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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 233 matches for " Micah Ledbetter "
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Polarized alkali vapor with minute-long transverse spin-relaxation time
Misha Balabas,Todor Karaulanov,Micah Ledbetter,Dmitry Budker
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.070801
Abstract: We demonstrate lifetimes of atomic populations and coherences in excess of 60 seconds in alkali vapor cells with inner walls coated with an alkene material. This represents two orders of magnitude improvement over the best paraffin coatings. Such anti-relaxation properties will likely lead to substantial improvements in atomic clocks, magnetometers, quantum memory, and enable sensitive studies of collisional effects and precision measurements of fundamental symmetries.
Gyroscopes based on nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond
Micah Ledbetter,Kasper Jensen,Ran Fischer,Andrey Jarmola,Dmitry Budker
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.86.052116
Abstract: We propose solid-state gyroscopes based on ensembles of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (${\rm NV^-}$) centers in diamond. In one scheme, rotation of the nitrogen-vacancy symmetry axis will induce Berry phase shifts in the ${\rm NV^{-}}$ electronic ground-state coherences proportional to the solid angle subtended by the symmetry axis. We estimate sensitivity in the range of $5\times10^{-3} {\rm rad/s/\sqrt{Hz}}$ in a 1 ${\rm mm^3}$ sensor volume using a simple Ramsey sequence. Incorporating dynamical decoupling to suppress dipolar relaxation may yield sensitivity at the level of $10^{-5} {\rm rad/s/\sqrt{Hz}}$. With a modified Ramsey scheme, Berry phase shifts in the ${\rm ^{14}N}$ hyperfine sublevels would be employed. The projected sensitivity is in the range of $10^{-5} {\rm rad/s/\sqrt{Hz}}$, however the smaller gyromagnetic ratio reduces sensitivity to magnetic-field noise by several orders of magnitude. Reaching $10^{-5} {\rm rad/s/\sqrt{Hz}}$ would represent an order of magnitude improvement over other compact, solid-state gyroscope technologies.
Constraints on short-range spin-dependent interactions from scalar spin-spin coupling in deuterated molecular hydrogen
Micah Ledbetter,Michael Romalis,Derek Jackson-Kimball
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.040402
Abstract: A comparison between existing measurements and calculations of the scalar spin-spin interaction (J-coupling) in deuterated molecular hydrogen (HD) yields stringent constraints on anomalous spin-dependent potentials between nucleons at the atomic scale (${\rm \sim 1 \AA}$). The dimensionless coupling constant $g_P^pg_P^{N}/4\pi$ associated with exchange of pseudoscalar (axion-like) bosons between nucleons is constrained to be less than $5\times 10^{-7}$ for boson masses in the range of $5 {\rm keV}$. This represents improvement by a factor of about 100 over constraints placed by measurements of the dipole-dipole interaction in molecular ${\rm H_2}$. The dimensionless coupling constant $g_A^pg_A^N/4 \pi$ associated with exchange of a heretofore undiscovered axial-vector boson between nucleons is constrained to be $g_A^pg_A^N/4 \pi < 2 \times 10^{-19}$ for bosons of mass $\lesssim 1000 {\rm eV}$, improving constraints at this distance scale by a factor of 100 for proton-proton couplings and more than 8 orders of magnitude for neutron-proton couplings. This limit is also a factor of 100 more stringent than recent constraints obtained for axial-vector couplings between electrons and nucleons obtained from comparison of measurements and calculations of hyperfine structure.
Observation of scalar nuclear spin-spin coupling in van der Waals molecules
Micah Ledbetter,Giacomo Saielli,Alessandro Bagno,Nhan Tran,Michael Romalis
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: Scalar couplings between covalently bound nuclear spins are a ubiquitous feature in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, imparting valuable information to NMR spectra regarding molecular structure and conformation. Such couplings arise due to a second-order hyperfine interaction, and, in principle, the same mechanism should lead to scalar couplings between nuclear spins in unbound van der Waals complexes. Here, we report the first observation of scalar couplings between nuclei in van der Waals molecules. Our measurements are performed in a solution of hyperpolarized ${\rm ^{129}Xe}$ and pentane, using superconducting quantum interference devices to detect NMR in 10 mG fields, and are in good agreement with calculations based on density functional theory. van der Waals forces play an important role in many physical phenomena, and hence the techniques presented here may provide a new method for probing such interactions.
Parahydrogen enhanced zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance
Thomas Theis,Paul Ganssle,Gwendal Kervern,Svenja Knappe,John Kitching,Micah Ledbetter,Dmitry Budker,Alex Pines
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1038/nphys1986
Abstract: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), conventionally detected in multi-tesla magnetic fields, is a powerful analytical tool for the determination of molecular identity, structure, and function. With the advent of prepolarization methods and alternative detection schemes using atomic magnetometers or superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), NMR in very low- (~earth's field), and even zero-field, has recently attracted considerable attention. Despite the use of SQUIDs or atomic magnetometers, low-field NMR typically suffers from low sensitivity compared to conventional high-field NMR. Here we demonstrate direct detection of zero-field NMR signals generated via parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP), enabling high-resolution NMR without the use of any magnets. The sensitivity is sufficient to observe spectra exhibiting 13C-1H J-couplings in compounds with 13C in natural abundance in a single transient. The resulting spectra display distinct features that have straightforward interpretation and can be used for chemical fingerprinting.
