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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 44795 matches for " Michael Kraeussling "
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Highly Asynchronous and Asymmetric Cleavage Divisions Accompany Early Transcriptional Activity in Pre-Blastula Medaka Embryos
Michael Kraeussling,Toni Ulrich Wagner,Manfred Schartl
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021741
Abstract: In the initial phase of development of fish embryos, a prominent and critical event is the midblastula transition (MBT). Before MBT cell cycle is rapid, highly synchronous and zygotic gene transcription is turned off. Only during MBT the cell cycle desynchronizes and transcription is activated. Multiple mechanisms, primarily the nucleocytoplasmic ratio, are supposed to control MBT activation. Unexpectedly, we find in the small teleost fish medaka (Oryzias latipes) that at very early stages, well before midblastula, cell division becomes asynchronous and cell volumes diverge. Furthermore, zygotic transcription is extensively activated already after the 64-cell stage. Thus, at least in medaka, the transition from maternal to zygotic transcription is uncoupled from the midblastula stage and not solely controlled by the nucleocytoplasmic ratio.
Transcriptional Rewiring of the Sex Determining dmrt1 Gene Duplicate by Transposable Elements
Amaury Herpin equal contributor ,Ingo Braasch equal contributor,Michael Kraeussling,Cornelia Schmidt,Eva C. Thoma,Shuhei Nakamura,Minoru Tanaka,Manfred Schartl
PLOS Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000844
Abstract: Control and coordination of eukaryotic gene expression rely on transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory networks. Evolutionary innovations and adaptations often require rapid changes of such networks. It has long been hypothesized that transposable elements (TE) might contribute to the rewiring of regulatory interactions. More recently it emerged that TEs might bring in ready-to-use transcription factor binding sites to create alterations to the promoters by which they were captured. A process where the gene regulatory architecture is of remarkable plasticity is sex determination. While the more downstream components of the sex determination cascades are evolutionary conserved, the master regulators can switch between groups of organisms even on the interspecies level or between populations. In the medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) a duplicated copy of dmrt1, designated dmrt1bY or DMY, on the Y chromosome was shown to be the master regulator of male development, similar to Sry in mammals. We found that the dmrt1bY gene has acquired a new feedback downregulation of its expression. Additionally, the autosomal dmrt1a gene is also able to regulate transcription of its duplicated paralog by binding to a unique target Dmrt1 site nested within the dmrt1bY proximal promoter region. We could trace back this novel regulatory element to a highly conserved sequence within a new type of TE that inserted into the upstream region of dmrt1bY shortly after the duplication event. Our data provide functional evidence for a role of TEs in transcriptional network rewiring for sub- and/or neo-functionalization of duplicated genes. In the particular case of dmrt1bY, this contributed to create new hierarchies of sex-determining genes.
Discussion of Exemplary Metrics for Multi-Robot Systems for Formation Navigation
Frank E. Schneider,Dennis Wildermuth,and Andreas Kraeussling
International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems , 2008,
Abstract: This work addresses the problem of metrics for multi-robot systems. It is often desirable to compare different strategies or algorithms for similar problems, e.g. mapping or localization. Since these are often real time applications, classical criterions like time or space complexity are not very helpful. Several other metrics have been suggested. In this paperformation navigation is used as an example application. Possible metrics are presented and discussed, and two of them are used to exemplarily evaluate the results of several formation experiments. Problems and drawbacks of these metrics are discussed and preconditions for a general metricfor the formation problem are adumbrated. Finally, first steps towards a generic and generally applicable metric are presented by means of simulation experiments.
Does Child Maltreatment Mediate Family Environment and Psychological Well-Being?  [PDF]
Michael Galea
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2010.12019
Abstract: This study tried to establish if childhood maltreatment mediates the established relationship between family environ-ment and psychological well-being, in a sample of Maltese university students (N = 312). However, our analysis sug-gested partial mediation only. Moreover, results indicated that abusive families are less loving, socially integrated, organized, and more conflicted. Family environment contributed positively, albeit limited, to cognitive well-being after controlling for child abuse history. In particular, cohesion, do add unique variance to subjective well-being, after controlling for child abuse. This study replicates classic research on the important role that family environment plays in children’s holistic development.
Blended Change Management: Concept and Empirical Investigation of Blending Patterns  [PDF]
Michael REISS
iBusiness (IB) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2009.12008
Abstract: In coping with the challenges of revolutionary or evolutionary change processes, change managers do not rely on single tools but on toolboxes containing several domains of tools. The impact of toolboxes on change performance depends both on the complementary inter-domain mix and the intra-domain blending of tools. The patterns of blending are investigated both conceptually and empirically with respect to scope, diversity and coupling of tools. Survey results indicate that blending practices are predominantly determined by rational tool evaluation and by task context.
Single Wire Electrical System  [PDF]
Michael Bank
Engineering (ENG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.411092
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to remind of the past and present problems of creating single wire electrical systems. This article presents a new one wire electrical transmission system named B-Line which uses one line only and does not use ground as a second line. The proposed method is to work on all frequencies and on all communication systems including DC systems. It also proposes to work on the concept of the single-pole signal source and single-pole signal load. It illustrates the possibility of cutting the cost of electrical lines and several other advantages in the fields of high frequency communication lines and antennas.
Relationship of nine constants  [PDF]
Michael Snyder
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.59117

Through the process of trial and error, four unitless equations made up of nine constants have been found with exact answers. The related constants are the Speed of Light [1], the Planck constant [2], Wien’s displacement constant [3], Avogadro’s number [4], the universal Gravity constant [5], the Ampere constant [6], the Faraday constant [7], the Gas constant [8] and Apery’s constant [9].

The Counterfeit Electronics Problem  [PDF]
Michael Pecht
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2013.17003

Counterfeit electronics have been reported in a wide range of products, including computers, telecommunications equipment, automobiles, avionics and military systems. Counterfeit electronic products include everything from very inexpensive capacitors and resistors to costly microprocessors to servers. This paper describes the counterfeit electronic products problem, and discusses the implication of counterfeit electronics on the electronic supply chain. We then present counterfeit detection and prevention techniques for electronics.

Irrationality Re-Examined: A Few Comments on the Conjunction Fallacy  [PDF]
Michael Aristidou
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.32050
Abstract: In this paper, I argue that the probability model used to infer irrationality for the subjects in the famous Linda problem is not appropriate, and I suggest different approaches based on fuzzy reasoning models. My line of argument is two-fold: 1) If the term “probability” is understood properly (mathematically), then the experimenters used the wrong model. 2) If the term “probability” is understood casually (non- mathematically), then alternative models perhaps should be used to justify the subjects’ responses. The objective is to experiment with new ways of looking at irrationality and raise a discussion regarding the relation between irrationality, reasoning errors and logical models that are used as frameworks to study irrationality.
User-Friendly: Anthropomorphic Devices and Mechanical Behaviour in Japan  [PDF]
Michael Shea
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2014.41006

Anthropomorphic avatars and disembodied voices have become part of everyday life in Japan. From the animated characters that bow after you complete a transaction at an automated teller machine to the phenomenal proliferation of consumer goods bearing cute faces. There is a discernable growing tendency to anthropomorphize machines. These anthropomorphic devices stand in contrast with the somewhat automated nature of many human interactions. Particularly in the behavior required of employees that work in customer service roles, which calls to mind the demand that workers must often behave as machines from which the notion of a robot originates. Based on research conducted at the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation in Tokyo, examples not only of how friendliness can be mechanically produced but also of new devices being imbued with functions to demonstrate their friendliness will be critically examined.

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