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Reflections on Israel's Public Diplomacy
Meron Medzini
Bulletin du Centre de Recherche Fran?ais de Jérusalem , 2012,
Abstract: La diplomatie publique d'Isra l a été souvent vilipendée en Isra l et à l'étranger. Ceci est largement d à une différence entre la politique et le marketing de la politique. Les critiques de la hasbara israélienne soutiennent généralement que le maigre financement, les luttes intestines et la multiplicité des organisations responsables, le faible niveau professionnel sont responsables de la médiocre image d'Isra l, surtout dans les pays occidentaux. Ils n'élargissent pas leur perspective jusqu'à voir que l'information soutient l'action, afin d'aider à formuler et à mettre en uvre une politique par un marketing adéquat. Il demeure que lorsqu'Isra l a poursuivi une politique positive, signé des traités de paix, fait des concessions, son image s'est considérablement améliorée. Quand le pays a choisi l'immobilisme, l'image s'est dégradée. Cet article décrit l'évolution de la diplomatie publique israélienne depuis 1948. Israel's public diplomacy has been the subject of much abuse and vilification both in Israel and abroad. This is largely due to the misunderstanding between policies and the marketing of those policies. Critics of Israel's Hasbara efforts usually argue that poor funding, organizational infighting, multiplicity of bodies dealing with Hasbara, low level and quality of officials are responsible for Israel's poor image mainly in Western countries. They fail to look at the broader picture in which information is a supporting action, designed to assist the formulation and implementation of a policy by marketing it properly. The fact remains that when Israel pursued what was seen as a positive policy, signed peace treaties and made territorial concessions, its image improved dramatically. When it adhered to a policy of immobilism its image plunged. The paper describes the evolution of Israel's public diplomacy since 1948.
Phase fronts and synchronization patterns in forced oscillatory systems
Ehud Meron
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society , 2000, DOI: 10.1155/s1026022600000212
Abstract: This is a review of recent studies of extended oscillatory systems that are subjected to periodic temporal forcing. The periodic forcing breaks the continuous time translation symmetry and leaves a discrete set of stable uniform phase states. The multiplicity of phase states allows for front structures that shift the oscillation phase by π/n where n=1,2,…, hereafter π/n-fronts. The main concern here is with front instabilities and their implications on pattern formation. Most theoretical studies have focused on the 2:1 resonance where the system oscillates at half the driving frequency. All front solutions in this case are π-fronts. At high forcing strengths only stationary fronts exist. Upon decreasing the forcing strength the stationary fronts lose stability to pairs of counter-propagating fronts. The coexistence of counter-propagating fronts allows for traveling domains and spiral waves. In the 4:1 resonance stationary π-fronts coexist with π/2-fronts. At high forcing strengths the stationary π-fronts are stable and standing two-phase waves, consisting of successive oscillatory domains whose phases differ by π,, prevail. Upon decreasing the forcing strength the stationary π-fronts lose stability and decompose into pairs of propagating π/2-fronts. The instability designates a transition from standing two-phase waves to traveling four-phase waves. Analogous decomposition instabilities have been found numerically in higher 2n:1 resonances. The available theory is used to account for a few experimental observations made on the photosensitive Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction subjected to periodic illumination. Observations not accounted for by the theory are pointed out.
Self-organization in interface dynamics and urban development
Ehud Meron
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society , 1998, DOI: 10.1155/s1026022699000163
Abstract: The view of the urban environment as an extended nonlinear system introduces new concepts, motivates new questions, and suggests new methodologies in the study of urban dynamics. A review of recent results on interface dynamics in nonequilibrium physical systems is presented, and possible implications on the urban environment are discussed. It is suggested that the growth modes of specific urban zones (e.g. residential, commercial, or industrial) and the factors affecting them can be studied using mathematical models that capture two generic interface instabilities.
