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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 438802 matches for " Michael M. Maher "
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Computer Simulation/Practical Models for Human Thyroid Thermographic Imaging  [PDF]
James Rizkalla, William Tilbury, Ahdy Helmy, Vinay Kumar Suryadevara, Maher Rizkalla, Michael M. Holdmann
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2015.84024
Abstract: We have demonstrated a successful computer model utilizing ANSIS software that is verified with a practical model using Infrared (IR) sensors. The simulation model incorporates the three heat transfer coefficients: conduction, convection, and radiation. While the conduction component was a major contributor to the simulation model, the other two coefficients have added to the accuracy and precision of the model. Convection heat allows for the influence of blood flow within the study, while the radiation aspect, sensed through IR sensors, links the practical model of the study. This study also compares simulation data with the applied model generated from IR probe sensors. These sensors formed an IR scanner that moved via servo mechanical system, tracking the temperature distribution within and around the thyroid gland. These data were analyzed and processed to produce a thermal image of the thyroid gland. The acquired data were then compared with an Iodine uptake scan for the same patients.
Relative Expressiveness of Defeasible Logics
Michael Maher
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: We address the relative expressiveness of defeasible logics in the framework DL. Relative expressiveness is formulated as the ability to simulate the reasoning of one logic within another logic. We show that such simulations must be modular, in the sense that they also work if applied only to part of a theory, in order to achieve a useful notion of relative expressiveness. We present simulations showing that logics in DL with and without the capability of team defeat are equally expressive. We also show that logics that handle ambiguity differently -- ambiguity blocking versus ambiguity propagating -- have distinct expressiveness, with neither able to simulate the other under a different formulation of expressiveness.
Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis characterized by barium esophagography: a case report
Owen J O'Connor, Adrian Brady, Fergus Shanahan, Eamonn Quigley, Michael O'Riordain, Michael M Maher
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-4-145
Abstract: We present a case of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis in a 72-year-old Caucasian man who presented with dysphagia and with a background history of alcohol abuse. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy of our patient showed an esophageal stricture with abnormal mucosal appearances, but no malignant cells were seen at biopsy. Appearances on a barium esophagram were pathognomonic for esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis.We demonstrate the enduring usefulness of barium esophagography in the characterization of abnormal mucosal appearances at endoscopy.Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis is a rare condition characterized by the dilatation of submucosal glands. Based on approximately 250 cases reported to date, this condition is slightly more common in men than in women [1,2]. Intramural pseudodiverticulosis is most commonly associated with gastrooesophageal reflux and esophagitis and less commonly with alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, Crohn's disease, tuberculosis, Mallory-Weiss syndrome and achalasia [3,4]. The average age at presentation is 54 years and patients typically present with dysphagia, which is frequently associated with stricture formation, as in case we describe here [3,4]. Symptoms usually respond well to anti-inflammatory medication and balloon dilatation of strictures.A 72-year-old Caucasian man (height: 170 cm, weight: 85 kg) presented with a 4-year history of mild dysphagia for solid foods. His medical history was notable for alcohol abuse and associated alcoholic hepatitis. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was initially performed on our patient. At endoscopy, a stricture of the mid-esophagus with numerous tiny erythematous macules on the mucosal surface was seen (Figure 1). There was clinical uncertainty about the cause of the stricture and the mucosal appearances. A barium esophagogram was performed (Figures 2A and 2B). Barium esophagogram demonstrated a smooth stricture of the mid-esophagus with numerous small (2 mm to 4 mm), fl
DSPs/FPGAs Comparative Study for Power Consumption, Noise Cancellation, and Real Time High Speed Applications  [PDF]
Alon Hayim, Michael Knieser, Maher Rizkalla
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.34044
Abstract: Adaptive noise data filtering in real-time requires dedicated hardware to meet demanding time requirements. Both DSP processors and FPGAs were studied with respect to their performance in power consumption, hardware architecture, and speed for real time applications. For testing purposes, real time adaptive noise filters have been implemented and simulated on two different platforms, Motorola DSP56303 EVM and Xilinx Spartan III boards. This study has shown that in high speed applications, FPGAs are advantageous over DSPs with respect of their speed and noise reduction because of their parallel architecture. FPGAs can handle more processes at the same time when compared to DSPs, while the later can only handle a limited number of parallel instructions at a time. The speed in both processors impacts the noise reduction in real time. As the DSP core gets slower, the noise removal in real time gets harder to achieve. With respect to power, DSPs are advantageous over FPGAs. FPGAs have reconfigurable gate structure which consumes more power. In case of DSPs, the hardware has been already configured, which requires less power consumption? FPGAs are built for general purposes, and their silicon area in the core is bigger than that of DSPs. This is another factor that affects power consumption. As a result, in high frequency applications, FPGAs are advantageous as compared to DSPs. In low frequency applications, DSPs and FPGAs both satisfy the requirements for noise cancelling. For low frequency applications, DSPs are advantageous in their power consumption and applications for the battery power devices. Software utilizing Matlab, VHDL code run on Xilinix system, and assembly running on Motorola development systems, have been used for the demonstration of this study.
