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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 191046 matches for " Melanie G Cree "
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PPAR-α agonism improves whole body and muscle mitochondrial fat oxidation, but does not alter intracellular fat concentrations in burn trauma children in a randomized controlled trial
Melanie G Cree, Bradley R Newcomer, David N Herndon, Ting Qian, Dayoung Sun, Beatrice Morio, Jennifer J Zwetsloot, G Lynis Dohm, Ricki Y Fram, Ronald P Mlcak, Asle Aarsland, Robert R Wolfe
Nutrition & Metabolism , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-4-9
Abstract: A double blind placebo controlled trial was conducted in 18 children with severe burn injury. Metabolic studies to assess whole body palmitate oxidation and insulin sensitivity, muscle biopsies for mitochondrial palmitate oxidation, diacylglycerol, fatty acyl Co-A and fatty acyl carnitine concentrations, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy for muscle and liver triglycerides were compared before and after two weeks of placebo or PPAR-α agonist treatment.Insulin sensitivity and basal whole body palmitate oxidation as measured with an isotope tracer increased significantly (P = 0.003 and P = 0.004, respectively) after PPAR-α agonist treatment compared to placebo. Mitochondrial palmitate oxidation rates in muscle samples increased significantly after PPAR-α treatment (P = 0.002). However, the concentrations of muscle triglyceride, diacylglycerol, fatty acyl CoA, fatty acyl carnitine, and liver triglycerides did not change with either treatment. PKC-θ activation during hyper-insulinemia decreased significantly following PPAR-α treatment.PPAR-α agonist treatment increases palmitate oxidation and decreases PKC activity along with reduced insulin sensitivity in acute trauma, However, a direct link between these responses cannot be attributed to alterations in intracellular lipid concentrations.Significant alterations in both glucose and fat metabolism occur following burn trauma. Hyperglycemia, due to increased hepatic gluconeogenesis and peripheral insulin resistance, is common [1]. Free fatty acid (FFA) cycling is increased up to three fold, and triglyceride (TAG) deposition in the liver is common [2]. Studies in burned animals indicate that mitochondrial number and oxidative capacity are severely reduced following burn, but how these changes relate to in vivo fatty acid oxidation is unclear [3]. Further, the relation between fat metabolism and insulin sensitivity is not well understood in the severely burned population.Decreased β-oxidation of FFA's and increased circula
Rhizobium alters inducible defenses in broad bean, Vicia faba  [PDF]
Misty Cree Summers, Edward Brian Mondor
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2011.13007
Abstract: Conversion of inorganic nitrogen by mutualistic nitrogen-fixing bacteria is essential for plant growth and reproduction, as well as the development of chemical and mechanical defenses. It is unclear, however, how these bacteria alter co-occurring symbioses at higher trophic levels; e.g., extrafloral nectary (EFN) induction, in response to herbivory, to attract defensive mutualists. We hypothesized that plants colonized by nitrogen-fixing bacteria would mount a larger inducible, defensive response than plants lacking symbioses, as defensive traits are costly. We predicted that bean plants, Vicia faba L., harboring Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae Frank would produce more EFNs upon leaf damage, than plants lacking the symbionts, as EFN induction in V. faba is resource-dependent. Here we report that V. faba colonized by R. leguminosarum produced similar numbers of EFNs as did plants without symbionts. Plants with symbionts, however, produced significantly fewer EFNs over 1 week in response to leaf damage, than those without leaf damage. As such, nitrogen-fixing bacteria may not always benefit the host plant, but rather, the utility of these bacteria may be dependent on the prevailing ecological conditions.
