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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1352 matches for " Melanie Rusch "
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Preliminary development of a scale to measure stigma relating to sexually transmitted infections among women in a high risk neighbourhood
Melanie LA Rusch, Jean A Shoveller, Susan Burgess, Karen Stancer, David M Patrick, Mark W Tyndall
BMC Women's Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-8-21
Abstract: A pool of items was identified from qualitative and quantitative literature on sexual behaviour and STIs among women. Women attending a social evening program at a local community health clinic in a low-income neighbourhood with high prevalence of substance use were passively recruited to take part in a cross-sectional structured interview, including questions on sexual behaviour, sexual health and STI-related stigma. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify stigma scales, and descriptive statistics were used to assess the associations of demographics, sexual and drug-related risk behaviours with the emerging scales.Three scales emerged from exploratory factor analysis – female-specific moral stigma, social stigma (judgement by others) and internal stigma (self-judgement) – with alpha co-efficients of 0.737, 0.705 and 0.729, respectively. In this population of women, internal stigma and social stigma carried higher scores than female-specific moral stigma. Aboriginal ethnicity was associated with higher internal and female-specific moral stigma scores, while older age (>30 years) was associated with higher female-specific moral stigma scores.Descriptive statistics indicated an important influence of culture and age on specific types of stigma. Quantitative researchers examining STI-stigma should consider incorporating these female-specific factors in order to tailor scales for women.Stigma has long been a part of our social existence, with the original Greek translation referring to a physical sign exposing a moral imperfection[1]. While in today's society the physical mark need not be present, the moral associations have remained intact. The topic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) presents a good example of the dynamic and socially fluid nature of stigma, as opposed to the stationary, objectified definition it is sometimes given [2]. In relation to the categories of stigma outlined in Goffman's (1963) foundational work, STIs could be argued to cross
Impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions: Prevalence and associations among persons living with HIV/AIDS in British Columbia
Melanie Rusch, Stephanie Nixon, Arn Schilder, Paula Braitstein, Keith Chan, Robert S Hogg
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-2-46
Abstract: A cross-sectional population-based sample of persons living with HIV in British Columbia was obtained through an anonymous survey sent to members of the British Columbia Persons With AIDS Society. The survey addressed the experience of physical and mental impairments, and the experience and level of activity limitations and participation restrictions. Associations were measured in three ways: 1) impact of types of impairment on social restriction; 2) impact of specific limitations on social restriction; and 3) independent association of overall impairments and limitations on restriction levels. Logistic regression was used to measure associations with social restriction, while ordinal logistic regression was used to measure associations with a three-category measure of restriction level.The survey was returned by 762 (50.5%) of the BCPWA participants. Over ninety percent of the population experienced one or more impairments, with one-third reporting over ten. Prevalence of activity limitations and participation restrictions was 80.4% and 93.2%, respectively. The presence of social restrictions was most closely associated with mental function impairments (OR: 7.0 for impairment vs. no impairment; 95% CI: 4.7 – 10.4). All limitations were associated with social restriction. Among those with ≤ 200 CD4 cells/mm3, odds of being at a higher restriction level were lower among those on antiretrovirals (OR: 0.3 for antiretrovirals vs. no antiretrovirals; 95% CI: 0.1–0.9), while odds of higher restriction were increased with higher limitation (OR: 3.6 for limitation score of 1–5 vs. no limitation, 95%CI: 0.9–14.2; OR: 24.7 for limitation score > 5 vs. no limitation, 95%CI: 4.9–125.0). Among those with > 200 CD4 cells/mm3, the odds of higher restriction were increased with higher limitation (OR: 2.7 for limitation score of 1–5 vs. no limitation, 95%CI: 1.4–5.1; OR: 8.6 for limitation score > 5 vs. no limitation, 95%CI: 3.9–18.8), as well as by additional number of impairments
The Association between Active and Passive Smoking and Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Adults and Children in the United States: Results from NHANES
Ryan P. Lindsay, Sanghyuk S. Shin, Richard S. Garfein, Melanie L. A. Rusch, Thomas E. Novotny
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093137
