Abstract:
Both direct and indirect weak nonresonant interactions are shown to produce entanglement between two initially disentangled systems prepared as a tensor product of thermal states, provided the initial temperature is sufficiently low. Entanglement is determined by the Peres-Horodeckii criterion, which establishes that a composite state is entangled if its partial transpose is not positive. If the initial temperature of the thermal states is higher than an upper critical value $T_{uc}$ the minimal eigenvalue of the partially transposed density matrix of the composite state remains positive in the course of the evolution. If the initial temperature of the thermal states is lower than a lower critical value $T_{lc}\leq T_{uc}$ the minimal eigenvalue of the partially transposed density matrix of the composite state becomes negative which means that entanglement develops. We calculate the lower bound $T_{lb}$ for $T_{lc}$ and show that the negativity of the composite state is negligibly small in the interval $T_{lb}

Abstract:
Interacting quantum systems evolving from an uncorrelated composite initial state generically develop quantum correlations -- entanglement. As a consequence, a local description of interacting quantum system is impossible as a rule. A unitarily evolving (isolated) quantum system generically develops extensive entanglement: the magnitude of the generated entanglement will increase without bounds with the effective Hilbert space dimension of the system. It is conceivable, that coupling of the interacting subsystems to local dephasing environments will restrict the generation of entanglement to such extent, that the evolving composite system may be considered as approximately disentangled. This conjecture is addressed in the context of some common models of a bipartite system with linear and nonlinear interactions and local coupling to dephasing environments. Analytical and numerical results obtained imply that the conjecture is generally false. Open dynamics of the quantum correlations is compared to the corresponding evolution of the classical correlations and a qualitative difference is found.

Abstract:
A closed quantum system is defined as completely controllable if an arbitrary unitary transformation can be executed using the available controls. In practice, control fields are a source of unavoidable noise. Can one design control fields such that the effect of noise is negligible on the time-scale of the transformation? Complete controllability in practice requires that the effect of noise can be suppressed for an arbitrary transformation. The present study considers a paradigm of control, where the Lie-algebraic structure of the control Hamiltonian is fixed, while the size of the system increases, determined by the dimension of the Hilbert space representation of the algebra. We show that for large quantum systems, generic noise in the controls dominates for a typical class of target transformations i.e., complete controllability is destroyed by the noise.

Abstract:
Excitonic transport in static disordered one dimensional systems is studied in the presence of thermal fluctuations that are described by the Haken-Strobl-Reineker model. For short times, non-diffusive behavior is observed that can be characterized as the free-particle dynamics in the Anderson localized system. Over longer time scales, the environment-induced dephasing is sufficient to overcome the Anderson localization caused by the disorder and allow for transport to occur which is always seen to be diffusive. In the limiting regimes of weak and strong dephasing quantum master equations are developed, and their respective scaling relations imply the existence of a maximum in the diffusion constant as a function of the dephasing rate that is confirmed numerically. In the weak dephasing regime, it is demonstrated that the diffusion constant is proportional to the square of the localization length which leads to a significant enhancement of the transport rate over the classical prediction. Finally, the influence of noise and disorder on the absorption spectrum is presented and its relationship to the transport properties is discussed.

Abstract:
Extinction of a long-lived isolated stochastic population can be described as an exponentially slow decay of quasi-stationary probability distribution of the population size. We address extinction of a population in a two-population system in the case when the population turnover -- renewal and removal -- is much slower than all other processes. In this case there is a time scale separation in the system which enables one to introduce a short-time quasi-stationary extinction rate W_1 and a long-time quasi-stationary extinction rate W_2, and develop a time-dependent theory of the transition between the two rates. It is shown that W_1 and W_2 coincide with the extinction rates when the population turnover is absent, and present but very slow, respectively. The exponentially large disparity between the two rates reflects fragility of the extinction rate in the population dynamics without turnover.

Abstract:
We consider population dynamics on a network of patches, each of which has a the same local dynamics, with different population scales (carrying capacities). It is reasonable to assume that if the patches are coupled by very fast migration the whole system will look like an individual patch with a large effective carrying capacity. This is called a "well-mixed" system. We show that, in general, it is not true that the well-mixed system has the same dynamics as each local patch. Different global dynamics can emerge from coupling, and usually must be figured out for each individual case. We give a general condition which must be satisfied for well-mixed systems to have the same dynamics as the constituent patches.

Abstract:
Many populations in nature are fragmented: they consist of local populations occupying separate patches. A local population is prone to extinction due to the shot noise of birth and death processes. A migrating population from another patch can dramatically delay the extinction. What is the optimal migration rate that minimizes the extinction risk of the whole population? Here we answer this question for a connected network of model habitat patches with different carrying capacities.

Abstract:
We develop a new perturbation method for studying quasi-neutral competition in a broad class of stochastic competition models, and apply it to the analysis of fixation of competing strains in two epidemic models. The first model is a two-strain generalization of the stochastic Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) model. Here we extend previous results due to Parsons and Quince (2007), Parsons et al (2008) and Lin, Kim and Doering (2012). The second model, a two-strain generalization of the stochastic Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model with population turnover, has not been studied previously. In each of the two models, when the basic reproduction numbers of the two strains are identical, a system with an infinite population size approaches a point on the deterministic coexistence line (CL): a straight line of fixed points in the phase space of sub-population sizes. Shot noise drives one of the strain populations to fixation, and the other to extinction, on a time scale proportional to the total population size. Our perturbation method explicitly tracks the dynamics of the probability distribution of the sub-populations in the vicinity of the CL. We argue that, whereas the slow strain has a competitive advantage for mathematically "typical" initial conditions, it is the fast strain that is more likely to win in the important situation when a few infectives of both strains are introduced into a susceptible population.

Abstract:
Weak measurement of a subset of noncommuting observables of a quantum system can be modeled by the open-system evolution, governed by the master equation in the Lindblad form. The open-system density operator can be represented as statistical mixture over non unitarily evolving pure states, driven by the stochastic Nonlinear Schrodinger equation (sNLSE). The globally stable solution of the sNLSE is obtained in the case where the measured subset of observables comprises the spectrum-generating algebra of the system. This solution is a generalized coherent state (GCS), associated with the algebra. The result is based on proving that GCS minimize the trace-norm of the covariance matrix, associated with the spectrum-generating algebra.

Abstract:
An algorithm for simulation of quantum many-body dynamics having su(2) spectrum-generating algebra is developed. The algorithm is based on the idea of dynamical coarse-graining. The original unitary dynamics of the target observables, the elements of the spectrum-generating algebra, is simulated by a surrogate open-system dynamics, which can be interpreted as weak measurement of the target observables, performed on the evolving system. The open-system state can be represented by a mixture of pure states, localized in the phase-space. The localization reduces the scaling of the computational resources with the Hilbert space dimension n by factor n^{3/2}/ln n compared to conventional sparse-matrix methods. The guidelines for the choice of parameters for the simulation are presented and the scaling of the computational resources with the Hilbert space dimension of the system is estimated. The algorithm is applied to the simulation of the dynamics of systems of 2*10^4 and 2*10^6 cold atoms in the double-well trap, described by the two-sites Bose-Hubbard model.