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Second Language Acquisition: Reconciling Theories  [PDF]
Vera Menezes
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2013.37050
Abstract:

This article argues that previous attempts to explain SLA should not be disregarded. Instead, when they are put together, they provide a broader and deeper view of the acquisition process. There is evidence to support the claim that second language acquisition (SLA) is a complex adaptive system due to its inherent ability to adapt to different conditions present in both internal and external environments. Based on this understanding, widely discussed second language theories, including behaviorism, will be treated as explanations of parts of a whole, since each captures a different aspect of SLA. In order to justify this assumption, excerpts from some English language learning histories are provided to exemplify how learners describe their learning processes. The final claim is that SLA should be seen as a chaotic/complex system.

Contribui??o ao conhecimento dos algas do gênero Euglena (Euglenophyceae) no município do Rio de Janeiro e arredores, Brasil
Menezes, Mariangela;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 1989, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33061989000100003
Abstract: a taxonomical survey was first carried out at a floristic inventory of the pigmented euglena ehr. (euglenophyceae), based on the analisys of near 150 samples, collected from august 1980 to november 1982 at accessible bodies of water of the municipality of rio de janeiro and surroundings, brazil. of the samples collected, 68 contained specimens of pigmented euglenoids, of these 36 showed repiesentatives of euglena. seventeen taxa were identified and distributed in 14 species and 3 varieties, of which 8 have already been identified for the state of rio de janeiro, being the others for the first time recorded in the area. euglena agilis h. j. cart, was the best represented taxon in number of samples studied, which occured in 22% of the 36 samples analized. each taxon was described in detail, measured, illustrated and commented on the bases of vegetative morphology in living material and whenever possible studied from population samples. information on geographic distribution of the 17 taxa in the state of rio de janeiro was provided, as well a indented artificial key for the recognition of species and varieties identified. forty eight illustrations, a map of the state and another of the municipality to show the collecting sites, complement the text.
A pra?a do Martim Moniz: etnografando lógicas socioculturais de inscri??o da pra?a no mapa social de Lisboa
Menezes, Marluci;
Horizontes Antropológicos , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-71832009000200013
Abstract: departing from the ethnography of use/appropriation episodes of martim moniz plaza, this paper discuss about the importance of the ethnographical practice in the apprehension and understanding of the everyday circumstances. some social/cultural aspects are discussed which contributed to the invention of a geography of resistance in this specific area of the city and also to the inscription of this plaza in the social and urban map of lisbon. four motives have oriented this reasoning: 1) the geographic situation of that plaza (at lisbon's centre); 2) it's building configuration as a result of a set of controversial social and urban policies; 3) the representativeness of this specific plaza - namely, of two shopping malls that arise, at the plaza, as symbolic meeting points - in an attempt to construct a multi-ethnic and a multi-cultural image of the city; 4) the role of this plaza regarding the definition of a set of political manifestations.
Major Reis e a constitui??o visual do Brasil enquanto na??o
Menezes, Paulo;
Horizontes Antropológicos , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-71832008000100010
Abstract: this article analyses the movie ao redor do brasil, from thomaz reis, taking as theoretical main references paulo arantes's, 'o sentido da forma??o', and foucault's 'a ordem do discurso'. in this direction, it interprets the movie as a speech immersed in the debates of its time related to the constitution of brazil as a nation, which was frequent in everyday life and an important intellectual issue in the 20's ans 30's last century. in parallel do what was being discussed in literature and plastic arts, the movie is carefully assembled, using several scenes from reis's previous movies to visually denote a nation, not in its way to consolidate itself, but with a countryside already pacified, which would give it a label of civility, therefore inserting it in the civilizing process and, at the same time, with definitive frontiers secured by the presence of a institutions characteristic of the modern state: schools, policy, army and others (an image very different from what could be effectively verified at that time).
Do espa?o ao lugar: do lugar às remodela??es sócio-espaciais
Menezes, Marluci;
Horizontes Antropológicos , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-71832000000100008
Abstract: considering the undertaken that the objectivity and visibility of the space are possible through the study of the "place", boarding some perspectives of theoretical and empirical scope that, in the continuation of the inquiry in urban contexts, have allowed me to reflect on the processes of maintenance and transformation. i use as parameter maker of this reflection the idea of "remodeling", for understanding that this allows to understand the social and spatial dynamics as processes of (re)creation or constant invention of the space-habitat, of the forms to inhabit and of the forms to think the habitat.
Vaccination of Callithrix jacchus (Linné, 1758) marmosets with the PF strain of Trypanosoma cruzi
Menezes, Humberto;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1981, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761981000200004
Abstract: callithrix jacchus marmosets, vaccinated more than once with high doses of the pf strain of trypanosoma cruzi, showed a certain degree of parasitemia related to the number of parasites injected. thirty days after vaccination, all animals were alive and showed no apparent morbid symptoms. the relationship between the dose of injected trypanosomes and the observed parasitemias is discussed and analysed as well as the immunologic incompetence of the experimental animals used.
Les Ma?tres Fous, de Jean Rouch: quest?es epistemológicas da rela??o entre cinema documental e produ??o de conhecimento
Menezes, Paulo;
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-69092007000100007
Abstract: this paper analyses the icon of the documental cinema les ma?tres fous, by jean rouch, from the theoretical questioning discussed by foucault in what is an author, having as reference the typology of analysis of documentaries proposed by bill nichols. we aim at understanding the film primarily as a discourse on the world and not as a film of jean rouch. this forces the scholar to take some epistemological deviation, which consists in not performing the analysis based on its evident information, the "description" of a ritual, but by the search of the fundamental concepts of the filmic narrative, dialectical unity of form and content. the paper proposes an analysis in which the film emerges as the least one of a conservative tradition, whose repercussions were decisive for the essential filmic and epistemological rupture towards the rich and meaningful unfoldings the works of rouch unveiled afterwards.
Representifica??o: as rela??es (im)possíveis entre cinema documental e conhecimento
Menezes, Paulo;
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-69092003000100007
Abstract: this article discusses the appearance of the documental cinema by means of analyzing its original variants - the documentary, the social documentary, and the ethnographic movie - in their relationships with the knowledge possibilities they offer, or the access to knowledge, of the social reality from their positivist foundations. it also discusses the role of "fiction" and the staging of the "real" in such movies. questioning their epistemological potentialities while investigating what kind of information those images propose. finally, the author proposes the "representification" as a concept that overcomes both the problems and the notions commonly used to analyze the relationship between imagery and reality - reproduction, performance and double - as it recovers the documental cinematographic discourse essential building character, regarding as significant the relationship between image and spectator.
Heran?as de 68: cinema e sexualidade
Menezes, Paulo;
Tempo Social , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-20701998000200005
Abstract: may 1968 left remarks and references in many insuspicious areas of human knoledge. in this text we try to explore the relationships wich can be established within its statements, especially those conected to a sexual free set of ideas, and how those themes are dealt by the cinema. films such as blow up, clockwork orange, death in venice, last tango in paris, in the realm of the senses and salo are also analised.
Blow Up imagens e miragens
Menezes, Paulo;
Tempo Social , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-20702000000200003
Abstract: this article analyses blow up, michelangelo antonioni′s film, so as to understand how its visual discourse questions the relationship between the real and the imaginary. behind a crime we know nothing about and will never know, the search carried out by the photographer reveals and questions the relationships between the images and the things whether photographs or films. he proposes meanings for their foundations and points of view, that set them apart from interpretations that see them as reproductions or representations of a a real presupposed as being whole and pre-existent.
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