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Localization of Hard Exudates in Retinal Fundus Image by Mathematical Morphology Operations
Mehdi Ghafourian Fakhar Eadgahi,Hamidreza Pourreza
Journal of Theoretical Physics and Cryptography , 2012,
Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. Detection of hard exudates is an important step for early diagnosis in eye diseases such as Macular Edema(ME). If hard exudates were segmented precisely, laser treatments can be applied more effective for patients by surgeons. The possibility of blindness is very high when the hard exudates are very close to Macula region or Optic disc. Therefore, fast and accurate segmentation is one of the most important factors in elimination of hard exudates. In this paper, a method is proposed for segmentation of hard exudates in retinal color image based on morphological operation. In the proposed method, the retinal images preprocessed and optic disc and the blood vessels identified primarily and then they eliminate from the image. Finally, the Hard Exudates (HEs) are segmented by mixture of morphological operation such as Top-hat, Bottom-hat and reconstruction operations. The proposed method was tested on DIARETDB1 database and 78.28% of sensitivity was obtained. Comparing to other recent automatic method available in the literature, our proposed method can obtain acceptable exudates detection result in term of sensitivity.
QSAR Models for the Prediction of Plasma Protein Binding
Taravat Ghafourian,Zeshan Amin
BioImpacts , 2013,
Abstract: Introduction: The prediction of plasma protein binding (ppb) is of paramount importance in the pharmacokinetics characterization of drugs, as it causes significant changes in volume of distribution, clearance and drug half life. This study utilized Quantitative Structure – Activity Relationships (QSAR) for the prediction of plasma protein binding. Methods: Protein binding values for 794 compounds were collated from literature. The data was partitioned into a training set of 662 compounds and an external validation set of 132 compounds. Physicochemical and molecular descriptors were calculated for each compound using ACD labs/logD, MOE (Chemical Computing Group) and Symyx QSAR software packages. Several data mining tools were employed for the construction of models. These included stepwise regression analysis, Classification and Regression Trees (CART), Boosted trees and Random Forest. Results: Several predictive models were identified; however, one model in particular produced significantly superior prediction accuracy for the external validation set as measured using mean absolute error and correlation coefficient. The selected model was a boosted regression tree model which had the mean absolute error for training set of 13.25 and for validation set of 14.96. Conclusion: Plasma protein binding can be modeled using simple regression trees or multiple linear regressions with reasonable model accuracies. These interpretable models were able to identify the governing molecular factors for a high ppb that included hydrophobicity, van der Waals surface area parameters, and aromaticity. On the other hand, the more complicated ensemble method of boosted regression trees produced the most accurate ppb estimations for the external validation set.
Perception of Menopausal Symptoms among Educated versus Non Educated Women by Using Menopausal Rating Scale (MRS)  [PDF]
Syeda Fakhar Batool, Yasmeen Saggu, Mansoor Ghani
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.48063
Abstract:

Background: A cross sectional comparative study was conducted in a well populated city named Rawalpindi, which is located in the Northern part of Pakistan. Objectives: This study was aimed to document the comparison of menopausal-related symptoms among educated and non educated women of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods: MRS was used to measure the intensity of menopausal symptoms. 100 educated and 100 uneducated women were selected for study purpose. Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Military Hospital and Combined Military Hospital were selected as a study setting. Findings: Correlation & Fisher exact test was applied for statistical analysis. The intensity of symptoms reported by Educated women as: sleeping problems (93.0%); heart discomfort (80.0%); hot flushes and sweating (70.0%); joint and muscular pain (52.0); depressive mood (63.0%); irritability (42%); anxiety (60.0%). physical and mental exhaustion; (48.0%); sexual problem (61.0%); dryness of vagina (57.0%); and bladder problem (65.0%). The severity of symptoms in uneducated women; sleeping problems (77.0%); heart discomfort (73.0%); hot flushes (69.0%); joint and muscular pain (66.0); depressive mood (71.0%); irritability (58%); anxiety (80.0%). physical and mental exhaustion (70.0%); sexual problem (66.0%); dryness of vagina (70.0%); and bladder problem (83.0%). Conclusions: Somatic symptoms were high in educated women as compare to uneducated women while the prevalence of psychological and Urogenital symptoms were high in uneducated women as compare to educated women.

Beta3 Integrin Expression within Uterine Endometrium and its Relationship with Unexplained Infertility
M. Ghafourian Boroujerdnia,R. Nikbakht
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the endometrium of women with unexplained infertility differs in the presence of the beta 3 (β3) integrin molecule from the endometrium of normal fertile women. In a retrospective case-control study 30 endometrial biopsies from hysterectomies with nonendometrial pathology and 30 endometrial samples from women with a history of unexplained infertility were collected during the window of implantation. Immunohistochemically staining with a monoclonal antibody against β3 integrin subunit in endometrial biopsies was performed and then assessed semiquantitively by microscope on different endometrial compartments including glandular epithelial cells, vessels, lymphocytes, macrophages and stromal cells. Chi-square test was used to compare the expression and defect of β3 integrin subunit between two groups. The results showed that β3 integrin molecules were present in fertile and infertile endometrial uterine tissues. The majority of glandular epithelial cells expressed β3 integrin in fertile endometrium. However, the endometrial expression of β3 integrin was reduced significantly in infertile endometrium during the window of implantation (p<0.05). A few numbers of vessels and stromal cells expressed β3 integrin molecule with no statistical significance between the two groups. In conclusion Abnormal endometrial integrin expression is a frequent finding in women with unexplained infertility. A therapeutic potential approach in improving uterine endometrium receptivity together with up-regulation of β3 integrin in this population of women suggested.
