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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 44843 matches for " Michael Kawooya "
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Editor\'s Choice: Quality and hygiene in health service provision, water and food
Michael Kawooya
African Health Sciences , 2005,
Editorial: African Health Sciences in Medline and “on-line full text publishing”
Michael Kawooya
African Health Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: No abstract
Abdominal Sonographic Findings in Severely Immunosuppressed Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients Treated for Tuberculosis  [PDF]
Harriet Nalubega Kisembo, Michael Grace Kawooya, Chris Kenyon, William Worodria, Robert Colebunders
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2014.22008
Abstract: Objective: We describe the abdominal sonographic findings among patients with HIV-tuberculosis (TB) co-infection with advanced immune suppression before initiation of ART and relate these findings to the patients’ abdominal symptoms and CD4 T-cell count. Methods: Consecutive HIV-TB co-infected patients, qualifying for ART, were prospectively enrolled in a cohort study at the Mulago National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme clinic in Kampala, Uganda. An abdominal ultrasound was performed at enrolment. Results: A total of 209 HIV-TB co-infected patients (76% with pulmonary, 19% with extrapulmonary TB and 5% with extrapulmonary and pulmonary TB) underwent an abdominal ultrasound scan. Only 49 patients (23.4%) had a normal abdominal ultrasound. The following sonographic abnormalities were found: multiple lymphadenopathy (38%), splenomegaly (18%), renal abnormalities (14%), gastro-intestinal tract abnormalities (thickened bowel loops, appendicitis) (13%), splenic abscesses (13%) and ascites (6%). The commonest groups of enlarged lymph nodes were in the porta-hepatis (19%) and peripancreatic (17%) area and 80% of the enlarged lymph nodes were hypoechoic. Conclusion: Most patients with advanced immune suppression and HIV-TB co-infection have sonographic evidence of generalized TB with abdominal involvement, therefore Ultrasound may assist in the early diagnosis of disseminated TB.
Current knowledge, attitudes and practices of women on breast cancer and mammography at Mulago hospital
Kiguli-Malwadde Elsie,Mubuuke A. Gonzaga,Businge Francis,Kawooya G. Michael
Pan African Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the third commonest cancer in Ugandan women. Women present late for breast cancer management which leads to high mortality rates. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Ugandan women concerning breast cancer and mammography.METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study where 100 women reporting to the Radiology department were interviewed. We used consecutive sampling. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect opinions of the participants. For data analysis, answers were described as knowledge, attitude, practice and they were correlated with control variables through the chi-square. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were also used. RESULTS: Most of the women (71%) had no idea about mammography. More than 50% did not know about risk factors for breast cancer. The attitude towards mammography was generally negative. Regarding seeking for mammography; level of literacy, occupation and marital status were significant on bivariate analysis, however only level of literacy and employment remained the significant independent variables on logistic regression analysis. The main barrier to mammography was mainly lack of information. CONCLUSION: Women in this study had inadequate knowledge and inappropriate practice related to mammography as a procedure for breast cancer investigation.
Clinical and Radiographic Factors Do Not Accurately Diagnose Smear-Negative Tuberculosis in HIV-infected Inpatients in Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study
J. Lucian Davis,William Worodria,Harriet Kisembo,John Z. Metcalfe,Adithya Cattamanchi,Michael Kawooya,Rachel Kyeyune,Saskia den Boon,Krista Powell,Richard Okello,Samuel Yoo,Laurence Huang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009859
Abstract: Although World Health Organization guidelines recommend clinical judgment and chest radiography for diagnosing tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults with unexplained cough and negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli, the diagnostic performance of this approach is unknown. Therefore, we sought to assess the accuracy of symptoms, physical signs, and radiographic findings for diagnosing tuberculosis in this population in a low-income country with a high incidence of tuberculosis.
A Low-Cost Ultrasound Program Leads to Increased Antenatal Clinic Visits and Attended Deliveries at a Health Care Clinic in Rural Uganda
Andrew B. Ross, Kristen K. DeStigter, Matthew Rielly, Sonia Souza, Gabriel Eli Morey, Melissa Nelson, Eric Z. Silfen, Brian Garra, Alphonsus Matovu, Michael Grace Kawooya
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078450
Abstract: Background In June of 2010, an antenatal ultrasound program to perform basic screening for high-risk pregnancies was introduced at a community health care center in rural Uganda. Whether the addition of ultrasound scanning to antenatal visits at the health center would encourage or discourage potential patients was unknown. Our study sought to evaluate trends in the numbers of antenatal visits and deliveries at the clinic, pre- and post-introduction of antenatal ultrasound to determine what effect the presence of ultrasound at the clinic had on these metrics. Methods and Findings Records at Nawanyago clinic were reviewed to obtain the number of antenatal visits and deliveries for the 42 months preceding the introduction of ultrasound and the 23 months following. The monthly mean deliveries and antenatal visits by category (first visit through fourth return visit) were compared pre- and post- ultrasound using a Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA. Following the introduction of ultrasound, significant increases were seen in the number of mean monthly deliveries and antenatal visits. The mean number of monthly deliveries at the clinic increased by 17.0 (13.3–20.6, 95% CI) from a pre-ultrasound average of 28.4 to a post-ultrasound monthly average of 45.4. The number of deliveries at a comparison clinic remained flat over this same time period. The monthly mean number of antenatal visits increased by 97.4 (83.3–111.5, 95% CI) from a baseline monthly average of 133.5 to a post-ultrasound monthly mean of 231.0, with increases seen in all categories of antenatal visits. Conclusions The availability of a low-cost antenatal ultrasound program may assist progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 by encouraging women in a rural environment to come to a health care facility for skilled antenatal care and delivery assistance instead of utilizing more traditional methods.
