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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 301958 matches for " Michael E. O’Leary "
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Regulatory Role of Voltage-Gated Na+ Channel β Subunits in Sensory Neurons
Mohamed Chahine,Michael E. OLeary
Frontiers in Pharmacology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2011.00070
Abstract: Voltage-gated sodium Na+ channels are membrane-bound proteins incorporating aqueous conduction pores that are highly selective for sodium Na+ ions. The opening of these channels results in the rapid influx of Na+ ions that depolarize the cell and drive the rapid upstroke of nerve and muscle action potentials. While the concept of a Na+-selective ion channel had been formulated in the 1940s, it was not until the 1980s that the biochemical properties of the 260-kDa and 36-kDa auxiliary β subunits (β1, β2) were first described. Subsequent cloning and heterologous expression studies revealed that the α subunit forms the core of the channel and is responsible for both voltage-dependent gating and ionic selectivity. To date, 10 isoforms of the Na+ channel α subunit have been identified that vary in their primary structures, tissue distribution, biophysical properties, and sensitivity to neurotoxins. Four β subunits (β1–β4) and two splice variants (β1A, β1B) have been identified that modulate the subcellular distribution, cell surface expression, and functional properties of the α subunits. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad overview of β subunit expression and function in peripheral sensory neurons and examine their contributions to neuropathic pain.
Models of Consensus for Multiple Agent Systems
Daniel E. O'Leary
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Models of consensus are used to manage multiple agent systems in order to choose between different recommendations provided by the system. It is assumed that there is a central agent that solicits recommendations or plans from other agents. That agent the n determines the consensus of the other agents, and chooses the resultant consensus recommendation or plan. Voting schemes such as this have been used in a variety of domains, including air traffic control. This paper uses an analytic model to study the use of consensus in multiple agent systems. The binomial model is used to study the probability that the consensus judgment is correct or incorrect. That basic model is extended to account for both different levels of agent competence and unequal prior odds. The analysis of that model is critical in the investigation of multiple agent systems, since the model leads us to conclude that in some cases consensus judgment is not appropriate. In addition, the results allow us to determine how many agents should be used to develop consensus decisions, which agents should be used to develop consensus decisions and under which conditions the consensus model should be used.
Severe Inbreeding and Small Effective Number of Breeders in a Formerly Abundant Marine Fish
Shannon J. O'Leary, Lyndie A. Hice, Kevin A. Feldheim, Michael G. Frisk, Anne E. McElroy, Mark D. Fast, Demian D. Chapman
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066126
Abstract: In contrast to freshwater fish it is presumed that marine fish are unlikely to spawn with close relatives due to the dilution effect of large breeding populations and their propensity for movement and reproductive mixing. Inbreeding is therefore not typically a focal concern of marine fish management. We measured the effective number of breeders in 6 New York estuaries for winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), a formerly abundant fish, using 11 microsatellite markers (6–56 alleles per locus). The effective number of breeders for 1–2 years was remarkably small, with point estimates ranging from 65–289 individuals. Excess homozygosity was detected at 10 loci in all bays (FIS = 0.169–0.283) and individuals exhibited high average internal relatedness (IR; mean = 0.226). These both indicate that inbreeding is very common in all bays, after testing for and ruling out alternative explanations such as technical and sampling artifacts. This study demonstrates that even historically common marine fish can be prone to inbreeding, a factor that should be considered in fisheries management and conservation plans.
The adiabatic theorem in the presence of noise
Michael J. O'Hara,Dianne P. O'Leary
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.77.042319
Abstract: We provide rigorous bounds for the error of the adiabatic approximation of quantum mechanics under four sources of experimental error: perturbations in the initial condition, systematic time-dependent perturbations in the Hamiltonian, coupling to low-energy quantum systems, and decoherent time-dependent perturbations in the Hamiltonian. For decoherent perturbations, we find both upper and lower bounds on the evolution time to guarantee the adiabatic approximation performs within a prescribed tolerance. Our new results include explicit definitions of constants, and we apply them to the spin-1/2 particle in a rotating magnetic field, and to the superconducting flux qubit. We compare the theoretical bounds on the superconducting flux qubit to simulation results.
