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The Diversity and Composition of Woody Plants in Chebera Churcura National Park (CCNP), Southern Ethiopia  [PDF]
Mezmir Girma, Melesse Maryo
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2018.84028
Abstract: National parks harbor the most valuable biological diversities of national and global significance. The study of these diversities assists for the proper resource management. This study was carried out to determine woody species diversity and composition in CCNP. Systematic sampling was used to collect vegetation data from 67 plots (400 m2 each), which were laid following altitudinal gradient. From each plot presence/absence of woody species, abundance and structural data were recorded. R Program, Sorensen’s similarity, Shannon diversity index were used for vegetation analysis. Our result indicated that a total of 106 plant specimens belonging to 42 families and 90 genera were identified, of which 57.6% were trees, followed by 18.8% shrubs, 7.6% liana and 16% tree/shrub. The three most dominant families were Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Combretaceae. Five vegetation community types were identified. Millettia ferugenia—Vepris danelii, and, Combrutum molle—Terminalia browni are among others. The tree density and basal area were 426.5 trees/hectare and 30.92 m2/hectare, respectively. The diversity and evenness indices were 3.88 and 0.46 for the study area, respectively. CCNP has more similarity with Bonga and Yayu afromontane forests of Ethiopia. Disturbances caused by the human activities and wild animals such as elephant were major threats to plant biodiversity in CCNP. We recommend floristic as well as ethnobotanical investigations to realize fully the existing plant diversity and their importance. Moreover, national attention should be given to ensure sustainable use of CCNP with its incredible biological resources.
Social determinants of under-five mortality in Ethiopia: Event history analysis using evidence from Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS)  [PDF]
Tariku Dejene, Eshetu Girma
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.55115

Background: Under-five mortality is one of the indicators of the millennium development goals (MDGs) for the child mortality reduction goal. Understanding the social determinants of under-five mortality is helpful to narrow the gap between different social classes. Therefore, this study focused on the social determinants of under-five mortality inEthiopiausing EDHS 2011 data. Methods: The data source for this analysis was the 2011 EDHS which was undertaken over a five-month period from 27 December, 2010 to 3 June, 2011. The sample was selected using a stratified, two-stage cluster design. Samples of 16,515 women of reproductive age were interviewed. The questionnaire used to collect information from these women who had among other things such as background characteristics of women, birth history of these women and the survival of each birth at the time of the interview. Births that had occurred to women in the last 10 years prior to the date of the interview were extracted for the analysis. Descriptive statistical methods were used to describe the distribution of the characteristics of the data. Kaplan Meier plots and incidence rates per 1000 person years were used to compare survival across different categories of the risk factors. The effect of the risk factors on survival was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Data management and analysis were carried out using STATA 10. Results: A total of 23,581 under-five children were included in the study. The under-five mortality incidence rate in Ethiopia for the last ten years was 29.6 per 1000 person years. Maternal education beyond primary level of education reduced the risk of under-five mortality by about half. A significant reduction in risk of under-five mortality was observed among births to mothers residing in richest households. The hazard ratio (HR) was higher for under-five mortality among boys than daughters, twins than singleton, teen age mother than higher ages and short births than optimal. Conclusions: Empowering mothers with education and making them productive for improving their income are important aspects for reducing under-five mortality. Emerging regions were disadvantaged on the incidence of under-five mortality; however, there was a positive result in narrowing the urban-rural under-five

Magnitude and Correlates of Contraceptive Use among Females in Reproductive Age in Arba Minch Zuria Woreda: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study  [PDF]
Girma Temam Shifa
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.611155
Abstract: Background: Despite its positive impact in reducing maternal and child mortality and morbidity, the utilization rate of contraceptives is unacceptably low in many developing countries including Ethiopia. This warrants the investigation of the contributing factors of this low utilization for appropriate interventions. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the magnitude and associated factors of contraceptive use in Arba Minch Zuria Woreda, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to July 2010 in 9 kebeles of Arba Minch Demographic and Health Development Program. Results: In this study, 28.3% of all women & 32.7% currently married were using any contraceptive methods during the time of the survey. Almost all current users were using modern methods; the most widely used method was injectable (24.2%) followed by implants (2.4%) and pills (1.3%). Current marital status, ethnicity, age, education, presence of radio set in the house hold and discussion about family planning in the last 6 month before the study with their partner were the independent predictors of contraceptive use. Conclusion: The contraceptive prevalence rate is promising but efforts should continue to further increase the contraceptive coverage especially on kebeles with low coverage by targeting men and misconceptions about family planning.
Contributing Factors to Long Working Hours: Case Study of Waiters in Dire Dawa Administration  [PDF]
Gizachew Girma, Tadesse Moges
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2015.63017
Abstract: The need to create and maintain industrial peace, in one hand, protect the fragile interest of workers on the other side to boost economic development have been critical issues which have attained significant consideration from states. To that end, they introduced at international and national levels different set of legislations regulating employment relations. Among other things, working time limit has meticulously been introduced to safeguard the rights of workers, who are generally with the lesser bargaining power, and make the labor more productive. Ethiopia has accepted this notion of delimitating working hours, and adopted legislations. However, it has become a public secret that such rules have not been maintained in practice and that the enforcement mechanism appeared meager. Though researches have been made in different part of the world; in Ethiopia, particularly in Dire Dawa, the factors contributing for long working hours have not been addressed. There are, however, indicators that particularly waiters are working for longer hours than what the law stipulates. In a town dubbed as industrial corner, this factor should not be left unconsidered if the aspired objective of the labour regulation is really to be met. This research, hence, took the first step in studying the existence of this violation, and investigating the contributing factors. The data were collected through structured questionnaires and interviews, and samples were taken using stratified systematic sampling method. Data were analyzed through quantitative (descriptive analysis and logistic regression model) and qualitative techniques. Then, job insecurity, lack of legal awareness, culture of the work, salary, tips, dependents, and level of education have been found out to be contributing factors, and their level of significance has also been established. It has also revealed that the absence of strong enforcement mechanisms contributed for the apparent non-adherence to the rules so delimiting working hours.