Abstract: Background Few studies assessing the relationship between active and passive smoking and tuberculosis have used biomarkers to measure smoke exposure. We sought to determine the association between active and passive smoking and LTBI in a representative sample of US adults and children. Methods We used the 1999–2000 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset with tuberculin skin test (TST) data to assess the association between cotinine-confirmed smoke exposure and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among adults ages ≥20 years (n = 3598) and children 3–19 years (n = 2943) and estimate the prevalence of smoke exposure among those with LTBI. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was used to measure the associations between active and passive smoking and LTBI. Results LTBI prevalence in 1999–2000 among cotinine-confirmed active, passive, and non-smoking adults and children was 6.0%, 5.2%, 3.3% and 0.3%, 1.0%, 1.5%, respectively. This corresponds to approximately 3,556,000 active and 3,379,000 passive smoking adults with LTBI in the US civilian non-institutionalized population in 1999–2000. Controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic status, race, birthplace (US vs. foreign-born), household size, and having ever lived with someone with TB, adult active smokers were significantly more likely to have LTBI than non-smoking adults (AOR = 2.31 95% CI 1.17–4.55). Adult passive smokers also had a greater odds of LTBI compared with non-smokers, but this association did not achieve statistical significance (AOR = 2.00 95% CI 0.87–4.60). Neither active or passive smoking was associated with LTBI among children. Among only the foreign-born adults, both active (AOR = 2.56 (95% CI 1.20–5.45) and passive smoking (AOR = 2.27 95% CI 1.09–4.72) were significantly associated with LTBI. Conclusions Active adult smokers and both foreign-born active and passive smokers in the United States are at elevated risk for LTBI. Targeted smoking prevention and cessation programs should be included in comprehensive national and international TB control efforts.
Molecular Tools for the Detection of Nitrogen Cycling Archaea
Antje Rusch
Archaea , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/676450
Abstract:
Molecular Tools for the Detection of Nitrogen Cycling Archaea
Antje Rusch
Archaea , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/676450
Abstract: Archaea are widespread in extreme and temperate environments, and cultured representatives cover a broad spectrum of metabolic capacities, which sets them up for potentially major roles in the biogeochemistry of their ecosystems. The detection, characterization, and quantification of archaeal functions in mixed communities require Archaea-specific primers or probes for the corresponding metabolic genes. Five pairs of degenerate primers were designed to target archaeal genes encoding key enzymes of nitrogen cycling: nitrite reductases NirA and NirB, nitrous oxide reductase (NosZ), nitrogenase reductase (NifH), and nitrate reductases NapA/NarG. Sensitivity towards their archaeal target gene, phylogenetic specificity, and gene specificity were evaluated in silico and in vitro. Owing to their moderate sensitivity/coverage, the novel nirB-targeted primers are suitable for pure culture studies only. The nirA-targeted primers showed sufficient sensitivity and phylogenetic specificity, but poor gene specificity. The primers designed for amplification of archaeal nosZ performed well in all 3 criteria; their discrimination against bacterial homologs appears to be weakened when Archaea are strongly outnumbered by bacteria in a mixed community. The novel nifH-targeted primers showed high sensitivity and gene specificity, but failed to discriminate against bacterial homologs. Despite limitations, 4 of the new primer pairs are suitable tools in several molecular methods applied in archaeal ecology. 1. Introduction Archaea have been detected in virtually all types of extreme and moderate environments. They play multiple ecological roles, colonizing certain newly emerging habitats [1, 2], interacting with animals such as corals [3, 4], sponges [5, 6], termites [7], or ruminants, forming part of microbe-microbe symbioses [8–10], and driving numerous processes in the biogeochemical C, N, S, and Fe cycles. In addition to relatively well-studied isolates of extremophilic or methanogenic Archaea, uncultured representatives have been detected by their 16S rRNA genes or by metabolic genes that classify their owners into the guilds of sulfate reducers, diazotrophs, ammonia oxidizers, or methanogens. Despite their widespread occurrence, a mere handful of nonmethanogenic Archaea has been isolated from moderate habitats [11–13]. While such isolates are indispensable for insight into archaeal ecophysiology, they have been recalcitrant to cultivation efforts, so that our current ecological research on mesophilic Archaea largely depends on cultivation-independent methods. Molecular
Social and Structural Factors Associated with HIV Infection among Female Sex Workers Who Inject Drugs in the Mexico-US Border Region
Steffanie A. Strathdee,Remedios Lozada,Gustavo Martinez,Alicia Vera,Melanie Rusch,Lucie Nguyen,Robin A. Pollini,Felipe Uribe-Salas,Leo Beletsky,Thomas L. Patterson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019048
Abstract: FSWs who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) can acquire HIV through high risk sexual and injection behaviors. We studied correlates of HIV infection among FSW-IDUs in northern Mexico, where sex work is quasi-legal and syringes can be legally obtained without a prescription.
