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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 259265 matches for " Michael C. Runge "
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Breeding Biology of Grassland Birds in Western New York: Conservation and Management Implications
Christopher J. Norment,Michael C. Runge,Michael R. Morgan
Avian Conservation and Ecology , 2010, DOI: 10.5751/ace-00399-050203
Abstract: Declining grassland breeding bird populations have led to increased efforts to assess habitat quality, typically by estimating density or relative abundance. Because some grassland habitats may function as ecological traps, a more appropriate metric for determining quality may be breeding success. Between 1994 and 2003 we gathered data on the nest fates of Eastern Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna), Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorous), and Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) in a series of fallow fields and pastures/hayfields in western New York State. We calculated daily survival probabilities using the Mayfield method, and used the logistic-exposure method to model effects of predictor variables on nest success. Nest survival probabilities were 0.464 for Eastern Meadowlarks (n = 26), 0.483 for Bobolinks (n = 91), and 0.585 for Savannah Sparrows (n = 152). Fledge dates for first clutches ranged between 14 June and 23 July. Only one obligate grassland bird nest was parasitized by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater), for an overall brood parasitism rate of 0.004. Logistic-exposure models indicated that daily nest survival probabilities were higher in pastures/hayfields than in fallow fields. Our results, and those from other studies in the Northeast, suggest that properly managed cool season grassland habitats in the region may not act as ecological traps, and that obligate grassland birds in the region may have greater nest survival probabilities, and lower rates of Brown-headed Cowbird parasitism, than in many parts of the Midwest.
Adaptive Management and the Value of Information: Learning Via Intervention in Epidemiology
Katriona Shea ,Michael J. Tildesley,Michael C. Runge,Christopher J. Fonnesbeck,Matthew J. Ferrari
PLOS Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001970
Abstract: Optimal intervention for disease outbreaks is often impeded by severe scientific uncertainty. Adaptive management (AM), long-used in natural resource management, is a structured decision-making approach to solving dynamic problems that accounts for the value of resolving uncertainty via real-time evaluation of alternative models. We propose an AM approach to design and evaluate intervention strategies in epidemiology, using real-time surveillance to resolve model uncertainty as management proceeds, with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) culling and measles vaccination as case studies. We use simulations of alternative intervention strategies under competing models to quantify the effect of model uncertainty on decision making, in terms of the value of information, and quantify the benefit of adaptive versus static intervention strategies. Culling decisions during the 2001 UK FMD outbreak were contentious due to uncertainty about the spatial scale of transmission. The expected benefit of resolving this uncertainty prior to a new outbreak on a UK-like landscape would be £45–£60 million relative to the strategy that minimizes livestock losses averaged over alternate transmission models. AM during the outbreak would be expected to recover up to £20.1 million of this expected benefit. AM would also recommend a more conservative initial approach (culling of infected premises and dangerous contact farms) than would a fixed strategy (which would additionally require culling of contiguous premises). For optimal targeting of measles vaccination, based on an outbreak in Malawi in 2010, AM allows better distribution of resources across the affected region; its utility depends on uncertainty about both the at-risk population and logistical capacity. When daily vaccination rates are highly constrained, the optimal initial strategy is to conduct a small, quick campaign; a reduction in expected burden of approximately 10,000 cases could result if campaign targets can be updated on the basis of the true susceptible population. Formal incorporation of a policy to update future management actions in response to information gained in the course of an outbreak can change the optimal initial response and result in significant cost savings. AM provides a framework for using multiple models to facilitate public-health decision making and an objective basis for updating management actions in response to improved scientific understanding.
应用生态学报 , 2002,
Abstract: 应用spot4多光谱遥感数据,结合gps(globalpositioningsystem)所测定的地面控制点和地面景观类型调查数据,对新疆塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘中部和田地区的策勒荒漠绿洲景观分类及其特征进行了研究.利用erdasimagine图像处理软件,对spot4卫片进行几何纠正、投影转换和监督分类,形成研究区的景观分类图,对策勒绿洲的景观分布格局进行了定性的描述,并进一步探讨了spot及其它遥感数据在荒漠绿洲景观研究中的应用研究前景.
王兮之?,Helge Bruelheide?,Michael Runge,王刚?
生态学报 , 2002,
Abstract: 以新疆塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘中部的策勒绿洲为例,利用sopt4卫星遥感数据,借助erdasimage和arc/view软件,对其荒漠-绿洲景观类型进行分类并形成研究区栅格景观分类图,一共分为14类景观类型。在栅格分类图的基础上生成矢量化的分类图,进而使用arc/info与fragstats景观格局分析软件计算9种类型的景观参数,并从斑块、类型和景观3个水平上详细列出近70几种相应的参数和景观指数,定量化地揭示了策勒绿洲的景观分布格局与类型特征。
A Quantitative Analysis of the Landscape Pattern Around Qira Oasis Based on Remote Sensing Data

WANG Xizhi,Helge Bruelheide,Michael Runge,WANG Gang,
,Helge Bruelheide,Michael Runge,王刚