Quadratic fermionic interactions yield effective Hamiltonians for adiabatic quantum computing
Michael J. O'Hara,Dianne P. O'Leary
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.032331
Abstract: Polynomially-large ground-state energy gaps are rare in many-body quantum systems, but useful for adiabatic quantum computing. We show analytically that the gap is generically polynomially-large for quadratic fermionic Hamiltonians. We then prove that adiabatic quantum computing can realize the ground states of Hamiltonians with certain random interactions, as well as the ground states of one, two, and three-dimensional fermionic interaction lattices, in polynomial time. Finally, we use the Jordan-Wigner transformation and a related transformation for spin-3/2 particles to show that our results can be restated using spin operators in a surprisingly simple manner. A direct consequence is that the one-dimensional cluster state can be found in polynomial time using adiabatic quantum computing.
Causes of EIT Intensity Correlation Power Broadening
Aojie Zheng,Alaina Green,Michael Crescimanno,Shannon O'Leary
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: EIT noise correlation spectroscopy holds promise as a simple, robust method for performing high resolution spectroscopy used in optical magnetometry and clocks. Of relevance to these applications, we report here on a measurement of and a theory model for power broadening of EIT noise correlation resonances. Taken together they identify physical antecedents of noise correlation power broadening.
Platelet Adhesion and Degranulation Induce Pro-Survival and Pro-Angiogenic Signalling in Ovarian Cancer Cells
Karl Egan, Darragh Crowley, Paul Smyth, Sharon O'Toole, Cathy Spillane, Cara Martin, Michael Gallagher, Aoife Canney, Lucy Norris, Niamh Conlon, Lynda McEvoy, Brendan Ffrench, Britta Stordal, Helen Keegan, Stephen Finn, Victoria McEneaney, Alex Laios, Jens Ducrée, Eimear Dunne, Leila Smith, Michael Berndt, Orla Sheils, Dermot Kenny, John O'Leary
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026125
Abstract: Thrombosis is common in ovarian cancer. However, the interaction of platelets with ovarian cancer cells has not been critically examined. To address this, we investigated platelet interactions in a range of ovarian cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials [HIO-80, 59M, SK-OV-3, A2780, A2780cis]. Platelets adhered to ovarian cancer cells with the most significant adhesion to the 59M cell line. Ovarian cancer cells induced platelet activation [P-selectin expression] in a dose dependent manner, with the most significant activation seen in response to the 59M cell line. The platelet antagonists [cangrelor, MRS2179, and apyrase] inhibited 59M cell induced activation suggesting a P2Y12 and P2Y1 receptor mediated mechanism of platelet activation dependent on the release of ADP by 59M cells. A2780 and 59M cells potentiated PAR-1, PAR-4, and TxA2 receptor mediated platelet activation, but had no effect on ADP, epinephrine, or collagen induced activation. Analysis of gene expression changes in ovarian cancer cells following treatment with washed platelets or platelet releasate showed a subtle but valid upregulation of anti-apoptotic, anti-autophagy pro-angiogenic, pro-cell cycle and metabolic genes. Thus, ovarian cancer cells with different metastatic potential adhere and activate platelets differentially while both platelets and platelet releasate mediate pro-survival and pro-angiogenic signals in ovarian cancer cells.
SINOPSIS DEL GéNERO JUNELLIA (VERBENACEAE)
Nataly O'Leary,Paola Peralta,María E. Múlgura
Darwiniana , 2011,
Abstract: Se presenta una sinopsis del género Junellia, fundamentada en la reciente recircunscripción del género sobre la base de estudios de filogenia molecular y análisis de caracteres morfológicos. Se aporta una clave que incluye las 37 especies de Junellia según la más actual definición del género, se presenta una descripción actualizada del género y se establecen las diferencias con los demás géneros de la tribu Verbeneae. Se describen y/o ilustran nueve especies y una variedad de Junellia no tratadas previamente o cuyas descripciones son aquí enmendadas. Se proponen también dos nuevas combinaciones: Junellia hookeriana var. catamarcensis y Junellia trifida, y ocho nuevos sinónimos.
