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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 288 matches for " Meghan Baruth "
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Association of Body Mass Index with Physical Function and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adults with Arthritis
Danielle E. Schoffman,Sara Wilcox,Meghan Baruth
Arthritis , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/190868
Abstract: Arthritis and obesity, both highly prevalent, contribute greatly to the burden of disability in US adults. We examined whether body mass index (BMI) was associated with physical function and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures among adults with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. We assessed objectively measured BMI and physical functioning (six-minute walk, chair stand, seated reach, walking velocity, hand grip) and self-reported HRQOL (depression, stiffness, pain, fatigue, disability, quality of life-mental, and quality of life, physical) were assessed. Self-reported age, gender, race, physical activity, and arthritis medication use (covariates) were also assessed. Unadjusted and adjusted linear regression models examined the association between BMI and objective measures of functioning and self-reported measures of HRQOL. BMI was significantly associated with all functional ( ) and HRQOL measures ( ) in the unadjusted models. Associations between BMI and all functional measures ( ) and most HRQOL measures remained significant in the adjusted models ( ); depression and quality of life, physical, were not significant. The present analysis of a range of HRQOL and objective measures of physical function demonstrates the debilitating effects of the combination of overweight and arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. Future research should focus on developing effective group and self-management programs for weight loss for people with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions (registered on clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01172327). 1. Introduction Arthritis and other rheumatic conditions are the leading cause of disability in adults in the United States [1]. The negative consequences of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions, including pain, reduced physical ability, depression, and reduced quality of life (QOL) can impact the physical functioning and psychological well-being of those living with the conditions [2–4]. A number of variables have been shown to be associated with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions such as older age, lower physical activity (PA) levels, female gender, and being overweight or obese [5, 6]. Treatment of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions are very costly for insurers and patients alike [7], and given the growing number of people in the United States over the age of 65, arthritis and other rheumatic conditions are set to be an even larger burden on the health care system in the coming years [5]. While about 47.8 million Americans self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in
Physical Functioning, Perceived Disability, and Depressive Symptoms in Adults with Arthritis
Katie Becofsky,Meghan Baruth,Sara Wilcox
Arthritis , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/525761
Abstract: This study investigated how physical functioning and perceived disability are related to depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis ( ). Participants self-reported depressive symptoms and disability. Objective measures of physical functioning included the 30-second chair stand test, 6-minute walk test, gait speed, balance, grip strength, and the seated reach test. Separate quantile regression models tested associations between each functional measure and depressive symptoms, controlling for age, gender, race, BMI, self-reported health status, and arthritis medication use. The association between perceived disability and depressive symptoms was also tested. Participants averaged years; 85.8% were women; 64.3% were white. Lower distance in the 6-minute walk test, fewer chair stands, slower gait speed, and greater perceived disability were associated with greater depressive symptoms in unadjusted models ( ). Fewer chair stands and greater perceived disability were associated with more depressive symptoms in adjusted models ( ). Balance, grip strength, and seated reach were not related to depressive symptoms. The perception of being disabled was more strongly associated with depressive symptoms than reduced physical functioning. To reduce the risk of depression in arthritic populations, it may be critical to not only address physical symptoms but also to emphasize coping skills and arthritis self-efficacy. 1. Introduction For public health purposes, the term arthritis refers to over 100 musculoskeletal conditions of varying etiologies that cause pain, aching, or stiffness in or around a joint [1]. During 2007–2009, an estimated 50 million adults in the United States reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis [2]. As the US population grows in number and the baby boomers continue to enter older adulthood, arthritis is projected to affect 67 million Americans by 2030 [3]. When rising obesity rates are also considered, an even larger public health burden can be expected, as obesity has been associated with both the development and progression of arthritis [4]. A recent study estimates that 18% of adults with arthritis also have comorbid depression [5], compared with 7% of the general US population [6]. This high prevalence may be due, in part, to the functional limitations associated with arthritis symptoms. Depression may also be linked to perceived disability, a construct closely related to functional limitation, but with an important distinction: functional limitations alone, defined as alterations in the performance of a functional task, are not the equivalent
Changes in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial
Meghan Baruth, Sara Wilcox, James F Sallis, et al
International Journal of General Medicine , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S15686