Protective Effects of Combined Therapy of Rutin with Silymarin on Experimentally-Induced Diabetic Neuropathy in Rats  [PDF]
Maher M. Al-Enazi
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.59098
Abstract:

The management of diabetic neuropathy (DN) is still a challenge for physicians. Hyperglycemia induced oxidative stress involves in the development of diabetic neuropathy, which could be reversed by supplementation of antioxidants. In the present study, it has targeted the oxidative stress mediated nerve damage in DN by using combined therapy of rutin (RT) and silymarin (SM). Diabetes was induced by single streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg i.p.) injection. The diabetic rats were treated daily with RT (100 mg/kg), SM (60 mg/kg) and RT (50 mg/kg) + SM (30 mg/kg) for 6 consecutive weeks. Pain-related behavior tests were performed including tail flick, paw-pressure analgesia and Rota-rod treadmill performance. Serum glucose, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and interleukine-1β (IL-β) levels were estimated. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured. Diabetic rats that developed neuropathy were revealed by decreased tail-flick latency, paw-withdrawal latency and motor coordination. RT (100 mg/kg/day) and SM (60 mg/kg/day) dosed to diabetic rats, ameliorated hyperalgesia, analgesia and led to improved motor coordination. However, the combined therapy of RT (50 mg/kg/day) with SM (30 mg/kg/day) showed more significant effects in these parameters. STZ significantly increased TBARS and decreased GSH levels in sciatic nerve whereas combined therapy of RT and SM produced higher significant protection compared to individual. Similarly, combined therapy showed more significant amelioration in decreased levels of SOD, CAT, GST, GS and GPx activities in sciatic nerve of diabetic rats. Present results concluded that the combined therapy of phenolic compounds such as RT and SM had higher protective effects than their individual supplementations against DM.

Interventional Radiology and the Care of the Oncology Patient
Siobhan B. O'Neill,Owen J. O'Connor,Max F. Ryan,Michael M. Maher
Radiology Research and Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/160867
Abstract: Interventional Radiology (IR) is occupying an increasingly prominent role in the care of patients with cancer, with involvement from initial diagnosis, right through to minimally invasive treatment of the malignancy and its complications. Adequate diagnostic samples can be obtained under image guidance by percutaneous biopsy and needle aspiration in an accurate and minimally invasive manner. IR techniques may be used to place central venous access devices with well-established safety and efficacy. Therapeutic applications of IR in the oncology patient include local tumour treatments such as transarterial chemo-embolisation and radiofrequency ablation, as well as management of complications of malignancy such as pain, organ obstruction, and venous thrombosis. 1. Introduction Management of malignancy is now in the domain of the multi-disciplinary team and Interventional Radiology (IR) is occupying a prominent role in this environment [1, 2]. IR input begins with establishing the initial diagnosis of cancer, and involvement now extends to minimally invasive treatment of malignancy, often in combination with other modalities. IR has also assumed an important place in the management of the complications of malignancy, which may result from malignancy itself or secondary to treatment. This paper provides an updated overview of the role of IR in the management of the oncology patient. 2. Interventional Radiology in the Diagnosis of Cancer Appropriate treatment of malignancy is dependent on a timely definitive diagnosis and on accurate staging of disease. While non-invasive imaging techniques have improved assessment and staging for cancer, histologic confirmation remains the gold standard for definitive diagnosis of many tumours. Biopsies to establish histological diagnosis are increasingly performed using minimally invasive techniques by interventional radiologists [3]. The direct visualisation enabled by image guidance during biopsy permits safe passage of a needle into an organ or mass, improving efficacy and minimising trauma to surrounding structures (Figure 1). These minimally invasive techniques are applicable to a wide range of biopsy sites and, in most organ systems, have been demonstrated to be highly accurate with a low complication rate [3]. In biopsy planning, modern cross-sectional imaging techniques help define lesion location, accessibility, and suitability for biopsy and aid in ensuring the correct lesion is sampled in the context of multiple lesions. In selected cases where lesions are present in more than one organ, percutaneous biopsy may
Endoscopic Evaluation and Management of Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients with Ventricular Assist Devices
