodes that are connected to a node of degree $k$. By the joint degree distribution $p(k,\ell)$, we mean the proportion of links that connect nodes of degrees $k$ and $\ell$. In addition to this growth model, we consider the shifted-linear preferential growth model and solve for the same quantities, as well as a closed form expression for its steady-state degree distribution.

Abstract:
Dichotomous spin dynamics on a pyramidal hierarchical structure (the Bethe lattice) are studied. The system embodies a number of \emph{classes}, where a class comprises of nodes that are equidistant from the root (head node). Weighted links exist between nodes from the same and different classes. The spin (hereafter, \emph{state}) of the head node is fixed. We solve for the dynamics of the system for different boundary conditions. We find necessary conditions so that the classes eventually repudiate or acquiesce in the state imposed by the head node. The results indicate that to reach unanimity across the hierarchy, it suffices that the bottom-most class adopts the same state as the head node. Then the rest of the hierarchy will inevitably comply. This also sheds light on the importance of mass media as a means of synchronization between the top-most and bottom-most classes. Surprisingly, in the case of discord between the head node and the bottom-most classes, the average state over all nodes inclines towards that of the bottom-most class regardless of the link weights and intra-class configurations. Hence the role of the bottom-most class is signified.