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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 44914 matches for " Michael Melcher "
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Candidate Gustatory Interneurons Modulating Feeding Behavior in the Drosophila Brain
Christoph Melcher,Michael J. Pankratz
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030305
Abstract: Feeding is a fundamental activity of all animals that can be regulated by internal energy status or external sensory signals. We have characterized a zinc finger transcription factor, klumpfuss (klu), which is required for food intake in Drosophila larvae. Microarray analysis indicates that expression of the neuropeptide gene hugin (hug) in the brain is altered in klu mutants and that hug itself is regulated by food signals. Neuroanatomical analysis demonstrates that hug-expressing neurons project axons to the pharyngeal muscles, to the central neuroendocrine organ, and to the higher brain centers, whereas hug dendrites are innervated by external gustatory receptor-expressing neurons, as well as by internal pharyngeal chemosensory organs. The use of tetanus toxin to block synaptic transmission of hug neurons results in alteration of food intake initiation, which is dependent on previous nutrient condition. Our results provide evidence that hug neurons function within a neural circuit that modulates taste-mediated feeding behavior.
Candidate gustatory interneurons modulating feeding behavior in the Drosophila brain.
Melcher Christoph,Pankratz Michael J
PLOS Biology , 2005,
Abstract: Feeding is a fundamental activity of all animals that can be regulated by internal energy status or external sensory signals. We have characterized a zinc finger transcription factor, klumpfuss (klu), which is required for food intake in Drosophila larvae. Microarray analysis indicates that expression of the neuropeptide gene hugin (hug) in the brain is altered in klu mutants and that hug itself is regulated by food signals. Neuroanatomical analysis demonstrates that hug-expressing neurons project axons to the pharyngeal muscles, to the central neuroendocrine organ, and to the higher brain centers, whereas hug dendrites are innervated by external gustatory receptor-expressing neurons, as well as by internal pharyngeal chemosensory organs. The use of tetanus toxin to block synaptic transmission of hug neurons results in alteration of food intake initiation, which is dependent on previous nutrient condition. Our results provide evidence that hug neurons function within a neural circuit that modulates taste-mediated feeding behavior.
Candidate Gustatory Interneurons Modulating Feeding Behavior in the Drosophila Brain
Christoph Melcher,Michael J Pankratz
PLOS Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030305
Abstract: Feeding is a fundamental activity of all animals that can be regulated by internal energy status or external sensory signals. We have characterized a zinc finger transcription factor, klumpfuss (klu), which is required for food intake in Drosophila larvae. Microarray analysis indicates that expression of the neuropeptide gene hugin (hug) in the brain is altered in klu mutants and that hug itself is regulated by food signals. Neuroanatomical analysis demonstrates that hug-expressing neurons project axons to the pharyngeal muscles, to the central neuroendocrine organ, and to the higher brain centers, whereas hug dendrites are innervated by external gustatory receptor-expressing neurons, as well as by internal pharyngeal chemosensory organs. The use of tetanus toxin to block synaptic transmission of hug neurons results in alteration of food intake initiation, which is dependent on previous nutrient condition. Our results provide evidence that hug neurons function within a neural circuit that modulates taste-mediated feeding behavior.
Community terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms reveal insights into the diversity and dynamics of leaf endophytic bacteria
Ding Tao,Palmer Michael W,Melcher Ulrich
BMC Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-13-1
Abstract: Background Plant endophytic bacteria play an important role benefiting plant growth or being pathogenic to plants or organisms that consume those plants. Multiple species of bacteria have been found co-inhabiting plants, both cultivated and wild, with viruses and fungi. For these reasons, a general understanding of plant endophytic microbial communities and their diversity is necessary. A key issue is how the distributions of these bacteria vary with location, with plant species, with individual plants and with plant growing season. Results Five common plant species were collected monthly for four months in the summer of 2010, with replicates from four different sampling sites in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in Osage County, Oklahoma, USA. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from ground, washed plant leaf samples, and fragments of the bacterial 16S rDNA genes were amplified for analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). We performed mono-digestion T-RFLP with restriction endonuclease DdeI, to reveal the structures of leaf endophytic bacterial communities, to identify the differences between plant-associated bacterial communities in different plant species or environments, and to explore factors affecting the bacterial distribution. We tested the impacts of three major factors on the leaf endophytic bacterial communities, including host plant species, sampling dates and sampling locations. Conclusions Results indicated that all of the three factors were significantly related (α = 0.05) to the distribution of leaf endophytic bacteria, with host species being the most important, followed by sampling dates and sampling locations.
Cooperativismo en Venezuela: Teoría y praxis
Melcher,Dorothea;
Revista Venezolana de Economía y Ciencias Sociales , 2008,
Abstract: after summing up the history and theory of cooperativism at a general level, the author examines its organization in venezuela and the problems that have accompanied it on the basis of an analysis of different recent experiences.
Heat kernel analysis on semi-infinite Lie groups
Tai Melcher
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: This paper studies Brownian motion and heat kernel measure on a class of infinite dimensional Lie groups. We prove a Cameron-Martin type quasi-invariance theorem for the heat kernel measure and give estimates on the $L^p$ norms of the Radon-Nikodym derivatives. We also prove that a logarithmic Sobolev inequality holds in this setting.
Malliavin calculus for Lie group-valued Wiener functions
Tai Melcher
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: Let G be a Lie group equipped with a set of left invariant vector fields. These vector fields generate a function \xi on Wiener space into G via the stochastic version of Cartan's rolling map. It is shown here that, for any smooth function f with compact support, f(\xi) is Malliavin differentiable to all orders and these derivatives belong to L^p(\mu) for all p>1, where \mu is Wiener measure.
Hypoelliptic heat kernel inequalities on Lie groups
Tai Melcher
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: This paper discusses the existence of gradient estimates for second order hypoelliptic heat kernels on manifolds. It is now standard that such inequalities, in the elliptic case, are equivalent to a lower bound on the Ricci tensor of the Riemannian metric. For hypoelliptic operators, the associated "Ricci curvature" takes on the value -\infty at points of degeneracy of the semi-Riemannian metric associated to the operator. For this reason, the standard proofs for the elliptic theory fail in the hypoelliptic setting. This paper presents recent results for hypoelliptic operators. Malliavin calculus methods transfer the problem to one of determining certain infinite dimensional estimates. Here, the underlying manifold is a Lie group, and the hypoelliptic operators are invariant under left translation. In particular, "L^p-type" gradient estimates hold for p\in(1,\infty), and the p=2 gradient estimate implies a Poincar\'e estimate in this context.
Global Solvability of the Cauchy Problem for the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert Equation in Higher Dimensions
Christof Melcher
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: We prove existence, uniqueness and asymptotics of global smooth solutions for the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in dimension $n \ge 3$, valid under a smallness condition of initial gradients in the $L^n$ norm. The argument is based on the method of moving frames that produces a covariant complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, and a priori estimates that we obtain by the method of weighted-in-time norms as introduced by Fujita and Kato.
Neuromedin U and Its Putative Drosophila Homolog hugin
Christoph Melcher,Rüdiger Bader,Steffen Walther,Oleg Simakov,Michael J. Pankratz
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040068
Abstract:
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