Activation of tonsil dendritic cells with immuno-adjuvants
Marta E Polak, Nicola J Borthwick, Francis G Gabriel, Martine J Jager, Ian A Cree
BMC Immunology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2172-9-10
Abstract: To examine this, tonsil DC were isolated and cultured with potent DC activators; IFNγ, anti-CD40 antibody, LPS and Poly I:C either singly or in combination. To measure maturation and activation, DC were examined for changes in the expression of HLA-DR, HLA- class I, CD83, CD40, CD80 and CD86 and the release of IL12p70.The DC isolated from tonsil were a mixed population containing both myeloid and plasmacytoid DC, but all showed similar responses. Tonsil DC released IL12p70 upon stimulation with IFNγ , anti-CD40 antibody, and LPS, but unlike monocyte-derived DC, they did not increase the expression of cell surface activation molecules above those induced by culture alone. Poly I:C, a potent stimulator of laboratory generated DC inhibited the activation of tonsil DC by other adjuvants.As the response of this mixed population of DC does not mirror that of DC generated in vitro, this may have implications for other tissue residing DC and might be an important consideration for immunotherapy.Dendritic cells orchestrate the primary antigen specific immune response and manipulating their function could potentially benefit the treatment of many disorders including autoimmune diseases and cancers. Their primary function is to present antigen to na?ve T lymphocytes and in so doing either induce or suppress the immune response. Induction occurs if antigen is recognised as potentially dangerous. This requires a second signal, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, CD40-CD40L signalling or prostaglandins [1-3]. The DC respond to these signals by upregulating the cell-surface molecules required for efficient antigen presentation and na?ve T lymphocyte activation (HLA class I, HLA-DR, CD80, CD86, CD40) and by secreting immunostimulatory cytokines, such as IL-12 [4,5]. Antigen presentation in the absence of second signals causes anergy or unresponsivenes [6-8]. Suppression of the immune response may also be achieved by the action of different subsets of DC including plasmacytoid DC or
A Legacy of Derogation: Prejudice toward Aboriginal Persons in Canada  [PDF]
Todd G. Morrison, Melanie A. Morrison, Tomas Borsa
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.59112

Interpersonal prejudice toward Aboriginal men and women has, to date, received little attention from Canadian social psychologists. The present study sought to address this omission by examining the correlates of Old-Fashioned Prejudice (O-PATAS) and Modern Prejudice (M-PATAS) toward Aboriginal persons. Data from two samples (Sample 1: n = 280, 71.6% females; Sample 2: n = 163, 70.9% females) were used. As predicted, in Sample 1, respondents evidenced greater levels of modern prejudice than old-fashioned prejudice, and both forms correlated positively with social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism and negativity toward other stigmatized groups (specifically, gay men and overweight persons). For Sample 2, modern prejudice toward Aboriginal people correlated negatively with empathy as well as self-reported contact with Aboriginal people. However, no association was observed between scores on the M-PATAS and a multifaceted measure of religiosity.

Best Practice Recommendations for Using Structural Equation Modelling in Psychological Research  [PDF]
Todd G. Morrison, Melanie A. Morrison, Jessica M. McCutcheon
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.89086
Abstract: Although structural equation modelling (SEM) is a popular analytic technique in the social sciences, it remains subject to misuse. The purposes of this paper are to assist psychologists interested in using SEM by: 1) providing a brief overview of this method; and 2) describing best practice recommendations for testing models and reporting findings. We also outline several resources that psychologists with limited familiarity about SEM may find helpful.
Improved blood tests for cancer screening: general or specific?
Ian A Cree
BMC Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-499
Abstract: Several successful screening programmes are already well established, but these are currently applicable only to common cancers such as the faecal occult blood test [1] for colorectal cancer, mammography for breast cancer [2] and, of course, cervical cytology for cervical cancer and dysplasia, which is becoming ever more sophisticated [3,4]. Despite many attempts, blood tests have a less distinguished record. For instance, prostate-specific antigen screening is widely used despite its well-publicised problems [5]. It remains controversial and generates large numbers of papers every year (2, 032 were indexed in PubMed through 2010 using the search terms 'screening', 'prostate specific antigen' and 'cancer'). Many other tumour markers have been described, usually in relatively small studies, and few make it through to clinical use. Cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) was first described as a marker of ovarian cancer in 1981 [6] and is still being evaluated as a potential screening test [7,8].Despite its history, blood-based screening for cancer remains attractive, as it could provide inexpensive testing that would arguably be more acceptable to patients and easily incorporated into an annual checkup, which might include cholesterol and other assays of general health. This idea was judged too risky to be funded when put forward in 2005, but six years later, the recent review along similar lines by Hanash et al. [9] has shown how fast the necessary underlying science is advancing. There is no doubt that cancers have characteristics that could be detected by performing blood-based screening tests (Figure 1). In 2000, Hanahan and Weinberg [10] published their seminal paper describing the Hallmarks of Cancer, and many authors since then have described changes in blood related to these characteristics. Hanahan and Weinberg pointed out that cancer cell growth is the result of self-sufficiency in growth signals and insensitivity to antigrowth signals. Such signals are often mediated
Educación para la animación en un contexto índígena
Davenport, Melanie G.;Gunn, Karen;
Revista mexicana de investigación educativa , 2010,
Abstract: this article describes the processes and results of the animation and video workshops we held at centro rural de educación superior, en estipac, jalisco, mexico. the workshops were directed to high school and college students, many of whom were huicholes. we gave them technical equipment, training, and the necessary support to allow them to tell their own stories in their language, through frame-by-frame animation. during the process, they learned not only to value, preserve, and transmit their cultural traditions in a new way, but also to practice being more critical consumers of mass media in today's society. the idea that guided these workshops is that animation can open the door to the world of the visual media, based on interest in media skills and social justice.