Evaluation of Performances of Intermodal Import-Export Freight Transport System in Ethiopia  [PDF]
Tadesse Kenea Amentae, Girma Gebresenbet
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2015.81007
Abstract: Freight transport system that minimizes costs, increase conveniences, and environmentally safe has become the agenda worldwide since long before. This study was made with the main objective of assessing intermodal termed as “multimodal” freight transport service in Ethiopia. Data was collected by using structured questionnaire from randomly selected customers and multimodal freight transport section employees of Ethiopian Shipping and Logistics Service Enterprise. The study was made in two stages using customers: first, they were asked to evaluate their satisfaction with the multimodal freight transport system; second, to evaluate their comparative satisfaction with the segmented/“uni-modal” freight transport system against five major freight transport performance indicators. Customers were also asked to identify and rank top ten problems of freight transport logistics in Ethiopia. Data were analyzed using SPSS and excel sheets with descriptive statistics and the results were depicted using charts and tables. The study indicated that majority of customers were either dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with many of the performance indicators. The employees evaluated their organization as well performing relatively on more performance indicators. Both customers and employees evaluated the documentation performances as satisfying but cost and convenience as dissatisfying performances. Customers identified repetitive custom checking and waste of time in custom inspections process as the most severe problem in freight transport logistics in Ethiopia. The implementation of intermodal freight transport system to bring better change in import-export freight transport logistics of Ethiopia was in bitter challenge for customers due to a number of problems, except documentation performance that showed betterment.
Upperr extremity deep vein thrombosis in a 25 years old apparently healthy man
F Girma
Pan African Medical Journal , 2010,
Cultural Politics and Education in Ethiopia: A Search for a Viable Indigenous Legend
Mohammed Girma
Journal of Politics and Law , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jpl.v5n1p117
Abstract: The history of modern education in Ethiopian is short. What is not so short, however, is the history of traditional education, temehert. It goes back as far as the introduction of Christianity to Ethiopia – fourth century EC. Since its inception, education had a close, if ambivalent, relationship with different ideological tenets, and each tenet trying to formulate its educational philosophy around its own unique narrative. While some narratives arose from indigenous legend, others are imported (and domesticated in some cases) from abroad. In this essay, I do not intend to discuss educational policies per se. I, however, intend to show how a deliberate, or unwitting, de-link with indigenous legend would affect the trajectory, and also the success, in educational system in Ethiopia. After a brief paradigmatic characterization of two ideologies and their underlying narratives, I will critically unravel the ethno-federalism educational philosophy of Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) and its undergirding ethnic legends. I focus on ethno-federalist system because it is an incumbent philosophy. After discussing a nascent remedy proposed by MaimireMennasemay, vis,.the notion of tezeta, I intend to argue for the primacy of the notion of qal-kidan as a better alternative. I will base my argument on the cultural prevalence, but also conceptual credibility.
Quantum Moduli Spaces of Linear and Ring Mooses
Girma Hailu
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(02)03160-X
Abstract: Quantum moduli spaces of four dimensional $SU(2)^{r}$ linear and ring moose theories with $\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetry and link chiral superfields in the fundamental representation are produced starting from simple pure gauge theories of disconnected nodes.
N=1 Supersymmetric $SU(2)^r$ Moose Theories
Girma Hailu
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.67.085023
Abstract: We study the quantum moduli spaces and dynamical superpotentials of four dimensional $SU(2)^r$ linear and ring moose theories with $\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetry and link chiral superfields in the fundamental representation. Nontrivial quantum moduli spaces and dynamical superpotentials are produced. When the moduli space is perturbed by generic tree level superpotentials, the vacuum space becomes discrete. The ring moose is in the Coulomb phase and we find two singular submanifolds with a nontrivial modulus that is a function of all the independent gauge invariants needed to parameterize the quantum moduli space. The massive theory near these singularities confines. The Seiberg-Witten elliptic curve that describes the quantum moduli space of the ring moose is produced.
Cosmology on Compact and Stable Supergravity Background
Girma Hailu
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.86.103530
Abstract: We propose a cosmological model of D3-brane universe on compact and stable supergravity background of wrapped D7-branes in type IIB string theory previously argued to be dual to pure N=1 SU(N) gauge theory in four dimensions. A model universe of order Planck size near the UV boundary dynamically flows toward the IR with constant total energy density and accelerating expansion followed by smooth transition to decelerating expansion and collides with the wrapped D7-branes at the IR boundary. The model addresses the horizon and flatness problems with most of the expansion produced during the decelerating expansion phase. The inflationary scenario is used to generate sources of inhomogeneities in the cosmic microwave background radiation and seeds for large scale structure formation from quantum fluctuations which exit the Hubble radius early during the accelerating expansion phase and the model addresses the inhomogeneity problem with red tilt in the power spectrum. We propose that the kinetic energy of the model universe is converted to matter and radiation by the collision followed by formation of baryons that stabilizes the model universe against gravitational force from the background at a finite distance from the IR boundary with the wrapped D7-branes serving as sources of color. Friedmann evolution then takes over with a positive cosmological constant term coming from the remaining potential energy density which is interpreted as dark energy. The magnitude of dark energy density is smaller than the total energy density during the flow by a ratio of the scale factor when the model universe appears in the UV to the scale factor at the moment of collision and stays constant while the matter-radiation density falls during Friedmann expansion.
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