Abstract:
Biomimetic calcium phosphate (CaP) coating has been used successfully for protein delivery, but the release of protein from CaP coating is mainly dependent on the limited dissolution of the CaP coating and the passive diffusion of the protein in the CaP coating. In the present work, our aim is to improve the release behavior of protein from CaP coating and make it more controllable. By using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein, our strategy is to tailor BSA release profiles by controlling the distribution of BSA in CaP coatings. To achieve this aim, BSA was added to a modified simulated body fluid (m-SBF) at different stages of coating formation to obtain tailored BSA release profiles. Sustained BSA release was obtained when BSA was added to m-SBF at the initial stage of the coating where the BSA was incorporated into the lattice structure of the coating. In contrast, a relatively faster release was observed when BSA was added during the later stage of coating formation where BSA was mainly adsorbed to the coating surface. As a result, the BSA release efficiency could be tailored by adding BSA into m-SBF at different coating formation stages. More importantly, the coating composition was not altered with the change of BSA adding times and all the beneficial properties of the biomimetic coating were reserved. Therefore, the BSA release from CaP coatings can be tailored by adjusting its distribution in the coating to achieve a more satisfactory release profile.

Abstract:
The definition of momentum operator in quantum mechanics has some foundational problems and needs to be improved. For example, the results are different in general by using momentum operator and kinetic operator to calculate microparticle’s kinetic energy. In the curved coordinate systems, momentum operators can not be defined properly. When momentum operator is acted on non-eigen wave functions in coordinate space, the resulting non-eigen values are complex numbers in general. In this case, momentum operator is not the Hermitian operator again. The average values of momentum operator are complex numbers unless they are zero. The same problems exist for angle momentum operator. Universal momentum operator is proposed in this paper. Based on it, all problems above can be solved well. The logical foundation of quantum mechanics becomes more complete and the EPY momentum paradox can be eliminated thoroughly. By considering the fact that there exist a difference between the theoretical value and the real value of momentum, the concepts of auxiliary momentum and auxiliary angle momentum are introduced. The relation between auxiliary angle momentum and spin is deduced and the essence of micro-particle’s spin is revealed. In this way, the fact that spin gyro-magnetic ratio is two times of orbit gyro-magnetic ratio, as well as why the electrons of ground state without obit angle momentum do not fall into atomic nuclear can be explained well. The real reason that the Bell inequality is not supported by experiments is revealed, which has nothing to do with whether or not hidden variables exist, as well as whether or not locality is violated in microcosmic processes.

Abstract:
There are three main mechanisms to cause the red shift of spectrum in physics. The first is gravity which is related to mass. The second is the Compton scattering which is related to the energy transformation of photon. The third is the Doppler’s effect which is related to velocity. The basic formula used to calculate the relation of red shift and distance of Ia supernova in cosmology is which is related to the scalar factor of the R-W metric. It is completely different from the Doppler formula of red shift which is related to velocity factor . This kind of inconsistency is not allowed in physics. Because of , when became larger and larger with time increase, z became smaller and smaller, means that space expansion leads to red shift becoming smaller. At present time, we have and , means that there is no red shift for the light emitted from distance celestial bodies at present. The results obviously violate the Hubble law! It is proved strictly in mathematics that the formula is untenable unless constant and . The further study reveals that the essential reason of the mistake is that the R-W metric violates the principle of light’s speed invariable. The time delay caused by relativity velocity between light’s source and observer is neglected. Besides, there exists the problem of time misalignment between theoretical calculation and practical observations in the original documents of Ia supernova projects. So the formula used to calculate the relation between red shift and distance of Ia supernova is wrong and the deduced conclusion about dark energy and the accelerating expansion of the universe are incredible. It is proved in this paper that based on the Doppler’s formula and the method of numerical calculation, the relation of red shift and distance of Ia supernova can be explained well. The hypotheses of dark energy and the accelerating expansion of the universe are completely unnecessary in cosmology.

The Doppler formula
should be used directly to calculate red shift of Cosmology.The first
is gravity, the second is the Doppler’s effect and the third is the Comptonscattering.The red shift of cosmology is considered to
be caused by the receding motions of celestial bodies, of which essence is the
Doppler’s effect. However, the basic formula used to calculate
the relationship between red shift and distance for Ia supernova in cosmology is z+1= R(t_{0})/R(t_{1})which is based on the R-W
metric and related to the scalar factor R(

Abstract:
To explain superconductivities and make up for the lack of current theory, a new quantum theory of cold electron was proposed. The key point is that we accepted the concept of electron orbital rotation instead of traditional electron spin. It leads to an important conclusion that the electron at low temperature is running in a flat orbital. The physical mechanism of superconductivities is so explained preferably. Under the assumption that the electrons have their motion tracks and the tracks can be described in atoms, the situations of electron will be changed a lot. The new concept of cold electron is then established. It means that the electrons can feel temperature. The Schr？dinger function is the function of ideal electron indeed. Hot electron looks like the electron of the ideal electron. As temperature goes much lower, the electron orbits will obviously departure to what Schr？dinger function described, and run in a flat one. The orbital shape of paired electron depends on temperature, transitioning from three- to two-dimension. Comparing the orbital shape to that of common electron, the paired cold electron saved quite some space in atomic crystal lattice. It created the preconditions for the phase transition at low critical temperature.

Abstract:
In this paper, we study the global well-posedness of classical solutions to the 2D compressible MHD equations with large initial data and vacuum. With the assumption $\mu=const.$ and $\lambda=\rho^\beta,~\beta>1$ (Va\v{i}gant-Kazhikhov Model) for the viscosity coefficients, the global existence and uniqueness of classical solutions to the initial value problem is established on the torus $\mathbb{T}^2$ and the whole space $\mathbb{R}^2$ (with vacuum or non-vacuum far fields). These results generalize the previous ones for the Va\v{i}gant-Kazhikhov model of compressible Navier-Stokes.

Abstract:
A novel experiment was designed. Experimental results gave a surprising phenomenon. Homogeneous particles in a suspended solution spontaneously concentrated.

Abstract:
The title Schiff base compound, C9H11N3O2S, was prepared by the reaction of equimolar quantities of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde with thiosemicarbazide in methanol. The molecule adopts a trans configuration with respect to the azomethine group and an intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked through intermolecular N—H...O and N—H...S hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

Abstract:
The title Schiff base compound, C8H7ClN4O2S, was prepared by the reaction of equimolar quantities of 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzaldehyde with thiosemicarbazide in methanol. The molecule adopts a trans configuration with respect to the azomethine group and the dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the thiosemicarbazide group is 6.8 (3)°. In the crystal, molecules are linked through intermolecular N—H...S hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating in [010].

Abstract:
The title Schiff base compound, C19H18N2O, was prepared by the reaction of equimolar quantities of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with N-phenylethane-1,2-diamine in a methanol solution. The molecule adopts a zwitterionic conformation with the naphthyl OH group deprotonated and the imine N atom protonated. An intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond forms between them. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the naphthyl system is 86.9 (2)°. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked through intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming chains running along the b axis.