Detection of a single cobalt microparticle with a microfabricated atomic magnetometer
Daniel Maser,Saurabh Pandey,Hattie Ring,Micah P. Ledbetter,Svenja Knappe,John Kitching,Dmitry Budker
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1063/1.3626505
Abstract: We present magnetic detection of a single, 2 {\mu}m diameter cobalt microparticle using an atomic magnetometer based on a microfabricated vapor cell. These results represent an improvement by a factor of 105 in terms of the detected magnetic moment over previous work using atomic magnetometers to detect magnetic microparticles. The improved sensitivity is due largely to the use of small vapor cells. In an optimized setup, we predict detection limits of 0.17 {\mu}m^3.
Cosmic Axion Spin Precession Experiment (CASPEr)
Dmitry Budker,Peter W. Graham,Micah Ledbetter,Surjeet Rajendran,Alex Sushkov
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.4.021030
Abstract: We propose an experiment to search for QCD axion and axion-like-particle (ALP) dark matter. Nuclei that are interacting with the background axion dark matter acquire time-varying CP-odd nuclear moments such as an electric dipole moment. In analogy with nuclear magnetic resonance, these moments cause precession of nuclear spins in a material sample in the presence of an electric field. Precision magnetometry can be used to search for such precession. An initial phase of this experiment could cover many orders of magnitude in ALP parameter space beyond the current astrophysical and laboratory limits. And with established techniques, the proposed experimental scheme has sensitivity to QCD axion masses m_a < 10^-9 eV, corresponding to theoretically well-motivated axion decay constants f_a > 10^16 GeV. With further improvements, this experiment could ultimately cover the entire range of masses m_a < 10^-6 eV, complementary to cavity searches.
Liquid-state nuclear spin comagnetometers
Micah Ledbetter,Szymon Pustelny,Dmitry Budker,Michael Romalis,John Blanchard,Alexander Pines
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.243001
Abstract: We discuss nuclear spin comagnetometers based on ultra-low-field nuclear magnetic resonance in mixtures of miscible solvents, each rich in a different nuclear spin. In one version thereof, Larmor precession of protons and ${\rm ^{19}F}$ nuclei in a mixture of thermally polarized pentane and hexafluorobenzene is monitored via a sensitive alkali-vapor magnetometer. We realize transverse relaxation times in excess of 20 s and suppression of magnetic field fluctuations by a factor of 3400. We estimate it should be possible to achieve single-shot sensitivity of about $5\times{\rm 10^{-9} Hz}$, or about $5\times 10^{-11} {\rm Hz}$ in $\approx 1$ day of integration. In a second version, spin precession of protons and ${\rm ^{129}Xe}$ nuclei in a mixture of pentane and hyperpolarized liquid xenon is monitored using superconducting quantum interference devices. Application to spin-gravity experiments, electric dipole moment experiments, and sensitive gyroscopes is discussed.
Near-zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance
Micah Ledbetter,Thomas Theis,John Blanchard,Hattie Ring,Paul Ganssle,Stephan Appelt,Bernhard Bluemich,Alex Pines,Dmitry Budker
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.107601
Abstract: We investigate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in near-zero-field, where the Zeeman interaction can be treated as a perturbation to the electron mediated scalar interaction (J-coupling). This is in stark contrast to the high field case, where heteronuclear J-couplings are normally treated as a small perturbation. We show that the presence of very small magnetic fields results in splitting of the zero-field NMR lines, imparting considerable additional information to the pure zero-field spectra. Experimental results are in good agreement with first-order perturbation theory and with full numerical simulation when perturbation theory breaks down. We present simple rules for understanding the splitting patterns in near-zero-field NMR, which can be applied to molecules with non-trivial spectra.
Long-lived heteronuclear spin-singlet states
Meike Emondts,Micah. P. Ledbetter,Szymon Pustelny,Thomas Theis,Brian Patton,John W. Blanchard,Mark C. Butler,Dmitry Budker,Alexander Pines
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: We report observation of long-lived spin-singlet states in a 13C-1H spin pair at zero magnetic field. In 13C-labeled formic acid, we observe spin-singlet lifetimes as long as 37 seconds, about a factor of three longer than the T1 lifetime of dipole polarization in the triplet state. We also observe that the lifetime of the singlet-triplet coherence, T2, is longer than T1. Moreover, we demonstrate that this singlet states formed by spins of a heteronucleus and a 1H nucleus, can exhibit longer lifetimes than the respective triplet states in systems consisting of more than two nuclear spins. Although long-lived homonuclear spin-singlet states have been extensively studied, this is the first experimental observation of analogous spin-singlets consisting of a heteronucleus and a proton.
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