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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 332619 matches for " Michael J. Shealy "
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Utility of Intraoperative Frozen Sections during Thyroid Surgery
Russel Kahmke,Walter T. Lee,Liana Puscas,Richard L. Scher,Michael J. Shealy,Warner M. Burch,Ramon M. Esclamado
International Journal of Otolaryngology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/496138
Abstract: Objective. To describe the usefulness of intraoperative frozen section in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid nodules where fine needle aspirate biopsies have evidence of follicular neoplasm. Study Design. Retrospective case series. Methods. All patients have a fine needle aspirate biopsy, an intraoperative frozen section, and final pathology performed on a thyroid nodule after initiation of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology in 2009 at a single tertiary referral center. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value are calculated in order to determine added benefit of frozen section to original fine needle aspirate data. Results. The sensitivity and specificity of the frozen section were 76.9% and 67.9%, respectively, while for the fine needle aspirate were 53.8% and 74.1%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values for the fine needle aspirates were 25% and 90.9%, respectively, while for the frozen sections were 27.8% and 94.8%, respectively. There were no changes in the operative course as a consequence of the frozen sections. Conclusion. Our data does not support the clinical usefulness of intraoperative frozen section when the fine needle aspirate yields a Bethesda Criteria diagnosis of follicular neoplasm, suspicious for follicular neoplasm, or suspicious for malignancy at our institution. 1. Introduction The incidence of thyroid cancer increased 2.4-fold from 3.6 to 8.7 per 100,000 Americans [1] over a thirty-year period ending in 2002. The annual incidence of palpable thyroid nodules in North America is 0.1% [2] and most of those under 1?cm cannot be detected by physical exam alone [3]. The introduction of high resolution ultrasound technology has increased our ability to diagnose thyroid nodules [4]. A patient of male gender, aged <20 years or >70 years, with a family history of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) or multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), rapid nodular growth, a firm or fixed nodule, a history of head and neck irradiation, a nodule that is >4?cm or is partially cystic, or a compressive sensation should raise increased suspicion for thyroid carcinoma [5]. In 2009, the Bethesda Criteria for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology were published to create a common language by which multidisciplinary teams could accurately discuss the diagnosis and implications of a fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy [6]. The six categories found within the Bethesda Criteria each implies a different malignancy risk (Table 1) and treatment approaches ranging from watchful waiting to
Cancer Chemopreventive Retinoids: Validation and Analysis of in Vivo and in Vitro Bioassay Results  [PDF]
John J. Wille, Jong Y. Park, Y. Fulmer Shealy
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2016.713098
Abstract: Several natural and synthetic retinoids (vitamin-A derived analogies) were examined for their potential anti-cancer activity in both in vivo animal models and a novel in vitro human keratinocyte clonal growth bioassay system. The natural retinoids included all-trans-retinoic (RA), 13-cis-retinoic acid, 4-oxoretinoic acid, and retinol. Among the synthetic retinoids tested were all trans N-(4-hydroxy(phenyl)retinamide, 3-substituted oxoretinoic acids, and 13 cis-N-ethylretinamide. The animal models employed were: 1) vitamin A-deficient hamster tracheal organ assay (HTOC); 2) the benzo(α)pyrene-induced squamous metaplasia in a hamster tracheal organ system (BP-HTOC); 3) the mouse skin tumor promoter (TPA)-induced ornithine decarboxylase enzyme assay(ODC); 4) the mouse skin papilloma (MPA) assay; and 5) a novel retinoid bioassay in which retinoids display IC50 values to inhibit clonal growth of NHK. All-trans-RA, 4-oxoretinoic acid and retinol were consistently more active than any of the synthetic derivatives in all bioassays tested. A statistical model was developed and significant positive correlations were found between: 1) ED50 values in the HTOC system and reduction in TPA-induced ODC enzyme activity; 2) tumors per animal in the MPA bioassay and suppression of TPA-induced ODC activity; and 3) a positive correlation between suppression of tumors per animal in the MPA assay, and retinoid inhibition of keratinocyte clonal growth. Test retinoids, were tested for their capacity to inhibit the clonal growth of a squamous carcinoma cell line (SCC-25), which were found to be 2
Evaluation of an Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapeutic in a Mouse Model of Niemann-Pick C Liver Disease
Melanie Vincent,Naomi L. Sayre,Mark J. Graham,Rosanne M. Crooke,David J. Shealy,Laura Liscum
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012941
Abstract: Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. The majority of NPC patients die in their teen years due to progressive neurodegeneration; however, half of NPC patients also suffer from cholestasis, prolonged jaundice, and hepatosplenomegaly. We previously showed that a key mediator of NPC liver disease is tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, which is involved in both proinflammatory and apoptotic signaling cascades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that blocking TNF action with an anti-TNF monoclonal antibody (CNTO5048) will slow the progression of NPC liver disease.
