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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2256 matches for " Melissa Milkie "
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The Problems and Promises of Parenting in a Gendered World
Melissa Milkie
The Canadian Journal of Sociology , 2011,
Abstract: Review Essay
Transforming Energy Usage: It’s Not Only about Solar  [PDF]
Melissa Matlock
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2014.32004

GRID Alternatives, a non-profit solar contractor, installs solar electric systems for low-income families. Part of GRID Alternatives’ program is to provide solar electric systems that are designed to replace 75% of the homeowners’ electricity usage with solar power. This leaves 25% of their bill still to be paid. In order to save our resources, one must first use conservation practices, then energy efficiency, and then follow-up with renewable energy to cover the rest. GRID Alternatives Inland Empire (GRID IE) educates our participating homeowners and community members on this philosophy. However, measuring whether or not our families have been following this philosophy is hard to prove. It may seem obvious that if we want to know whether our homeowners are saving energy, we should look at their energy usage before and after solar. However, this is not the case with our low-income families that could be using electricity to make their lives more comfortable. GRID IE developed a survey to be given before homeowners received their solar systems and started their participation with GRID Alternatives and the same survey to be given after they have received their solar systems. This before and after survey (pre-test/post-test) asked our homeowners to rate their responses to 7 questions on a scale of 1 - 10. The before and after responses for each person were compared, and as a group, their differences were calculated to find out if the differences were statistically significance (within subjects, dependent Z test). 6 out of 7 questions showed statistical significance. The big picture is that change is happening among our low-income homeowners and has happened for many of the varied energy saving methods discussed. It is important to transform energy usage, because the solution is not just solved with solar.

Latinas’ Experience of Sexual Assault Disclosure  [PDF]
Melissa Villarreal
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.510140

This study describes Latina’s experience of sexual assault disclosure. This study contributes Latinas’ voices to the literature on sexual assault disclosure, about feelings experienced during the initial disclosure—regret, shame, and negative judgment of self, and about consequences experienced from the disclosure—feeling spoiled for marriage, silenced, and disbelieved. It points to the need for further research on social interventions to empower Latina sexual assault survivors. Although the literature review identified some research in the area of sexual assault with Latinas, there has been a limited amount of research conducted on feelings and consequences experienced specifically by Latinas during a sexual assault disclosure.

Hierarchical Image Segmentation Using a Combined Geometrical and Feature Based Approach  [PDF]
Melissa Cote, Parvaneh Saeedi
Journal of Data Analysis and Information Processing (JDAIP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jdaip.2014.24014
Abstract: This paper presents a fully automatic segmentation algorithm based on geometrical and local attributes of color images. This method incorporates a hierarchical assessment scheme into any general segmentation algorithm for which the segmentation sensitivity can be changed through parameters. The parameters are varied to create different segmentation levels in the hierarchy. The algorithm examines the consistency of segments based on local features and their relationships with each other, and selects segments at different levels to generate a final segmentation. This adaptive parameter variation scheme provides an automatic way to set segmentation sensitivity parameters locally according to each region's characteristics instead of the entire image. The algorithm does not require any training dataset. The geometrical attributes can be defined by a shape prior for specific applications, i.e. targeting objects of interest, or by one or more general constraint(s) such as boundaries between regions for non-specific applications. Using mean shift as the general segmentation algorithm, we show that our hierarchical approach generates segments that satisfy geometrical properties while conforming with local properties. In the case of using a shape prior, the algorithm can cope with partial occlusions. Evaluation is carried out on the Berkeley Segmentation Dataset and Benchmark (BSDS300) (general natural images) and on geo-spatial images (with specific shapes of interest). The F-measure for our proposed algorithm, i.e. the harmonic mean between precision and recall rates, is 64.2% on BSDS300, outperforming the same segmentation algorithm in its standard non-hierarchical variant.
Initiation and Regulation of CNS Autoimmunity: Balancing Immune Surveillance and Inflammation in the CNS  [PDF]
Melissa G. Harris, Zsuzsanna Fabry
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2012.33026
Abstract: While the central nervous system (CNS) was once thought to be immune privileged, more recent data support that certain areas of the healthy CNS are routinely patrolled by immune cells. Further, antigen drainage is another means by which the adaptive arm of the immune system can gain information about the health of the CNS. Altogether these ensure that the CNS is not beyond the scope of immune protection against viruses and tumors. However, immune surveillance in the CNS has to be tightly regulated, as CNS autoimmune disease and inflammation may arise from increased immune cell infiltration. In this review we discuss the concept and implications of CNS immune surveillance and introduce the CNS antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that potentially regulate neuroinflammation and autoimmunity. We also discuss novel animal models in which CNS disease initiation and the role of APCs in disease regulation can be tested.
Identifying Techniques for Encouraging Compassionate Communication: Supporting Behaviour for International Primary School Students in Shanghai, China  [PDF]
Melissa D. Arnesen-Trunzo
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.36011

Techniques for encouraging compassionate communication were created by Melissa Arnesen- Trunzo in 2012 in response to providing younger learners with the skills needed to communicate and support positive behavior in the classroom. The techniques developed support young learners with where they are cognitively and respect cultural and language differences found in international classrooms. Combining ideas developed for Nonviolent Communication by Marshall Rosenberg and using David Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory, techniques were designed to support young learners with their cognitive and social needs. The techniques used allow young learners to develop awareness of their actions and words when conflicts arise in the classroom. Cards, role- plays, drawings, discussions, and reflections are some of the techniques that were used when a conflict occurred. The techniques are still being explored, but can be adapted for whole groups, small groups, and individual learners. These techniques have been used to bolster positive behavior in the classroom, active communication among peers, and limit teacher involvement; allowing learners to take an active role in communicating their feelings and needs.