KKM theorem with applications to lower and upper bounds equilibrium problem in -convex spaces
M. Fakhar,J. Zafarani
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2003, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171203211261
Abstract: We give some new versions of KKM theorem for generalized convex spaces. As an application, we answer a question posed by Isac et al. (1999) for the lower and upper bounds equilibrium problem.
INTRAPERITONEAL MESH PLASTY
FAKHAR ILYAS MALIK
The Professional Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Incisional hernia is a common surgical condition with a reported incidence of 2-11% following laparotomy. Various Modalities of Repair have been advocated but the overall results still remain disappointing. Objective: To evaluate in incisional Hernias theefficacy and safety of Intraperitoneal mesh repair with conventional Polypropylene Mesh. Setting: In CMH Muzaffarabad, CMH Sialkot andPAC Hospital Kamra. Period: From January 2000 to January 2007. Materials & Methods: 90 cases of Incisional hernia with a minimal defect size of 4 inches were included; there was no limitation to age and sex. Patients with Co morbid conditions like Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, Bronchial Asthma, and Ischemic Heart Disease etc: were also included if there was no other contraindications for Surgery. Observations were made with regard to duration and ease of the operation, wound complications, hospital stay, recurrence and delayed complications. Results: In our series of 90 patients, Females (92.22%, n= 83) outnumbered males (7.77%, n=7) and the highest incidence was in the 4th decade of life in females and the 3rd decade of life in males. Gynecological operations accounted for 61.44% (n=51) of the index operations. 77.7% (n=70) of patients had a BMI >30. Co morbid Conditions were present in 36.66% (n=33) of patients. The polypropylene mesh placed Intra peritoneal varied from 15×7.5 cm to 30×20 cm. The mean operating time was 60±20 minutes; operating time was extended when the procedure was accompanied by Dermolipectomy 80±10 minutes. 85.55% patients (n=77) attended our follow-up, ranging from 12 months to five years. Method of follow-up in outpatients department (OPD)/Clinics: 71.11%(n=64), by telephonic conversation: 12.22%(n=11). 14.44% (n=13) were lost in follow up. All patients in followup had serial abdominal sonograms at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postoperatively respectively to evaluate bowel motility, adhesion formation and any locally associated complication. No recurrence was noted in the follow-up group. Conclusions: Historically intraperitoneal Mesh placement of conventional polypropylene has been avoided as it was associated with significant postoperativecomplications. Based on our analysis, we believe that intraperitoneal mesh repair is still an effective option for Incisional hernias, especially in difficult cases and with patients having co morbid conditions. The associated high incidence of complications associated with intraperitoneal mesh placement in the literature were not seen in our experience.
Vectorial Form of Ekeland-Type Variational Principle in Locally Convex Spaces and Its Applications
S. Eshghinezhad,M. Fakhar
Fixed Point Theory and Applications , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/276294
Abstract:
Vectorial Form of Ekeland-Type Variational Principle in Locally Convex Spaces and Its Applications
Eshghinezhad S,Fakhar M
Fixed Point Theory and Applications , 2010,
Abstract: By using a Dane ' drop theorem in locally convex spaces we obtain a vectorial form of Ekeland-type variational principle in locally convex spaces. From this theorem, we derive some versions of vectorial Caristi-Kirk's fixed-point theorem, Takahashi's nonconvex minimization theorem, and Oettli-Théra's theorem. Furthermore, we show that these results are equivalent to each other. Also, the existence of solution of vector equilibrium problem is given.
Investigation Effects of Magnetetic Impurity Doping on Average Magnetization of Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes
Saeedeh Ghafourian,Ali Fathalian,Iraj Kazeminezhad
International Nano Letters , 2011,
Abstract: Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) extensively are attractive from both theoretical and experimental point of view, due to its technological applications such as nano electronics devises. SWCNT are created by rolling a graphen sheet into a cyclindrical form. We have investigated the possibility of making a ferromagnetic semiconductor zigzag SWCNT by doping magnetic impurities. We found by increasing magnetic impurities doping on a zigzag SWCNT, average magnetization is increased and one can make a ferromagnetic semiconductor
A simple 2D interpolation model for analysis of nonlinear data  [PDF]
Mehdi Zamani
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.26080
Abstract: To determination the volume and weight of non uniform bodies, such as in ore deposits evaluation for mining and rock cutting for construction, the methods of interpolation are usually used. The classic curves, which are frequently used to interpolate onedimensional data are cubic spl ine, Bspline and Bezier curves. These methods have good efficiency for determination of geom etric characteristics of nonregular masses. They have some limitations and problems with two dimensional interpolation analysis such as for ming large linear systems of equations with a lot of entries and difficulty encounter with their solutions. In this research the twodimensional splines are used, which have the advantages of simplicity and less computational operations ef fort. The spline functions that are applied have the continuity of C1 at elements boundaries. The presented model has suitable efficiency for vo lumes of large extents governing to lots of data.
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