Multiple structure alignment with msTALI
Paul Shealy, Homayoun Valafar
BMC Bioinformatics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-13-105
Abstract: msTALI exhibits competitive results on 824 families from the Homstrad and SABmark databases when compared to Matt and Mustang. We also demonstrate success at building a database of protein cores using 341 randomly selected CATH domains and highlight the contribution of msTALI compared to the CATH classifications. Finally, we present an example applying msTALI to the problem of detecting hinges in a protein undergoing rigid-body motion.msTALI is an effective algorithm for multiple structure alignment. In addition to its performance on standard comparison databases, it utilizes clear, informative features, allowing further customization for domain-specific applications. The C++ source code for msTALI is available for Linux on the web at http://ifestos.cse.sc.edu/mstali webcite.
Anti-TNF-α antibody allows healing of joint damage in polyarthritic transgenic mice
David J Shealy, Paul H Wooley, Eva Emmell, Amy Volk, Amy Rosenberg, George Treacy, Carrie L Wagner, Lois Mayton, Don E Griswold, Xiao-yu R Song
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/ar430
Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a significant, chronic disease that afflicts 1% of the general population in most countries [1]. Joint damage typically occurs before patients are diagnosed, and most of the joint destruction occurs within the first 2 years of diagnosis [2]. Therapeutic drugs such as sulfasalazine and methotrexate (MTX) only slow the progression of the disease, suggesting that these drugs fail to adequately quell the underlying pathophysiology of RA [3].Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is elevated in sera and synovial fluid of patients with RA, suggesting that it may play a role in the pathology of the disease [4]. Soluble TNF-α receptor or neutralizing antibodies against TNF-α have been shown to prevent collagen-induced arthritis in mice [5,6]. Furthermore, a human TNF-α (hTNF-α) transgenic mouse (Tg197) develops a chronic, progressive polyarthritis with histologic features in common with RA [7]. Weight loss and joint swelling in these mice are correlated with expression of hTNF-α mRNA in the joints [7] and hTNF-α concentrations in the serum [8,9]. Previously, Keffer et al.[7] showed that progression of disease in these mice could be prevented by treatment with anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody (mAb). In this study, we utilized the Tg197 mouse model to further assess whether anti-TNF-α treatment can ameliorate established disease in both young and aged mice.Heterozygous Tg197 transgenic mice, obtained from Dr George Kollias (Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Athens, Greece) [7], were identified by PCR analysis using primers to the 3'-modified hTNF-α gene. Two experimental groups of 25 mice were used. 'Young mice' were enrolled into the study when they developed clinical signs of arthritis at 7 or 8 weeks of age. A second group of mice was maintained disease-free with 10 mg/kg of anti-TNF-α mAb weekly starting at 4 weeks of age; when they reached 24 weeks of age, the treatment was stopped and these 'aged mice' were allowed to develop arthritis before they were
Population, Development and Deforestation in Songea District, Tanzania  [PDF]
Michael J. Haule
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.51004

Deforestation is a phenomenon that forms part of environmental degradation. The fact that deforestation is both a source and contributor to global warming, as it reduces the carbon sinks, cannot be contested [1]. A case study research was carried out in Songea Tanzania aimed at establishing whether there was differential participation of people of different demographic characteristics in those activities that lead into tree cover decline. The study revealed that people of different age group and, sex categories played different roles in activities that lead to deforestation such as felling trees for firewood and felling trees for establishing and/or for expanding farms. It was observed that age group and sex categories influenced one’s involvement or participation in deforestation thus contributing differently by both activity and degree of forest cover reduction. This literally means that people of different demographic characteristics of age and sex contributed differently to the ailing deforestation process. From this end, it is logical and implicit arguing that the identification of actors in deforestation-related activities confirms the disaggregated manner by which population acts on the environment. Development of blanket conservation packages that are not focused on age group and sex categories of members the population in question remains too general and in-effective. To be precise, the planning and implementation of effective conservation initiatives has to take into account demographic characteristics of the population in question. The observed reality is that the population engages with the environment not as a unit but in its disaggregated manner, i.e. based on its demographic sub-categories [2]. The theory behind a successful conservation initiative is based on unveiling the mechanism by which population acts when resulting to deforestation.