Retinal Vessel Segmentation Using the 2-D Morlet Wavelet and Supervised Classification
Jo?o V. B. Soares,Jorge J. G. Leandro,Roberto M. Cesar Jr.,Herbert F. Jelinek,Michael J. Cree
Computer Science , 2005, DOI: 10.1109/TMI.2006.879967
Abstract: We present a method for automated segmentation of the vasculature in retinal images. The method produces segmentations by classifying each image pixel as vessel or non-vessel, based on the pixel's feature vector. Feature vectors are composed of the pixel's intensity and continuous two-dimensional Morlet wavelet transform responses taken at multiple scales. The Morlet wavelet is capable of tuning to specific frequencies, thus allowing noise filtering and vessel enhancement in a single step. We use a Bayesian classifier with class-conditional probability density functions (likelihoods) described as Gaussian mixtures, yielding a fast classification, while being able to model complex decision surfaces and compare its performance with the linear minimum squared error classifier. The probability distributions are estimated based on a training set of labeled pixels obtained from manual segmentations. The method's performance is evaluated on publicly available DRIVE and STARE databases of manually labeled non-mydriatic images. On the DRIVE database, it achieves an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.9598, being slightly superior than that presented by the method of Staal et al.
Developing an educational framework for the teaching of simulation within nurse education  [PDF]
Melanie Humphreys
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.34049

The use of simulations as a teaching and learning tool within health care has increasing importance; simulations are seen as the major teaching method for practicing and assessing developing skills, knowledge, attitudes and meaningful decision-making within the field of nursing. Certainly the utilisations of simulations feature widely within many aspects of health care; a greater understanding of the key conceptual notions will serve to benefit all of those engaged within their application. This literature review has enabled the construction of a conceptual model for the teaching of simulation and can serve to promote the continued positive development of simulations within education. Through a consistent and insightful approach to teaching, dynamic learning will be assured within this very important aspect of engaging the nursing student within the learning process.

Growth factor regulation of proliferation and survival of multipotential stromal cells
Melanie Rodrigues, Linda G Griffith, Alan Wells
Stem Cell Research & Therapy , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/scrt32
Abstract: There is a growing need for new ways to regenerate and repair injuries in organs. Most organs have limited inherent regenerative capacity, with scarring preventing full organ functioning. For instance, myocardial infarction is often followed by the myocardium being replaced with noncontractile scar tissue, which can further result in congestive heart failure [1,2]. In the case of bone, metabolic disorders such as osteoporosis cause abnormal bone loss and traumatic injuries lead to large lesions, which are incapable of self-regeneration. The search has therefore turned to novel ways to stimulate the original organogenic process and regenerate normal tissue.Use of multipotential stromal cells (MSCs) or mesenchymal stem cells to reconstruct tissue looks extremely promising due to their trans-differentiation potential. MSCs have the ability to form cells of the connective tissue, muscle, heart, blood vessels and nerves [3-6]. These cells are easy to isolate from almost all individuals; these cells are relatively safe as they rarely form teratomas [7]. In addition, these stromal cells offer several advantages over conventional therapy. MSCs respond to their environment by differentiating into the needed lineages. These cells will therefore grow, remodel and adapt to changes in tissue functions over time. As MSCs derive from bone marrow, these can be isolated from most adults with the potential of autologous transplantation, not requiring immunosuppressive agents. This procedure is in contrast to traditional methods of transplantation that lead to infection, immune rejection or simply not enough material for large-scale grafts.Preclinical animal studies have shown promise of using MSCs for tissue regeneration. Application of these cells has led to the formation of bone, the regain of ventricular function, and the restoration of renal tubular function in rodents [8-10]. Mice rendered paraplegic by spinal cord injury have recovered on MSC treatment [11,12]. The use of MSCs
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