生态学报 , 2002,
Abstract: Qira oasis is located in the middle of the TaNan region and represents a typical desert oasis ecosystem of the southern Xingjiang Province in northwest China. Several oases occur in this region that are totally dependent on rivers that originate from the Kunlun Mountains. The study area was selected as a SPOT 4 scene covering Qira oasis and its surroundings. This study pursues two goals: (1) to produce a landscape classification map, and (2) to evaluate the applicability of landscape pattern indices to a q...
Columnar dimer and plaquette resonating valence bond states of the quantum dimer model
P. W. Leung,K. C. Chiu,K. J. Runge
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: We study the nature of the ground state of the quantum dimer model proposed by Rokhsar and Kivelson by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian of the model on square lattices of size $L\times L$, where $L\leq 8$, with periodic boundary conditions. Finite-size scaling studies of the columnar order parameter and the low lying excitation spectrum show no evidence of a dimer liquid state in any finite region of the zero temperature phase diagram. In addition, we find evidence of a transition from the columnar dimer state to an intermediate state at a negative value of $V/J$. This state is identified to be the plaquette resonating valence bond (RVB) state. The energy gap of this state vanishes as a power law of $L$. It exhibits columnar dimer order, but has disorder {\it within} the dimer columns. This state persists up to $V/J<1$, and the system changes to a dimer liquid state only at $V/J=1$.
The Infati Data
C. S. Jensen,H. Lahrmann,S. Pakalnis,J. Runge
Computer Science , 2004,
Abstract: The ability to perform meaningful empirical studies is of essence in research in spatio-temporal query processing. Such studies are often necessary to gain detailed insight into the functional and performance characteristics of proposals for new query processing techniques. We present a collection of spatio-temporal data, collected during an intelligent speed adaptation project, termed INFATI, in which some two dozen cars equipped with GPS receivers and logging equipment took part. We describe how the data was collected and how it was "modified" to afford the drivers some degree of anonymity. We also present the road network in which the cars were moving during data collection. The GPS data is publicly available for non-commercial purposes. It is our hope that this resource will help the spatio-temporal research community in its efforts to develop new and better query processing techniques.
The studies about the photosynthetic response of the four desert plants

DENG Xiong,LI Xiaoming,ZHANG Ximing,YE Wanhui,Andrea Foezki,Michael Runge,
,李小明,张希明,叶万辉,Andrea Foezki,Michael Runge

生态学报 , 2003,
Abstract: Populus euphratica Oliv.、Alhagi sparsifolia B.Keller et Shap.、Tamarix ramosissima Lbd. and Calligonum caput-medusae Schrenk., are all constructive plants in Taklamaka Desert. Responses of photosynthetic parameters of the four desert plants to changes light intensity and CO2 concentration were studied, the results are as follows:①Among the four plants, A. sparsifolia has the highest photorespiration rate (Rp) and CO2 compensation point(Γ), and it has the lowest maximal net assimilation rate(Am) and water use efficiency (WUE) in irradiance responses. On the contrary, as a C4 plant, C.caput-medusa has a lower Rp and Γ,and a significantly higher An, light compensation point(LCP) and light saturation point(LSP) than those of the other plants(P≤0.05), it also had the highest WUE owed much to its very low transpiration rate(E).②According to their LCP and respiration in dark(Rd), we arranged them from sunny to less: C.caput-medusa, A. sparsifolia,T. ramosissima, P. euphratica. And our results also favored the view that relative shade-tolerant plants have higher An in weak light environment than those sun ones.③Further studies are expected to be done on if T. ramosissima has a narrow temperature niche or less stomata sensitivity to irradiance than the other plants. ④Having present a striking contrast between the previously reported results and ours, we suggest P.populus could be inducible for some C4-like characteristics in some special environments, growth stages or under some special treatments.
Studies on gas exchange of Tamarix ramosissima Lbd.

DENG Xiong,LI Xiaoming,ZHANG Ximing,YE Wanhui,Andrea Foezki,Michael Runge,
,李小明,张希明,叶万辉,Andrea Foezki,Michael Runge

生态学报 , 2003,
Abstract: 在美国柽柳(Tamarix L.)被列为臭名昭著的十大我来杂草之一,而在中国,它则作为一种濒危物种生存状况堪忧。对多枝柽柳(Tamarix ramosissima L bd.)气体交换进行研究,探讨其蒸汽压差(VPD)、叶水势、气孔导度(g)和水分利用效率(WUE)之间的联系,结果表明,柽柳之所以能在沙漠生存又能在美国河岸地带疯狂扩展,主要原因可能是:①柽柳属地下水湿生植物,发达的根系能直达地下水。②柽柳适应性生境很广,作为一种阳性树种,柽柳非常耐旱,能够在很低的叶水势(φ)条件下(-4.59Mpa)进行光合作用,而较低的光补偿点和暗呼吸速率又反映出其耐阴湿的特点。③灵敏的气孔适应性调整:其g对VPD的灵敏性随着干湿季其体内的水分状况变化而变化,调整蒸腾速率,从而影响其WUE;gs与φ成显著正相关(P≤0.05);gs与WUE显著相关(P≤0.05),但只有当gs处于正在下降的时候,光合作用和蒸腾作用两个交换过程受轻微限制时,可得到水消耗和CO2吸收的最优协调,WUE达到最大值。这些适应性调整可能是柽柳能在美国河岸地带疯狂扩展的主要原因。实验结果表明,柽柳完全能够适应荒漠生长环境,因而导致柽柳在我国处于濒危状况的根本原因不是传统认为的干旱的自然环境,而主要是人为因素造成地下水位下降以及过度砍伐所致。
Seasonal variation of Tamarix ramosissima and Populus euphratica water potentials in southern fringe of Taklamakan Desert

Ceng FanJiang,Zhang XiMing,Li XiangYi,Andrea,Foetzki,Michael,Runge,
曾凡江 张希明 李向义 Andrea Foetzki
,Michael Runge

应用生态学报 , 2005,
Abstract: The measurement of the seasonal and diurnal variations of Tamarix ramosissima and Populus euphratica water potentials in the southern fringe of Taklamakan Desert indicated that there was no apparent water stress for the two species during their growth period,with little change of predawn water potential and some extent decrease of midday water potential.Irrigation once or thinning had no significant effects on the water status of the plants,while groundwater appeared to be a prerequisite for the survival and growth of these species.It is very important to ensure a stable groundwater table for the restoration of Tamarix ramosissima and Populus euphratica in this area.
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