A Numerical Approach to Ion Channel Modelling Using Whole-Cell Voltage-Clamp Recordings and a Genetic Algorithm
Meron Gurkiewicz,Alon Korngreen
PLOS Computational Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.0030169
Abstract: The activity of trans-membrane proteins such as ion channels is the essence of neuronal transmission. The currently most accurate method for determining ion channel kinetic mechanisms is single-channel recording and analysis. Yet, the limitations and complexities in interpreting single-channel recordings discourage many physiologists from using them. Here we show that a genetic search algorithm in combination with a gradient descent algorithm can be used to fit whole-cell voltage-clamp data to kinetic models with a high degree of accuracy. Previously, ion channel stimulation traces were analyzed one at a time, the results of these analyses being combined to produce a picture of channel kinetics. Here the entire set of traces from all stimulation protocols are analysed simultaneously. The algorithm was initially tested on simulated current traces produced by several Hodgkin-Huxley–like and Markov chain models of voltage-gated potassium and sodium channels. Currents were also produced by simulating levels of noise expected from actual patch recordings. Finally, the algorithm was used for finding the kinetic parameters of several voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels models by matching its results to data recorded from layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the rat cortex in the nucleated outside-out patch configuration. The minimization scheme gives electrophysiologists a tool for reproducing and simulating voltage-gated ion channel kinetics at the cellular level.
Domain Walls in Non-Equilibrium Systems and the Emergence of Persistent Patterns
Aric Hagberg,Ehud Meron
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.48.705
Abstract: Domain walls in equilibrium phase transitions propagate in a preferred direction so as to minimize the free energy of the system. As a result, initial spatio-temporal patterns ultimately decay toward uniform states. The absence of a variational principle far from equilibrium allows the coexistence of domain walls propagating in any direction. As a consequence, *persistent* patterns may emerge. We study this mechanism of pattern formation using a non-variational extension of Landau's model for second order phase transitions. PACS numbers: 05.70.Fh, 42.65.Pc, 47.20.Ky, 82.20Mj
Kinematic Equations for Front Motion and Spiral-Wave Nucleation
Aric Hagberg,Ehud Meron
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1016/S0378-4371(97)00439-1
Abstract: We present a new set of kinematic equations for front motion in bistable media. The equations extend earlier kinematic approaches by coupling the front curvature with the order parameter associated with a parity breaking front bifurcation. In addition to naturally describing the core region of rotating spiral waves the equations can be be used to study the nucleation of spiral-wave pairs along uniformly propagating fronts. The analysis of spiral-wave nucleation reduces to the simpler problem of droplet, or domain, nucleation in one space dimension.
Complex Patterns in Reaction-Diffusion Systems: A Tale of Two Front Instabilities
Aric Hagberg,Ehud Meron
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1063/1.166047
Abstract: Two front instabilities in a reaction-diffusion system are shown to lead to the formation of complex patterns. The first is an instability to transverse modulations that drives the formation of labyrinthine patterns. The second is a Nonequilibrium Ising-Bloch (NIB) bifurcation that renders a stationary planar front unstable and gives rise to a pair of counterpropagating fronts. Near the NIB bifurcation the relation of the front velocity to curvature is highly nonlinear and transitions between counterpropagating fronts become feasible. Nonuniformly curved fronts may undergo local front transitions that nucleate spiral-vortex pairs. These nucleation events provide the ingredient needed to initiate spot splitting and spiral turbulence. Similar spatio-temporal processes have been observed recently in the ferrocyanide-iodate-sulfite reaction.
A Mechanism for Spatio-Temporal Disorder in Bistable Reaction-Diffusion Systems
Aric Hagberg,Ehud Meron
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: In bistable systems, the stability of front structures often influences the dynamics of extended patterns. We show how the combined effect of an instability to curvature modulations and proximity to a pitchfork front bifurcation leads to spontaneous nucleation of spiral waves along the front. This effect is demonstrated by direct simulations of a FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) model and by simulations of order parameter equations for the front velocity and curvature. Spontaneous spiral-wave nucleation often results in a state of spatio-temporal disorder involving repeated events of spiral wave nucleation, domain spliting and spiral wave annihilation.
The Dynamics of Curved Fronts: Beyond Geometry
Aric Hagberg,Ehud Meron
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.78.1166
Abstract: We derive a new set of kinematic equations for front motion in two-dimensional bistable media. The equations generalize the geometric approach by complementing the equation for the front curvature with an order parameter equation associated with a nonequilibrium Ising-Bloch bifurcation. The resulting equations capture the core structure of spiral waves and spontaneous spiral-wave nucleation.
From Labyrinthine Patterns to Spiral Turbulence
Aric Hagberg,Ehud Meron
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.72.2494
Abstract: A new mechanism for spiral vortex nucleation in nongradient reaction diffusion systems is proposed. It involves two key ingredients: An Ising-Bloch type front bifurcation and an instability of a planar front to transverse perturbations. Vortex nucleation by this mechanism plays an important role in inducing a transition from labyrinthine patterns to spiral turbulence. PACS numbers: 05.45.+b, 82.20.Mj
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