Ethanol-Induced Face-Brain Dysmorphology Patterns Are Correlative and Exposure-Stage Dependent
Robert J. Lipinski, Peter Hammond, Shonagh K. OLeary-Moore, Jacob J. Ament, Stephen J. Pecevich, Yi Jiang, Francois Budin, Scott E. Parnell, Michael Suttie, Elizabeth A. Godin, Joshua L. Everson, Deborah B. Dehart, Ipek Oguz, Hunter T. Holloway, Martin A. Styner, G. Allan Johnson, Kathleen K. Sulik
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043067
Abstract: Prenatal ethanol exposure is the leading preventable cause of congenital mental disability. Whereas a diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) requires identification of a specific pattern of craniofacial dysmorphology, most individuals with behavioral and neurological sequelae of heavy prenatal ethanol exposure do not exhibit these defining facial characteristics. Here, a novel integration of MRI and dense surface modeling-based shape analysis was applied to characterize concurrent face-brain phenotypes in C57Bl/6J fetuses exposed to ethanol on gestational day (GD)7 or GD8.5. The facial phenotype resulting from ethanol exposure depended upon stage of insult and was predictive of unique patterns of corresponding brain abnormalities. Ethanol exposure on GD7 produced a constellation of dysmorphic facial features characteristic of human FAS, including severe midfacial hypoplasia, shortening of the palpebral fissures, an elongated upper lip, and deficient philtrum. In contrast, ethanol exposure on GD8.5 caused mild midfacial hypoplasia and palpebral fissure shortening, a shortened upper lip, and a preserved philtrum. These distinct, stage-specific facial phenotypes were associated with unique volumetric and shape abnormalities of the septal region, pituitary, and olfactory bulbs. By demonstrating that early prenatal ethanol exposure can cause more than one temporally-specific pattern of defects, these findings illustrate the need for an expansion of current diagnostic criteria to better capture the full range of facial and brain dysmorphology in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.
Real-time PCR quantification of the canine filaggrin orthologue in the skin of atopic and non-atopic dogs: a pilot study
Joana Roque, Caroline A O'Leary, Myat Kyaw-Tanner, David L Duffy, Michael Shipstone
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-554
Abstract: Overall, filaggrin mRNA expression in non-lesional atopic skin was decreased compared to non-lesional non-atopic skin (two fold change); however this difference was only statistically significant in the subgroup of WHWTs (P = 0.03).Although limited by the small sample size, these results indicate that, comparable to some cases of human AD, altered filaggrin mRNA expression may exist in the skin of some atopic dogs with naturally-occurring disease. Additional studies, including larger sample numbers, will be necessary to confirm this finding and to investigate whether mutations in the filaggrin gene exist and contribute to epidermal lesions of AD in dogs.Canine atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory allergic skin disorder and results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors [1]. Changes in the structure, function and composition of the epidermis are present in atopic dogs compared with normal dogs, and may predispose to the development of the disease by enhancing percutaneous absorption and antigen presentation to the immune system [2]. Accordingly, mRNA expression studies have reported that genes encoding for proteins having epidermal barrier functions (e.g. loricrin, serine protease inhibitor kazal type-5) were either up-regulated or down-regulated in lesional and/or non-lesional skin of atopic dogs compared with normal dogs [3,4]. As AD in West Highland white terriers (WHWTs) is particularly common [5] and is usually a severe phenotype [6], a highly permeable epidermal barrier in these dogs with marked changes in genes encoding epidermal proteins may be expected to occur.Many similarities exist between canine and human AD [7]. In humans with AD, 25-50% of cases have been reported to have defects in the epidermal protein filaggrin leading to an impaired epidermal barrier, and predisposing to development of the disease [8]. Filaggrin is produced by proteolytic cleavage of profilaggrin, a precursor located within the keratohyalin granules, dur
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