Abstract:
The correlation distance quantifies the statistical independence of two classical or quantum systems, via the distance from their joint state to the product of the marginal states. Tight lower bounds are given for the mutual information between pairs of two-valued classical variables and quantum qubits, in terms of the corresponding classical and quantum correlation distances. These bounds are stronger than the Pinsker inequality (and refinements thereof) for relative entropy. The classical lower bound may be used to quantify properties of statistical models that violate Bell inequalities. Partially entangled qubits can have lower mutual information than can any two-valued classical variables having the same correlation distance. The qubit correlation distance also provides a direct entanglement criterion, related to the spin covariance matrix. Connections of results with classically-correlated quantum states are briefly discussed.

Abstract:
A recent proposal for mixed dynamics of classical and quantum ensembles is shown, in contrast to other proposals, to satisfy the minimal algebraic requirements proposed by Salcedo for any consistent formulation of such dynamics. Generalised Ehrenfest relations for the expectation values of classical and quantum observables are also obtained. It is further shown that additional desirable requirements, related to separability, may be satisfied under the assumption that only the configuration of the classical component is directly accessible to measurement, eg, via a classical pointer. Although the mixed dynamics is formulated in terms of ensembles on configuration space, thermodynamic mixtures of such ensembles may be defined which are equivalent to canonical phase space ensembles on the classical sector. Hence, the formulation appears to be both consistent and physically complete.

Abstract:
Generalised observables (POM observables) are necessary for representing all possible measurements on a quantum system. Useful algebraic operations such as addition and multiplication are defined for these observables, recovering many advantages of the more restrictive Hermitian operator formalism. Examples include new uncertainty relations and metrics, and optical phase applications.

Abstract:
It is shown that a canonical time observable may be defined for any quantum system having a discrete set of energy eigenvalues, thus significantly generalising the known case of time observables for periodic quantum systems (such as the harmonic oscillator). The general case requires the introduction of almost-periodic probability operator measures (POMs), which allow the expectation value of any almost-periodic function to be calculated. An entropic uncertainty relation for energy and time is obtained which generalises the known uncertainty relation for periodic quantum systems. While non-periodic quantum systems with discrete energy spectra, such as hydrogen atoms, typically make poor clocks that yield no more than 1 bit of time information, the anisotropic oscillator provides an interesting exception. More generally, a canonically conjugate observable may be defined for any Hermitian operator having a discrete spectrum.

Abstract:
In a recent paper [1] (also at http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/0803.3721), I made several critical remarks on a 'Hermitian time operator' proposed by Galapon [2] (also at http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0111061). Galapon has correctly pointed out that remarks pertaining to 'denseness' of the commutator domain are wrong [3]. However, the other remarks still apply, and it is further noted that a given quantum system can be a member of this domain only at a set of times of total measure zero.

Abstract:
It is shown that the `arrow of time' operator, M_F, recently suggested by Strauss et al., in arXiv:0802.2448v1 [quant-ph], is simply related to the sign of the canonical `time' observable, T (apparently first introduced by Holevo). In particular, the monotonic decrease of < M_F > corresponds to the fact that < sgn T > increases monotonically with time. This relationship also provides a physical interpretation of the property M_F < 1. Some further properties and possible generalisations are pointed out, including to almost-periodic systems.

Abstract:
The principle of complementarity is quantified in two ways: by a universal uncertainty relation valid for arbitrary joint estimates of any two observables from a given measurement setup, and by a general uncertainty relation valid for the_optimal_ estimates of the same two observables when the state of the system prior to measurement is known. A formula is given for the optimal estimate of any given observable, based on arbitrary measurement data and prior information about the state of the system, which generalises and provides a more robust interpretation of previous formulas for ``local expectations'' and ``weak values'' of quantum observables. As an example, the canonical joint measurement of position X and momentum P corresponds to measuring the commuting operators X_J=X+X', P_J=P-P', where the primed variables refer to an auxilary system in a minimum-uncertainty state. It is well known that Delta X_J Delta P_J >= hbar. Here it is shown that given the_same_ physical experimental setup, and knowledge of the system density operator prior to measurement, one can make improved joint estimates X_est and P_est of X and P. These improved estimates are not only statistically closer to X and P: they satisfy Delta X_est Delta P_est >= hbar/4, where equality can be achieved in certain cases. Thus one can do up to four times better than the standard lower bound (where the latter corresponds to the limit of_no_ prior information). Other applications include the heterodyne detection of orthogonal quadratures of a single-mode optical field, and joint measurements based on Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations.

Abstract:
The Heisenberg inequality \Delta X \Delta P \geq \hbar/2 can be replaced by an exact equality, for suitably chosen measures of position and momentum uncertainty, which is valid for all wavefunctions. The significance of this "exact" uncertainty relation is discussed, and results are generalised to angular momentum and phase, photon number and phase, time and frequency, and to states described by density operators. Connections to optimal estimation of an observable from the measurement of a second observable, Wigner functions, energy bounds, and entanglement are also given.

Abstract:
The Fisher information of a quantum observable is shown to be proportional to both (i) the difference of a quantum and a classical variance, thus providing a measure of nonclassicality; and (ii) the rate of entropy increase under Gaussian diffusion, thus providing a measure of robustness. The joint nonclassicality of position and momentum observables is shown to be complementary to their joint robustness in an exact sense.

Abstract:
The Heisenberg inequality \Delta X \Delta P \geq \hbar/2 can be replaced by an exact equality, for suitably chosen measures of position and momentum uncertainty, which is valid for all wavefunctions. The statistics of complementary observables are thus connected by an ``exact'' uncertainty relation.