The Effect of NeuroGen® Nerve Support Supplement on Pillar Pain after Endoscopic Carpal Tunnel Release  [PDF]
Michael J. Fitzmaurice
Modern Plastic Surgery (MPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/mps.2014.41002

61 patients with clinically diagnosed and electromyographically confirmed carpal tunnel syndrome were enrolled in a prospective study to evaluate the effectiveness of a nerve supplement on pillar pain after carpal tunnel surgery. All of the patients underwent endoscopic carpal tunnel release. 15 of the patients also took the nerve support supplement NeuroGen? as part of their perioperative treatment. The supplement group demonstrated a significantly lower amount of pillar pain (VAS) at initial follow up compared to the control group (1.13 and 4.05 respectively). 46% (7/15) of the supplement group were completely free of pillar pain compared to only 9% (4/46) of the control group at the first follow up. 53% (8/15) of the NeuroGen? group did not require any pain medications compared to 35% (16/46) of the control group. The Nerve supplement NeuroGen? significantly reduces pain after carpal tunnel surgery.

Changes in Human Population Characteristics and Environmental Change in the West Matogoro Catchment Area of Songea, Tanzania  [PDF]
Michael J. Haule
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.512064
Abstract: The study was carried out in West Matogoro Catchment Area (WMCA) of Songea, Tanzania, to establish whether for the period between intercensal periods 1978-1988 and 1988-2002, and between 2002 and 2005 characteristics of human population of the area had changed in terms of size, age structure and sex composition. In case it did, then the study had to establish whether such changes may be used to explain the observed forest cover change that occurred in the area. Establishing whether the observed changes were proportionate was important in linking the relationship among factors at hand. The study partly tested the thesis by Liu and others which linked human population changes and their implications to the panda habitat [1]. The findings indicated existence of changes in human population characteristics for the period under review. Variations in terms of population size, age structure and sex composition were realized. While growth was measured by the total population and size of age group of the environmentally active population as identified by the study by Haule, sex composition was determined by sex ratios [2]. The environmentally active age group included males aged 20 to 44 and females aged 10 to 44, i.e. the key actors in felling trees for farm expansion and for firewood respectively. Geographic Information System (GIS) evidence indicated progressive forest cover deterioration. When compared, the changes in human population characteristics and those of the forest cover were noted to be un-proportional. Variations were in terms of increase in human population size and expansion of age group of the “actors” thus attributed to the augmenting deforestation. A positive relationship was demonstrated between population growth, expansion of age segment of the key actors and expanded deforestation. We reiterate that any sustainable measures to address the environmental issues should take into account changes in demographic characteristics of the in Situ population which forms the locus of the interface between population and environment. These factors signify the intensity and duration of the involved forces that characterize forest cover quality.
Nanofat and Platelet Rich Plasma to Enhance Recovery and Minimize Risk of Recurrence after Endoscopic Carpal Tunnel Release  [PDF]
Michael J. Fitzmaurice
Modern Plastic Surgery (MPS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/mps.2019.91002
Abstract: Carpal tunnel release is one of the most common and surgery procedures performed. Complications and recurrence of the condition can occur up to 20% of cases. We describe a technique of utilizing the nanofat and platelet rich plasma to successfully enhance healing and minimize risk of recurrence after endoscopic carpal tunnel release. This patient had exceptionally fast recovery, resuming work in one day and excellent grip strength and a full functioning level at his two-week follow-up. After one year he continues to demonstrate a complete resolution of symptoms and full function without any evidence of recurrence or complications.
Bayesian Learning of Climate Sensitivity I: Synthetic Observations  [PDF]
Michael J. Ring, Michael E. Schlesinger
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2012.24040
Abstract: The instrumental temperature records are affected by both external climate forcings—in particular, the increase of long-lived greenhouse gas emissions—and natural, internal variability. Estimates of the value of equilibrium climate sensitivity—the change in global-mean equilibrium near-surface temperature due to a doubling of the pre-industrial CO2 concentration—and other climate parameters using these observational records are affected by the presence of the internal variability. A different realization of the natural variability will result in different estimates of the values of these climate parameters. In this study we apply Bayesian estimation to simulated temperature and ocean heat-uptake records generated by our Climate Research Group’s Simple Climate Model for known values of equilibrium climate sensitivity, T2x direct sulfate aerosol forcing in reference year 2000, FASA, and oceanic heat diffusivity, ΔT2x. We choose the simulated records for one choice of values of the climate parameters to serve as the synthetic observations. To each of the simulated temperature records we add a number of draws of the quasi-periodic oscillations and stochastic noise, determined from the observed temperature record. For cases considering only values of ΔT2x and/or κ, the Bayesian estimation converges to the value(s) of ΔT2x and/or κ used to generate the synthetic observations. However, for cases studying FASA, the Bayesian analysis does not converge to the “true” value used to generate the synthetic observations. We show that this is a problem of low signal-to-noise ratio: by substituting an artificial, continuously increasing sulfate record, we greatly improve the value obtained through Bayesian estimation. Our results indicate Bayesian learning techniques will be useful tools in constraining the values of ΔT2x and κ but not FASA In our Group’s future work we will extend the methods used here to the observed, instrumental records of global-mean temperature increase and ocean heat uptake.
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