Abstract:
Background The presence and extent of structural changes in the brain as a consequence of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is still poorly understood. Methods High-resolution 3-tesla T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images in sixty-five PD and 27 age-matched healthy control participants were examined. Putamen, caudate, and intracranial volumes were manually traced in the axial plane of 3D reconstructed images. Striatal nuclei volumes were normalized to intracranial volume for statistical comparison. Disease status was assessed using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and Hoehn and Yahr scale. Cognitive status was assessed using global status tests and detailed neuropsychological testing. Results Both caudate and putamen volumes were smaller in PD brains compared to controls after adjusting for age and gender. Caudate volumes were reduced by 11% (p = 0.001) and putamen volumes by 8.1% (p = 0.025). PD striatal volumes were not found to be significantly correlated with cognitive or motor decline. Conclusion Small, but significant reductions in the volume of both the caudate and putamen occur in PD brains. These reductions are independent of the effects of age and gender, however the relation of these reductions to the functional loss of dopamine, which is characteristic of PD, remains unclear.

Abstract:
By viewing the Sine-Gordon and massive Thirring models as perturbed conformal field theories one sees that they are different (the difference being observable, for instance, in finite-volume energy levels). The UV limit of the former (SGM) is a gaussian model, that of the latter (MTM) a so-called {\it fermionic} gaussian model, the compactification radius of the boson underlying both theories depending on the SG/MT coupling. (These two families of conformal field theories are related by a ``twist''.) Corresponding SG and MT models contain a subset of fields with identical correlation functions, but each model also has fields the other one does not, e.g. the fermion fields of MTM are not contained in SGM, and the {\it bosonic} soliton fields of SGM are not in MTM. Our results imply, in particular, that the SGM at the so-called ``free-Dirac point'' $\beta^2 = 4\pi$ is actually a theory of two interacting bosons with diagonal S-matrix $S=-1$, and that for arbitrary couplings the overall sign of the accepted SG S-matrix in the soliton sector should be reversed. More generally, we draw attention to the existence of new classes of quantum field theories, analogs of the (perturbed) fermionic gaussian models, whose partition functions are invariant only under a subgroup of the modular group. One such class comprises ``fermionic versions'' of the Virasoro minimal models.

Abstract:
Using results of the thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz approach and conformal perturbation theory we argue that the $\phi_{1,3}$-perturbation of a unitary minimal $(1+1)$-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) in the $D$-series of modular invariant partition functions induces a renormalization group (RG) flow to the next-lower model in the $D$-series. An exception is the first model in the series, the 3-state Potts CFT, which under the $\ZZ_2$-even $\phi_{1,3}$-perturbation flows to the tricritical Ising CFT, the second model in the $A$-series. We present arguments that in the $A$-series flow corresponding to this exceptional case, interpolating between the tetracritical and the tricritical Ising CFT, the IR fixed point is approached from ``exactly the opposite direction''. Our results indicate how (most of) the relevant conformal fields evolve from the UV to the IR CFT.

Abstract:
A (1+1)-dimensional quantum field theory with a degenerate vacuum (in infinite volume) can contain particles, known as kinks, which interpolate between different vacua and have nontrivial restrictions on their multi-particle Hilbert space. Assuming such a theory to be integrable, we show how to calculate the multi-kink energy levels in finite volume given its factorizable $S$-matrix. In massive theories this can be done exactly up to contributions due to off-shell and tunneling effects that fall off exponentially with volume. As a first application we compare our analytical predictions for the kink scattering theories conjectured to describe the subleading thermal and magnetic perturbations of the tricritical Ising model with numerical results from the truncated conformal space approach. In particular, for the subleading magnetic perturbation our results allow us to decide between the two different $S$-matrices proposed by Smirnov and Zamolodchikov.

Abstract:
The Pycnogonida or sea spiders are cryptic, eight-legged arthropods with four median ocelli in a ‘periscope’ or eye tubercle. In older attempts at reconstructing phylogeny they were Arthropoda incertae sedis, but recent molecular trees placed them as the sister group either to all other euchelicerates or even to all euarthropods. Thus, pycnogonids are among the oldest extant arthropods and hold a key position for the understanding of arthropod evolution. This has stimulated studies of new sets of characters conductive to cladistic analyses, e.g. of the chelifores and of the hox gene expression pattern. In contrast knowledge of the architecture of the visual system is cursory. A few studies have analysed the ocelli and the uncommon “pseudoinverted” retinula cells. Moreover, analyses of visual neuropils are still at the stage of Hanstr？m's early comprehensive works. We have therefore used various techniques to analyse the visual fibre pathways and the structure of their interrelated neuropils in several species. We found that pycnogonid ocelli are innervated to first and second visual neuropils in close vicinity to an unpaired midline neuropil, i.e. possibly the arcuate body, in a way very similar to ancestral euarthropods like Euperipatoides rowelli (Onychophora) and Limulus polyphemus (Xiphosura). This supports the ancestrality of pycnogonids and sheds light on what eyes in the pycnogonid ground plan might have ‘looked’ like. Recently it was suggested that arthropod eyes originated from simple ocelli similar to larval eyes. Hence, pycnogonid eyes would be one of the early offshoots among the wealth of more sophisticated arthropod eyes.