Vitellogenesis in Manduca sexta
Kawooya, John K.;Osir, Ellie O.;Law, John H.;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1987, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761987000700017
Abstract: eggs of manduca sexta contain four well-characterized protein derived from hemolymph: vitellogenin and lipophorin (very high density lipoproteins); microvitellogenin, a 26,000 dalton female-specific protein lacking lipid and carbohydrate, and insecticyanin, a blue biliprotein composed of four identical 22,000 dalton subunits. in addition, eggs contain a large store of triacyl glycerols. it has been shown that vitellogenin and lipophorin are actively taken up by follicles in vitro. the lipid components of these two proteins together account for only 10% of egg lipid. the follicle actively sequesters intact high density lipophorin, which, inside the oocyte, is stripped of much of its neutral lipid and two molecules of apolipophorin iii. on the other hand, low density lipophorin donates diacylglycerol to the oocyte without its protein components being sequestered. most of the egg lipid is transported from the fat body by a shuttle system involving low density lipophorin.
Phytochemical Screening, Toxicity, Analgesic and Anti-Pyretic Studies of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Plectranthus barbatus [Andrews. Engl.] in Rats  [PDF]
Joseph O. C. Ezeonwumelu, Gloria N. Kawooya, Aiyabalu G. Okoruwa, Samuel Sunday Dare, Jennifer C. Ebosie, Ambrose A. Akunne, Julius Kihdze Tanayen, Bede E. Udechukwu
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2019.104018
Plectranthus barbatus is a popular tropical perennial plant with a wide variety of traditional medicinal uses in tropical Africa, Hindu, Ayurvedic and traditional medicines of Brazil and China. The whole plant and the leaves have many folkloric uses for diverse ailments including pain, heart disease, convulsions, coughs and colds, asthma, bronchitis and tonsillitis among others. This study investigated the phytochemical components, acute toxicity, analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of the aqueous leaf extract of Plectranthus barbatus locally known as Ekizeera in Uganda. The plant leaves were authenticated, collected and decoction was done according to local method. Phytochemical screening was conducted using methods outlined by Trease and Evans and Harborne to determine the components of the extract. Acute toxicity tests were conducted in rats using modified Lorke’s method to determine the safety of the plant material. Analgesic studies were carried out using both a mechanical method (thermally induced pain by tail-flick) and a chemical method (formalin induced pain) in rats by administering extracts orally at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight. The method of Al-Ghamdi, modified for local laboratory setting by Adzu was adopted and used for anti-pyretic test. Decoction yielded 9.9% extract. Phytochemical screening confirmed presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, terpenoids and essential oils. Acute toxicity tests revealed no deaths in rats after oral treatment with up to 10,000 mg/kg of extract. Tail-flick test was
Application of Case Report-Writing in the Training of Radiology Post Graduate Students at Makerere University.
E Kiguli-Malwadde, MG Kawooya, RO Omara, S Bugeza, R Byanyima, Z Muyinda, H Kisembo
East and Central African Journal of Surgery , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Postgraduate medical education is much sought after and has become an issue of global significance, appeal and dimensions. The Radiology postgraduate training at Makerere University has been in existence since 1980. As part of their training students are required to write up 30 cases with the help of their lecturers. Methods: We set out to evaluate the role of case report writing in the training of Radiology postgraduate students. A document analysis of 22 case report sets was done. Questionnaires with closed and open ended questions were administered to the 10 Radiologists and 6 students to get their opinions and ideas on the process and how it could be improved. The quantitative data was analyzed by a statistician and focused on the closed-ended statements. The qualitative data was analyzed by the authors with the help of a qualitative expert. Results: The radiologists and students agreed that case report writing helped students acquire a wide range of competences. They also agreed that it is a reliable and valid method of assessment and has a positive impact on learning. The respondents identified problems that were encountered in the process. They have problems identifying cases that are fully worked up and also their work was made challenging because of poor technology, limited access to references and high cost of producing the cases. The cases exposed the students to a wide range of cases and investigations in radiology and helped them integrate Clinical Medicine and Radiology. Conclusion: Case report writing is a good way of training and assessing post graduate students. It is motivational and also helps them acquire a wide range of competences specifically ability to write scientific articles.
Does Child Maltreatment Mediate Family Environment and Psychological Well-Being?  [PDF]
Michael Galea
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2010.12019
Abstract: This study tried to establish if childhood maltreatment mediates the established relationship between family environ-ment and psychological well-being, in a sample of Maltese university students (N = 312). However, our analysis sug-gested partial mediation only. Moreover, results indicated that abusive families are less loving, socially integrated, organized, and more conflicted. Family environment contributed positively, albeit limited, to cognitive well-being after controlling for child abuse history. In particular, cohesion, do add unique variance to subjective well-being, after controlling for child abuse. This study replicates classic research on the important role that family environment plays in children’s holistic development.
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