Abstract:
This lecture provides an introduction to the renormalisation group as applied to scattering of two nonrelativistic particles. As well as forming a framework for constructing effective theories of few-nucleon systems, these ideas also provide a simple example which illustrates general features of the renormalisation group.

Abstract:
Nucleon-nucleon scattering in spin-triplet channels is analysed within an effective field theory where one-pion exchange is treated nonperturbatively. Justifying this requires the identification of an additional low-energy scale in the strength of that potential. Short-range interactions are organised according to the resulting power counting, in which the leading term is promoted to significantly lower order than in the usual perturbative counting. In each channel there is a critical momentum above which the waves probe the singular core of the tensor potential and the new counting is necessary. When the effects of one- and two-pion exchange have been removed using a distorted-wave Born approximation, the residual scattering in waves with L<=2 is well described by the first three terms in the new counting. In contrast, the scattering in waves with L>=3 is consistent with the perturbative counting, at least for energies up to 300 MeV. This pattern is in agreement with estimates of the critical momenta in these channels.

Abstract:
The commonly used types of effective theory for vector mesons are reviewed and their relationships clarified. They are shown to correspond to different choices of field for spin-1 particles and the rules for transforming between them are described. The importance of respecting chiral symmetry is stressed. The choice of fields that transform homogeneously under the nonlinear realisation of chiral symmetry imposes no preconceptions about the types of coupling for the mesons. This representation thus provides a convenient framework for relating different theories. It is also used to elucidate the nature of the assumptions in specific hidden-gauge and massive Yang-Mills models that have been widely used.

Abstract:
The renormalisation of NN scattering in theories with zero-range interactions is examined using a cut-off regularisation where the cut-off is taken to infinity, dimensional regularisation (DR) with minimal subtraction, and DR with power-divergence subtraction. In the infinite cut-off limit power counting breaks down: terms of different orders in the potential contribute to the scattering amplitude at the same order. Minimal subtraction does yield a systematic expansion, but with a very limited range of validity for systems that have unnaturally large scattering lengths. For a finite cut-off, the behaviour of the couplings as the cut-off is lowered shows that a theory with a natural scattering length approaches an IR fixed point. In the corresponding effective theory, loop corrections can be treated perturbatively. In contrast, if there is an IR fixed point for systems with an infinite scattering length it must be a nonperturbative one, with no power counting. For such systems, power-divergence subtraction appears to yield a systematic expansion, but with a different power counting from Weinberg's. However the scheme omits IR divergent terms that would otherwise lead to nonperturbative behaviour and so the interpretation of the fixed point remains unclear.

Abstract:
For a relativistic particle moving in the presence of mean scalar and vector fields, the energy at second order in the scalar field is shown to contain two contributions in general. One is a momentum-dependent repulsive interaction satisfying a low-energy theorem pointed out by Wallace, Gross and Tjon. The other does not vanish at zero-momentum and involves a ``polarisability" of the particle by the scalar field. The first of these contributions is independent of the details of the structure of the particle and the couplings of its constituents to the external fields. The appearance of such a piece in the central nucleon-nucleus potential thus would support the existence of strong scalar fields in nuclei, without requiring the use of a Dirac equation for the nucleon.

Abstract:
Partial restoration in nuclear matter of the chiral symmetry of QCD is discussed together with some of its possible signals. Estimates of corrections to the leading, linear dependence of the quark condensate are found to be small, implying a significant reduction of that condensate in matter. The importance of the pion cloud for the scalar quark density of a single nucleon indicates a close connection between chiral symmetry restoration and the attractive two-pion exchange interaction between nucleons. This force is sufficiently long-ranged that nucleons in nuclear matter will feel a significant degree of symmetry restoration despite the strong correlations between them. Expected consequences of this include reductions in hadron masses and decay constants. Various signals of these effects are discussed, in particular the enhancement of the axial charge of a nucleon in matter.

Abstract:
Techniques developed for handing inverse-power-law potentials in atomic physics are applied to the tensor one-pion exchange potential to determine the regions in which it can be treated perturbatively. In S-, P- and D-waves the critical values of the relative momentum are less than or of the order of 400 MeV. The RG is then used to determine the power counting for short-range interaction in the presence of this potential. In the P-and D-waves, where there are no low-energy bound or virtual states, these interactions have half-integer RG eigenvalues and are substantially promoted relative to naive expectations. These results are independent of whether the tensor force is attractive or repulsive. In the 3S1 channel the leading term is relevant, but it is demoted by half an order compared to the counting for the effective-range expansion with only a short-range potential. The tensor force can be treated perturbatively in those F-waves and above that do not couple to P- or D-waves. The corresponding power counting is the usual one given by naive dimensional analysis.

Abstract:
The functional renormalisation group is applied to the effective action for scattering of two nonrelativistic fermions. The resulting physical effective action is shown to contain the correct threshold singularity. The corresponding "bare" action respects Galilean invariance up to second order in momenta. Beyond that order it contains terms that violate this symmetry and, for the particular regulator considered, nonanalytic third-order terms. The corresponding potential can be expanded around a nontrivial fixed point using the power counting appropriate to a system with large scattering length.

Abstract:
QCD is not an approximately scale invariant theory. Hence a dilaton field is not expected to provide a good description of the low-energy dynamics associated with the gluon condensate. Even if such a field is introduced, it remains almost unchanged in hadronic matter at normal densities. This is because the large glueball mass together with the size of the phenomenological gluon condensate ensure that changes to that condensate are very small at such densities. Any changes in hadronic masses and decay constants in matter generated by that condensate will be much smaller that those produced directly by changes in the quark condensate. Hence masses and decay constants are not expected to display a universal scaling.

Abstract:
The contribution of nucleons to the quark condensate in nuclear matter includes a piece of first order in $m_\pi$, arising from the contribution of low-momentum virtual pions to the $\pi N$ sigma commutator. Chiral symmetry requires that no term of this order appears in the $NN$ interaction. The mass of a nucleon in matter thus cannot depend in any simple way on the quark condensate alone. More generally, pieces of the quark condensate that arise from low-momentum pions should not be associated with partial restoration of chiral symmetry.