Response to Joep M. A. Lange
Melissa Ditmore
PLOS Medicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0020347
New control over worm rhythms
Melissa Phillips
Genome Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20051011-01
Abstract: "It seems, at least in the worm, that vav has a key regulatory function in controlling biological rhythms," said senior author Andres Villu Maricq of the University of Utah in Salt Lake City.Still, Villu Maricq and his colleagues note that many other animals have vav genes whose function may be conserved.Previous work has shown that oscillations in intracellular calcium trigger C. elegans muscle contractions necessary for peristalsis, gonadal contractions, and defecation. Studies in mammalian immune cells have also suggested that members of the Vav protein family may control intracellular calcium signaling.Maricq and his colleagues identified an open reading frame in the C. elegans genome that encodes a protein containing all the characteristic domains of the vertebrate Vav proteins. This protein, which they name VAV-1, is expressed in rhythmically contracting tissues, including the pharynx, intestine, gonads, and rectal epithelia.When Maricq and his co-workers created a mutant worm with a deletion mutation in vav-1, all the worms died early in the larval stage. It was a "huge surprise" that vav-1 was larval-lethal, Maricq told The Scientist, and an equally big surprise that the cause of death was a lack of pharyngeal pumping.Contractions normally occur every 1 to 2 seconds, but in the mutants, these movements were weak and asynchronyous, as were calcium fluctuations in pharyngeal cells. When the researchers restored expression of VAV-1 protein in the mutants, however, normal pharyngeal function returned and they no longer died prematurely.To examine other rhythmic movements in C. elegans, the researchers restored VAV-1 protein expression exclusively in the pharynx. As adults, the mutants displayed normal locomotion but severely reduced fertility. Fertilization in C. elegans hermaphrodites requires a "complex choregraphy," Maricq said, of gonadal sheath-cell contractions, oocyte maturation, and opening of the speratheca, which houses sperm and receives eggs ready to
Epigenetics lives on in clones
Melissa Phillips
Genome Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20050204-01
Abstract: "The idea that active gene transcription can be stable through pretty dramatic cell changes is not new," Paul Wade of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences told The Scientist. "What's new is that it survives nuclear transfer."When a somatic nucleus is transferred to an oocyte, factors in the cytoplasm induce an erasure of the differentiated cell program in favor of an embryonic transcriptional program. But the process is not perfect; previous studies have shown that some genes that are silenced in differentiated cells fail to turn on during reprogramming. Ng and Gurdon wanted to see if some genes may likewise fail to turn off.The authors transplanted nuclei from the Xenopus embryo neuroectoderm and endoderm into oocytes that had been enucleated by UV radiation. They dissected the developing embryos into two sections: the animal region, which develops into neuroectoderm, and the vegetal region, which will become endoderm.In a normally developing embryo, the pan-neural marker Sox2 is highly expressed in the animal region, but found only at background levels in the vegetal region. In embryos cloned from neuroectoderm nuclei, the authors found that 17 of 21 samples overexpressed Sox2 significantly in the vegetal region; only four of 18 samples showed abnormally high Sox2 expression in the animal region.They found the converse effect in embryos derived from endoderm. Edd, an endoderm marker gene, is usually expressed highly in vegetal regions but not in animal. In the nuclear transplants, nine of 20 embryos expressed edd more than twice background levels in the animal region, while vegetal expression was almost entirely normal."The continued expression of somatic cell genes" is not surprising, according to Keith Latham of Temple University. Nonviable clones presumably fail both to turn off the adult program completely and to turn on the embryonic program completely, Latham said.Ng and Gurdon also found that edd transcription begins early in most animal
Circadian regulation of reward
Melissa Phillips
Genome Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20050614-01
Abstract: A link between circadian rhythms and behavioral response to cocaine has been suggested by previous work, lead author Colleen McClung, of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, told The Scientist. "But there wasn't a whole lot showing that the individual genes involved in circadian rhythms are also involved in reward pathways," McClung said.She and her colleagues examined the effect of cocaine in mice that did not make the CLOCK protein, which is a transcription factor with a central role in the body's suprachiasmatic nucleus circadian clock.The investigators found that Clock mutants were abnormally physically active even without cocaine. The mutants also showed greater cocaine sensitization than wild-type controls, as measured by increasing movement levels with repeated cocaine doses.The mice without Clock also spent much more time than did wild-type mice in the parts of their cages where they could get cocaine, which hints that the mutants found cocaine more rewarding, McClung said.The researchers next examined the Clock mutants' neural activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine system. This system mediates the rewards felt from drugs like cocaine, as well as from natural rewards like food and sex—"anything that causes you to have a good feeling, basically," McClung said.They found CLOCK protein expressed in all of the VTA's dopaminergic neurons, which they identified by the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis.The Clock mutant mice had two to three times as much TH–and two to three times as much phosphorylated TH–in the VTA as did wild-type mice. "Overall increases in TH and in phosphorylation of TH are involved in the production of dopamine," McClung said. "The cells, presumably, are making more dopamine and so they're releasing more dopamine."VTA dopaminergic neurons were also more excitable in Clock mutants. This increase in dopaminergic neuron firing is similar to what is seen in other a
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