Marty M. Meyer,Scott D. Young,Benjamin Sun,Maher Azzouz,Michael S. Firstenberg
Gastroenterology Research and Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/630483
Abstract: The optimal diagnostic approach and yield for gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in patients with ventricular assist devices (VAD) are unknown. We explored the etiology of bleeding and yield of upper and lower endoscopy, balloon-assisted enteroscopy, and video capsule endoscopy in the evaluation of GIB in patients with VADs. Methods. All VAD patients with overt gastrointestinal bleeding and drop in hematocrit from April 1, 2000 to July 31, 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. The endoscopic evaluation of each episode was recorded. Overall yield of EGD, colonoscopy, balloon-assisted, and video capsule endoscopy were evaluated. Results. Thirty-six bleeding episodes occurred involving 20 patients. The site of GIB was identified in 32/36 episodes (88.9%), and the etiology of bleeding was determined in 30/36 cases (83.3%). Five VAD patients underwent VCE. The VCE exams demonstrated a high yield with 80% of exams identifying the etiology of GIB. Endoscopic intervention was successful in 8/9 attempts. No adverse events were recorded. Two patients required surgical intervention for GIB. Conclusion. Upper, lower, video capsule, and balloon-assisted enteroscopies are safe and demonstrate a high yield in the investigation of gastrointestinal bleeding in VAD patients. Medical centers caring for VAD patients should employ a standardized protocol to optimize endoscopic evaluation and intervention.
Advice or exercise for chronic whiplash disorders? Design of a randomized controlled trial
Mark J Stewart, Christopher G Maher, Kathryn M Refshauge, Rob D Herbert, Nikolai Bogduk, Michael Nicholas
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-4-18
Abstract: This paper presents the rationale and design of a randomised controlled trial examining the effects of advice and individualized sub-maximal exercise programs in the treatment of whiplash associated disorders.This paper highlights the design, methods and operational aspects of a significant clinical trial in the area of whiplash and chronic pain.Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD or "whiplash") is a common condition incurring considerable expense in social and economic terms. In Australia, the one year incidence of whiplash is 106 per 100,000 [1]. As of June 1998, whiplash was involved in 49,344 compulsory third party claims in New South Wales (NSW) since 1995. The incurred cost of these claims was $1466.3 M AUD [2]. Payments for loss of earnings for individuals who are temporarily or permanently unable to return to usual work activities are double the medical treatment costs and account for 20% of claim costs [2].Prognosis for whiplash is generally thought to be favourable. However, a recent systematic review by Cote et al (2001) found that prognosis may vary according to the population sampled and the compensation system of the geographical area studied [3]. A large inception cohort study in Quebec showed that 22% of whiplash claimants returned to their usual activities within 1 week, 53% by one month, 70% by 3 months and 97% by one year post-accident [4]. Importantly, a proportion of cases (30% in Quebec) do not return to usual activities by 3 months. These cases account for the majority of whiplash costs [5]. Therefore, treatments that effect an early return of subjects to their usual activities, especially for those cases that fail to recover by 3 months, ie chronic whiplash, have the potential to significantly reduce social and economic costs.In a systematic review conducted in 2000, we located 86 randomised controlled trials evaluating therapy for neck pain. Only 15 of the 86 trials identified directly looked at whiplash. Of the 15 whiplash trials, only four s
A Model-Theoretic Semantics for Defeasible Logic
Michael J. Maher
Computer Science , 2002,
Abstract: Defeasible logic is an efficient logic for defeasible reasoning. It is defined through a proof theory and, until now, has had no model theory. In this paper a model-theoretic semantics is given for defeasible logic. The logic is sound and complete with respect to the semantics. We also briefly outline how this approach extends to a wide range of defeasible logics.
Propositional Defeasible Logic has Linear Complexity
Michael J. Maher
Computer Science , 2004,
Abstract: Defeasible logic is a rule-based nonmonotonic logic, with both strict and defeasible rules, and a priority relation on rules. We show that inference in the propositional form of the logic can be performed in linear time. This contrasts markedly with most other propositional nonmonotonic logics, in which inference is intractable.
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