Abstract:
We present an analysis of the Sommerfeld enhancement to dark matter annihilation in the presence of an excited state, where the interaction inducing the enhancement is purely off-diagonal, such as in models of exciting or inelastic dark matter. We derive a simple and accurate semi-analytic approximation for the s-wave enhancement, which is valid provided the mass splitting between the ground and excited states is not too large, and discuss the cutoff of the enhancement for large mass splittings. We reproduce previously derived results in the appropriate limits, and demonstrate excellent agreement with numerical calculations of the enhancement. We show that the presence of an excited state leads to generically larger values of the Sommerfeld enhancement, larger resonances, and shifting of the resonances to lower mediator masses. Furthermore, in the presence of a mass splitting the enhancement is no longer a monotonic function of velocity: the enhancement where the kinetic energy is close to that required to excite the higher state can be up to twice as large as the enhancement at zero velocity.

Abstract:
Any injection of electromagnetically interacting particles during the cosmic dark ages will lead to increased ionization, heating, production of Lyman-alpha photons and distortions to the energy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background, with potentially observable consequences. In this note we describe numerical results for the low-energy electrons and photons produced by the cooling of particles injected at energies from keV to multi-TeV scales, at arbitrary injection redshifts (but focusing on the post-recombination epoch). We use these data, combined with existing calculations modeling the cooling of these low-energy particles, to estimate the resulting contributions to ionization, excitation and heating of the gas, and production of low-energy photons below the threshold for excitation and ionization. We compute corrected deposition-efficiency curves for annihilating dark matter, and demonstrate how to compute equivalent curves for arbitrary energy-injection histories. These calculations provide the necessary inputs for the limits on dark matter annihilation presented in the accompanying Paper I, but also have potential applications in the context of dark matter decay or de-excitation, decay of other metastable species, or similar energy injections from new physics. We make our full results publicly available at http://nebel.rc.fas.harvard.edu/epsilon, to facilitate further independent studies. In particular, we provide the full low-energy electron and photon spectra, to allow matching onto more detailed codes that describe the cooling of such particles at low energies.

Abstract:
Dark matter annihilation or de-excitation, decay of metastable species, or other new physics may inject energetic electrons and photons into the photon-baryon fluid during and after recombination. As such particles cool, they partition their energy into a large number of efficiently ionizing electrons and photons, which in turn modify the ionization history. Recent work has provided a simple method for constraining arbitrary energy deposition histories using the cosmic microwave background (CMB); in this note, we present results describing the energy deposition histories for photons and electrons as a function of initial energy and injection redshift. With these results, the CMB bounds on any process injecting some arbitrary spectrum of electrons, positrons and/or photons with arbitrary redshift dependence can be immediately computed.

Abstract:
Objectives: To describe the versatility of acellular fetal bovine dermal matrix as an alternative to human cadaveric allograft for head and neck reconstructive procedures in children. Study Design: Case series with chart review. Methods: A database of pediatric operative procedures was queried for the use of acellular fetal bovine dermal matrix over a 16-month period. Indications for reconstruction were assessed and initial parental and surgeon satisfaction with the product were noted. Results: During the time period of 3/2012 and 7/2013 a total of 8 reconstructive procedures were performed on pediatric patients using acellular fetal bovine dermal matrix. Indications for use varied and included open and transnasal endoscopic repair of encephaloceles and soft tissue reconstructions including lateral pharyngeal wall repair, cleft palate repair, and facial recontouring operations. Acellular fetal bovine dermal matrix had a subjectively increased ease of use as compared to the surgeon’s prior experience with human cadaveric acellular dermis. Every parent vocalized a greater comfort level with the use of a bovine product over the alternative of human cadaveric tissue. The cost of acellular fetal bovine dermal matrix is slightly lower than the cost of human cadaveric acellular dermis. Conclusions: Acellular fetal bovine dermal matrix appears to be an acceptable alternative to human cadaveric acellular dermis for various forms of head and neck soft tissue reconstruction in children. Further prospective studies are warranted to assess for any differences in the long-term efficacy of this product as compared to other forms of allograft reconstruction.

Abstract:
We present sum representations for all characters of the unitary Virasoro minimal models. They can be viewed as fermionic companions of the Rocha-Caridi sum representations, the latter related to the (bosonic) Feigin-Fuchs-Felder construction. We also give fermionic representations for certain characters of the general $(G^{(1)})_k \times (G^{(1)})_l \over (G^{(1)})_{k+l}}$ coset conformal field theories, the non-unitary minimal models ${\cal M}(p,p+2)$ and ${\cal M}(p,kp+1)$, the $N$=2 superconformal series, and the $\ZZ_N$-parafermion theories, and relate the $q\to 1$ behaviour of all these fermionic sum representations to the thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz.