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Day-to-Day Variability of H Component of Geomagnetic Field in Central African Sector Provided by Yaoundé-Cameroon Amber Station  [PDF]
Messanga Etoundi Honore, Kosh Djaka Comelo, Mbane Biouele Cesar
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.510099
Abstract: The geomagnetic data obtained from Amber Network station in Cameroon have been used for this study. The variability of H component of geomagnetic field has been examined by using geomagnetic field data of X and Y components recorded at AMBER magnetometer station hosted by the Department of Physics of University of Yaoundé (3.87°N, 11.52°E). The day-to-day variability of the horizontal intensity of the geomagnetic field was examined and shows that the scattering of H component of magnetic field variation is more on disturbed than that on quiet condition. The signatures H of geomagnetic Sq and Sd variations in intensities in the geomagnetic element, has been studied. This study shows that the daytime variations in intensities of geomagnetic elements H, Sq(H) and Sd(H) respectively are generally greater than night-time ones. This paper interests answering the two questions: 1) how can geomagnetic variations be used to study the equatorial ionosphere electrodynamics and electrojet equatorial over Africa in general and Cameroon in particular? 2) How can geomagnetic variations be used to monitor and predict space weather events in Cameroon? This paper presents and interprets the results of H component of geomagnetic field variations during magnetic storms and on quiet days.
Sq (H) Solar Variation at Yaoundé-Cameroon AMBER Station from 2011 to 2014  [PDF]
Messanga Etoundi Honoré, Fatma Anad, Ngabireng Claude Marie, Mbane Biouele César
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2017.84029
Abstract: This paper presents the earth’s magnetic field variations on quiet days using data from 2011 to 2014 provided by the AMBER station located at the University of Yaoundé 1 (Cameroon), whose geographic and geomagnetic coordinates are respectively: (3.87°N, 11.52°E) and (5.8°S, 83.1°E). The variability of the H horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field was examined using the North (X) and East (Y) components of the earth’s magnetic field. The H component is then used to calculate and analyze the diurnal, monthly and seasonal Solar quiet variations Sq (H) observed in Yaoundé-Cameroon during quiet magnetic days. The results obtained show that the Sq (H) variations are seasonal. e.g., in Spring the Sq (H) amplitude (~72 nT) is larger than that of Autumn (~69 nT). The maximum values of Sq (H) vary from 48.8 nT to 57.12 nT in summer and from 41 nT to 60 nT in winter from the years 2011 to 2014. In general, these maximum values are observed around 12:00 and 13:00 in local time. These results show that the morphology of Sq (H) in Yaoundé is presented as a function of seasons. Moreover, the Sq (H) values are negative during morning hours (01:00 - 06:00) and afternoon hours (18:00 - 24:00) in local time throughout all months and all seasons. This significant negative excursion of Sq (H) in Yaoundé during the night time might be due to other physical processes such as storms or thunderclouds or to the existence of a strong induced current in Yaoundé which can affect the ground-based instruments. By referring to the solar cycle 24, our results show that the Sq (H) amplitude varies with the solar activity. The aim of this work is to analyze the diurnal, monthly and seasonal variations of Sq (H) observed in Yaoundé from 2011 to 2014.
Normativity and the Problem of Look in the Emergence of Citizen Journalism  [PDF]
Célestin Messanga Obama
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2016.41001
Abstract: Citizen journalism (in French Journalisme citoyen) is a form of journalism exercised by the public (the readers, the audiences and tele-viewers), specifically on the internet. Theoretically, it could be seen as a kind of revolution within the public getting into a trade long held jealously mainly by conventional journalists. What accounts for the fact that a trade, whose mastery requires training on its techniques and specific norms, gets invaded by untutored minds? That appears to be the central issue we are seeking to resolve in this article. We go from the hypothesis that citizen journalism has developed as a result of the publics’ lack of satisfaction, both at quantitative and qualitative levels with the delivery of conventional journalism. In effect, conventional journalism raises myriad issues that require the consumers to proceed to a kind of selection, which itself could be a problem. However, by their nature, issues that constitute news are complex, and this leads to some manipulation in their treatment. These two axes appear to reveal the main sources of discord between conventional journalism and revolted-publics.
