Abstract:
This paper describes a control theoretical model of collaborative value development. This model is designed to assist managers in choosing parameters that are critical to the development process in service design and support their Business Model. This methodology uses control system modelling of web-based service value generation implemented in SIMULINK/MATLAB. An application based on public domain Wikipedia data is used to validate and develop the model. A control theoretic model applied to the creation of Wikipedia articles shows very good agreement with Wikipedia published data for the time dependent growth in articles produced, and editors used, well within the variability of parametric data listed publically justifying the principle equations used in the model. This development and fine tuning of the model has been limited by the publically available data. To obtain a more accurate model in this area would need the co-operation of web service organisations to reveal confidential data. This modelling procedure can produce a decision support process for service design and could, with modification be applied much more widely to other choices in service design/implementation, even allowing for user contribution to be evaluated. This work shows how subjective judgements on value and other intangibles need to be continually re-evaluated. Such methodology has not been applied elsewhere to value generation applications. It could be used to rank contributions from co-creators for reward sharing.

Abstract:
What makes quantum information science a science? These notes explore the idea that quantum information science may offer a powerful approach to the study of complex quantum systems. We discuss how to quantify complexity in quantum systems, and argue that there are two qualitatively different types of complex quantum system. We also explore ways of understanding complex quantum dynamics by quantifying the strength of a quantum dynamical operation as a physical resource. This is the text for a talk at the ``Sixth International Conference on Quantum Communication, Measurement and Computing'', held at MIT, July 2002. Viewgraphs for the talk may be found at http://www.qinfo.org/talks/.

Abstract:
We propose an approach to optical quantum computation in which a deterministic entangling quantum gate may be performed using, on average, a few hundred coherently interacting optical elements (beamsplitters, phase shifters, single photon sources, and photodetectors with feedforward). This scheme combines ideas from the optical quantum computing proposal of Knill, Laflamme and Milburn [Nature 409 (6816), 46 (2001)], and the abstract cluster-state model of quantum computation proposed by Raussendorf and Briegel [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5188 (2001)].

Abstract:
What resources are universal for quantum computation? In the standard model, a quantum computer consists of a sequence of unitary gates acting coherently on the qubits making up the computer. This paper shows that a very different model involving only projective measurements, quantum memory, and the ability to prepare the |0> state is also universal for quantum computation. In particular, no coherent unitary dynamics are involved in the computation.

Abstract:
What makes quantum information science a science? This paper explores the idea that quantum information science may offer a powerful approach to the study of complex quantum systems.

Abstract:
What is the minimal size quantum circuit required to exactly implement a specified n-qubit unitary operation, U, without the use of ancilla qubits? We show that a lower bound on the minimal size is provided by the length of the minimal geodesic between U and the identity, I, where length is defined by a suitable Finsler metric on SU(2^n). The geodesic curves of such a metric have the striking property that once an initial position and velocity are set, the remainder of the geodesic is completely determined by a second order differential equation known as the geodesic equation. This is in contrast with the usual case in circuit design, either classical or quantum, where being given part of an optimal circuit does not obviously assist in the design of the rest of the circuit. Geodesic analysis thus offers a potentially powerful approach to the problem of proving quantum circuit lower bounds. In this paper we construct several Finsler metrics whose minimal length geodesics provide lower bounds on quantum circuit size, and give a procedure to compute the corresponding geodesic equation. We also construct a large class of solutions to the geodesic equation, which we call Pauli geodesics, since they arise from isometries generated by the Pauli group. For any unitary U diagonal in the computational basis, we show that: (a) provided the minimal length geodesic is unique, it must be a Pauli geodesic; (b) finding the length of the minimal Pauli geodesic passing from I to U is equivalent to solving an exponential size instance of the closest vector in a lattice problem (CVP); and (c) all but a doubly exponentially small fraction of such unitaries have minimal Pauli geodesics of exponential length.

Abstract:
This note presents a simple formula for the average fidelity between a unitary quantum gate and a general quantum operation on a qudit, generalizing the formula for qubits found by Bowdrey et al [Phys. Lett. A 294, 258 (2002)]. This formula may be useful for experimental determination of average gate fidelity. We also give a simplified proof of a formula due to Horodecki et al [Phys. Rev. A 60, 1888 (1999)], connecting average gate fidelity to entanglement fidelity.

Abstract:
This article is a short introduction to and review of the cluster-state model of quantum computation, in which coherent quantum information processing is accomplished via a sequence of single-qubit measurements applied to a fixed quantum state known as a cluster state. We also discuss a few novel properties of the model, including a proof that the cluster state cannot occur as the exact ground state of any naturally occurring physical system, and a proof that measurements on any quantum state which is linearly prepared in one dimension can be efficiently simulated on a classical computer, and thus are not candidates for use as a substrate for quantum computation.

Abstract:
Operator quantum error-correction is a technique for robustly storing quantum information in the presence of noise. It generalizes the standard theory of quantum error-correction, and provides a unified framework for topics such as quantum error-correction, decoherence-free subspaces, and noiseless subsystems. This paper develops (a) easily applied algebraic and information-theoretic conditions which characterize when operator quantum error-correction is feasible; (b) a representation theorem for a class of noise processes which can be corrected using operator quantum error-correction; and (c) generalizations of the coherent information and quantum data processing inequality to the setting of operator quantum error-correction.