IRT models with relaxed assumptions in eRm: A manual-like instruction
REINHOLD HATZINGER,THOMAS RUSCH
Psychology Science Quarterly , 2009,
Abstract: Linear logistic models with relaxed assumptions (LLRA) as introduced by Fischer (1974) are a flexible tool for the measurement of change for dichotomous or polytomous responses. As opposed to the Rasch model, assumptions on dimensionality of items, their mutual dependencies and the distribution of the latent trait in the population of subjects are relaxed. Conditional maximum likelihood estimation allows for inference about treatment, covariate or trend effect parameters without taking the subjects' latent trait values into account. In this paper we will show how LLRAs based on the LLTM, LRSM and LPCM can be used to answer various questions about the measurement of change and how they can be fitted in R using the eRm package. A number of small didactic examples is provided that can easily be used as templates for real data sets. All datafiles used in this paper are available from http://eRm.R-Forge.R-project.org/
“Elude” – the making of an impossible game
Doris C. Rusch
E-Beratungsjournal , 2011,
Abstract: Right after the Games for Health Conference in 2009, Doris C. Rusch and Attila Ceranoglu decided to work on a game about depression: A game that actually intends to make the feelings of depression itself experientially tangible to players. They decided to use the internet and virtual reality to reach the digital natives easily, and to raise awareness of the difficulties and problems of depression amongst young people (and therefore become more willing to either seek help for themselves or others). But how to create such a game about depression? How to create a game that would be no fun? Rusch and Ceranoglu found the answers and now Elude“ is done!
Developing an educational framework for the teaching of simulation within nurse education  [PDF]
Melanie Humphreys
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.34049
Abstract:

The use of simulations as a teaching and learning tool within health care has increasing importance; simulations are seen as the major teaching method for practicing and assessing developing skills, knowledge, attitudes and meaningful decision-making within the field of nursing. Certainly the utilisations of simulations feature widely within many aspects of health care; a greater understanding of the key conceptual notions will serve to benefit all of those engaged within their application. This literature review has enabled the construction of a conceptual model for the teaching of simulation and can serve to promote the continued positive development of simulations within education. Through a consistent and insightful approach to teaching, dynamic learning will be assured within this very important aspect of engaging the nursing student within the learning process.

Throwing the dice for the diagnosis of vaginal complaints?
Andreas Schwiertz, David Taras, Kerstin Rusch, Volker Rusch
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1476-0711-5-4
Abstract: We evaluated the misjudgement rate of the aetiology of vaginal complaints. A total of 220 vaginal samples from women with a vaginal complaint were obtained and analysed for numbers of total lactobacilli, H2O2-producing lactobacilli, total aerobic cell counts and total anaerobic cell counts including bifidobacteria, Bacteroides spp., Prevotella spp. Additionally, the presence of Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis was evaluated by DNA-hybridisation using the PCR and Affirm VPIII Microbial Identification Test, respectively.The participating physicians diagnosed Bacterial vaginosis (BV) as origin of discomfort in 80 cases, candidiasis in 109 cases and mixed infections in 8 cases. However, a present BV, defined as lack of H2O2-lactobacilli, presence of marker organisms, such as G. vaginalis, Bacteroides spp. or Atopobium vaginae, and an elevated pH were identified in only 45 cases of the women examined. Candida spp. were detected in 46 cases. Interestingly, an elevated pH corresponded solely to the presence of Atopobium vaginae, which was detected in 11 cases.Errors in the diagnosis of BV and candida vulvovaginitis (CV) were high. Interestingly, the cases of misjudgement of CV (77%) were more numerous than that of BV (61%). The use of Amsel criteria or microscopy did not reduce the number of misinterpretations. The study reveals that the misdiagnosis of vaginal complaints is rather high.The microbiology of the vagina is complex, containing 109 bacterial colony forming units per gram of secretions and potentially dozens of species. It is mainly dominated by members of the genus Lactobacillus, which are capable of H2O2-production and lactic acid, thereby maintaining the generally acidic vaginal pH. Age, phase of the menstrual cycle, sexual activity, contraceptive choice, pregnancy, presence of necrotic tissue or foreign bodies, and use of hygienic products or antibiotics can disrupt this ecosystem. A disturbed vaginal microbiot
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