A proteomic analysis of the effect of radiation therapy on wound healing in women reconstructed with the TRAM flap  [PDF]
Bekka O. Christensen, Jens Overgaard, Henrik Vorum, Bent Honore, Tine E. Damsgaard
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.411134

The incidence of breast cancer is still increasing, and with improved cancer treatment, more women live longer with the side effects of their treatment. The response of normal tissue to radiation continues for years after the treatment is completed. The influence of radiotherapy on the outcome of breast reconstructtive surgery remains unpredictable. The combination of two surgical sites of which one is previously irradiated, is rarely encountered in humans and thus compiles a unique opportunity to study the implications of irradiation followed by surgery. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effect of radiation therapy on the proteins expressed in the wound tissue after a breast reconstruction. Ten patients were included in the study, all treated with radiotherapy after a mastectomy and breast reconstruction with a contralateral pedicled TRAM flap. Expanded poly-tetrafluoretylene polymer tubes were implanted for 10 days, subcutaneously, below the inframammary fold and below the donor site. The protein from the newly synthesized granulation tissue in the tubes was extracted and analyzed for differences in protein expression with 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. A total of 676 proteins were detected; of these, 4 proteins changed significantly and were successfully identified. TPM4 and APOA4 from the radiation treated tissue were shown to be significantly decreased, whereas IGKC and VDAC1 were found to be significantly increased. The proteomic technique combined with the ePTFE tube wound model can elucidate some of the molecular alterations in the wound healing induced by radiation therapy. The protein modifications of TPM4, APOA4, IGKC and VDAC1 may influence the cell proliferation, apoptosis and the inflammation of the tissue repair process. 

Antiamylase Potential of Telfairia occidentalis Leaves from Cameroon and Effect of Their Dietary Supplementation on Fasting Blood Glucose in Wistar Rats  [PDF]
Palla Nyamen Corine Leslie, Etoundi Omgba Cunégonde Blanche, Gouado Gouado Inocent
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2015.39010

The study of edible plants, especially in developing countries, might provide more affordable means for the management of diabetes. Telfairia occidentalis is one of the plants whose leaves are commonly consumed in Cameroon. This work hereby studied the antiamylasic potential of its aqueous leaves extract and the effect of its dietary supplementation on fasting blood glucose in Wistar rats. An aqueous extract (1:6) was prepared from shed-dried T. occidentalis leaves by maceration. Its antiamylase activity was evaluated in vitro and a phytochemical screening was realized. Its acute toxicity and its effect on an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were evaluated in rats. The effect of T. occidentalis leaves dietary supplementation (10%) on fasting blood glucose was studied for 28 days in rats fed with carbohydrate enriched diet, using Glibenclamide (0.3 mg/kg body weight) as reference hypoglycemic drug. Results showed that there was total inhibition of α-amylase activity in vitro by T. occidentalis aqueous leaves extract at 0.075 mg/ml. The presence of tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins was revealed by the phytochemical screening. No sign of toxicity was observed in rats after an oral administration of the extract at 2000 mg/kg body weight. The extract significantly hindered a rise in blood glucose at 400 mg/kg body weight during an oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary supplementation with T. occidentalis leaves caused a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in fasting blood glucose as compared to the positive control. Telfairia occidentalis leaves and their aqueous extract could be used in the management of hyperglycemia and diabetes.

Intraoperative Hemodynamic and Analgesic Effects of Pre-Incisional Transversus Abdominis Plane Block during Total Abdominal Hysterectomy  [PDF]
Owono Etoundi Paul, Jéméa Bonaventure, Bengono Bengono Roddy, Tochie Jo?l, Afané Ela Anatole, Ze Minkandé Jacqueline
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2017.712040
Abstract: Background: The efficacy of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been demonstrated in postoperative analgesia, but few studies have evaluated its intraoperative effects. We aimed to describe the intraoperative hemodynamic and analgesic effects of pre-incisional TAP block in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy. Methods: Seventy women proposed for total abdominal hysterectomy indicated for uterine fibroids, classified ASA I and II were randomized in a double-blinded model to Group A (n = 35) receiving bilateral ultrasound-guided TAP block with ropivacaine and Group B (n = 35) receiving bilateral ultrasound-guided TAP block with normal saline, followed by general anesthesia. The variations of the heart rate (HR) and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and intraoperative fentanyl consumption were studied. Results: At the arrival in the operating room, there was no significant difference in heart rate and mean arterial pressure noted in both groups. (HR: 85.38 ± 8.44 pulsations/min versus 86.30 ± 10.05 pulsations/min, p = 0.621; MABP: 94.97 ± 13.46 mmHg versus 96.36 ± 12.41 mmHg, p = 0.533). Before surgical incision, no statistically significant difference was detected between the two groups regarding the heart rate and the mean arterial blood pressure. After surgical incision, both the heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure were significantly higher in the Group B. There was a significant decrease in intraoperative fentanyl requirements in the Group A compared to the Group B (293.58 ± 60.59 mcg versus 449.44 ± 71.31 mcg, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Pre-incisional TAP block attenuates hemodynamic responses to surgical stress and decreases intraoperative fentanyl requirements in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy.
Antioxidant Status of Bilirubin and Uric Acid in Patients Diagnosed with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Douala
Kouam Eric Bertrand,Ndomou Mathieu,Gouado Inocent,Fotso Kuate Honore
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant status have been implicated in the pathogenesis of malaria. To assess the antioxidant level of bilirubin and uric acid associated with falciparum malaria infection, 60 untreated patients (30 men and 30 women) in Douala, Cameroon were screened for the study. Sixty five healthy individuals (29 men and 36 women) were used as controls. Total and conjugated bilirubin were calculated using Jendrassik-Grof method while uric acid was determined using Barham-Trinder method. It was observed that total and conjugated bilirubins were significantly (p<0.001) higher in malaria patients (10.722 ± 4.043 and 3.627 ± 1.571 mg L-1, respectively) when compared to control (6.830 ± 2.436 and 1.777 ± 0.729 mg L-1) and these bilirubin levels increased significantly with parasite count (p<0.050). There was also significant increased (p = 0.021) of uric acid in malaria patients (56.262 ± 13.963 mg L-1) compared to controls (49.838 ±15.419 mg L-1). No significant differences based on sex were observed on uric acid, parasite count, total and conjugated bilirubins in malaria patients. Positive correlations were obtained between parasite count and total bilirubin (r = 0.320, p<0.050), conjugated bilirubin (r = 0.477, p<0.001), uric acid (r = 0.060, p>0.050) and between total and conjugated bilirubin (r = 0.729, p<0.001). From this study, it has been hypothesized that the augmentation of plasma level of bilirubin and uric acid could provide more protection against oxidative stress induced by malaria.
A User Made Thick Film System
M. Honore,R. Govaearts,D. Hostens,B. Bouw
Active and Passive Electronic Components , 1980, DOI: 10.1155/apec.6.151
Business Process Requirement Engineering
Atsa Etoundi Roger,,Fouda Ndjodo Marcel,Atouba Christian Lopez
International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: Requirement engineering is as an increasingly important discipline for supporting business process and workflow modeling, as these are designed to satisfy diverse customer needs, and increase the productivity of enterprise. Moreover, most customers hesitate to adopt a given product or service if the added value is not conformed to their desires. Dealing with customers, with a wide range of perspective, within an enterprise, is very complex. These perspectives are grounded in differences in skills, responsibility, knowledge and expertise of stakeholders. This holds more in the domain of business processes and workflows where the satisfaction of the customers is the must if these enterprises wish to deal with the pressure of the network economy. Based on the requirement engineering, we present in this paper an integration of RE approach in the modeling of business process and workflows. (Abstract)
A Goal Based Approach for QFD Refinement in Systematizing and Identifying Business Process Requirements
Roger Atsa Etoundi,Marcel Fouda Ndjodo,Atouba Christian Lopez
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2010,
Abstract: The traditional Quality Function Deployment (QFD) methodology has successfully been used in many organizations in order to increase the productivity and the quality of service. However, this methodology has many limitations such as the ambiguous and unsystematic identification of customer requirements. In this paper, based on a goal oriented approach for the definition of business process requirement model, we define a model that overcomes the defined limits.
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