Abstract: nges in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial Original Research (4395) Total Article Views Authors: Meghan Baruth, Sara Wilcox, James F Sallis, et al Published Date January 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 53 - 62 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S15686 Meghan Baruth1, Sara Wilcox1, James F Sallis3, Abby C King4,5, Bess H Marcus6, Steven N Blair1,2 1Department of Exercise Science, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Public Health Research Center, Columbia, SC, USA; 3Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Department of Health Research and Policy, 5Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 6Behavioral and Social Sciences Section, Brown University Program in Public Health, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT) on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity. Participants were 874 inactive men and women aged 35–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms that varied by level of counseling, intensity, and resource requirements. Because there were no significant differences in change over time between arms on any of the CVD risk factors examined, all arms were combined, and the effects of time, independent of arm, were examined separately for men and women. Time × Baseline risk factor status interactions examined whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status. Significant improvements in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and triglycerides were seen in both men and women who had high (or low for HDL-C) baseline levels of risk factors, whereas significant improvements in diastolic blood pressure were seen only in those men with high baseline levels. There were no improvements in any risk factors among participants with normal baseline levels. Changes in fitness were associated with changes in a number of CVD risk factors. However, most relationships disappeared after controlling for changes in body weight. Improvements in lipids from the ACT interventions could reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in people with already high levels of lipids by 16%–26% in men and 11%–16% in women. Interventions that can be implemented in health care settings nationwide and result in meaningful population-wide ch
Changes in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial
Meghan Baruth,Sara Wilcox,James F Sallis,et al
International Journal of General Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Meghan Baruth1, Sara Wilcox1, James F Sallis3, Abby C King4,5, Bess H Marcus6, Steven N Blair1,21Department of Exercise Science, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Public Health Research Center, Columbia, SC, USA; 3Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Department of Health Research and Policy, 5Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 6Behavioral and Social Sciences Section, Brown University Program in Public Health, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT) on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity. Participants were 874 inactive men and women aged 35–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms that varied by level of counseling, intensity, and resource requirements. Because there were no significant differences in change over time between arms on any of the CVD risk factors examined, all arms were combined, and the effects of time, independent of arm, were examined separately for men and women. Time × Baseline risk factor status interactions examined whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status. Significant improvements in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and triglycerides were seen in both men and women who had high (or low for HDL-C) baseline levels of risk factors, whereas significant improvements in diastolic blood pressure were seen only in those men with high baseline levels. There were no improvements in any risk factors among participants with normal baseline levels. Changes in fitness were associated with changes in a number of CVD risk factors. However, most relationships disappeared after controlling for changes in body weight. Improvements in lipids from the ACT interventions could reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in people with already high levels of lipids by 16%–26% in men
Adults with Greater Weight Satisfaction Report More Positive Health Behaviors and Have Better Health Status Regardless of BMI
Christine E. Blake,James R. Hébert,Duck-chul Lee,Swann A. Adams,Susan E. Steck,Xuemei Sui,Jennifer L. Kuk,Meghan Baruth,Steven N. Blair
Journal of Obesity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/291371
Abstract: Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understanding of complex relationships between weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, and health outcomes. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS). Participants. Large mixed-gender cohort of primarily white, middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES) adults with baseline examination between 1987 and 2002 ( ). Main Outcome Variables. Weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, chronic health conditions, and clinical health indicators. Statistical Analyses Performed. Chi-square test, t-tests, and linear and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to men, women were more likely to be dieting (32% women; 18% men) and had higher weight dissatisfaction. Men and women with greater weight dissatisfaction reported more dieting, yo-yo dieting, and snacking and consuming fewer meals, being less active, and having to eat either more or less than desired to maintain weight regardless of weight status. Those who were overweight or obese and dissatisfied with their weight had the poorest health. Conclusion. Greater satisfaction with one’s weight was associated with positive health behaviors and health outcomes in both men and women and across weight status groups. 1. Introduction Weight satisfaction has been shown to be associated with self-reported healthy lifestyle behaviors and with less intention to change future physical activity, diet, or body weight, even among overweight and obese adults [1]. Body mass index ((BMI) = weight(kg)/height(m)2), a proxy for adiposity, is related to a variety of health outcomes ranging from cause-specific and all-cause mortality, [2–4] to the incidence of numerous chronic diseases, including cancers of various sites [2–8]. Among individuals who are overweight or obese the combination of positive perceptions of weight status and negative intentions toward behavior change may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight and better weight-related health outcomes. Furthermore, it has been suggested that weight dissatisfaction may be beneficial in prompting individuals to improve health practices [9, 10]. Weight dissatisfaction, however, is an important “driver” of unhealthy dieting behaviors. Yo-yo dieting and its correlate, weight cycling, also are common in the population and are associated with a variety of health-related endpoints,
Assessing the Relationship between Vitamin D3 and Stratum Corneum Hydration for the Treatment of Xerotic Skin
Meghan Russell
Nutrients , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/nu4091213
Abstract: Vitamin D 3 has been called the “sunshine” vitamin since the formation of vitamin D is mediated by exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D 3 is linked to many health benefits, however serum levels of vitamin D 3 have been decreasing over the last few decades and the lower levels of vitamin D 3 may have consequences on normal physiology. We investigated the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and stratum corneum conductance as well as the effect of topical application of cholecalciferol (vitamin D 3) on dry skin. Eighty three subjects were recruited and blood serum levels and skin conductance measurements were taken after a one week washout. A correlation was observed between vitamin D levels and skin moisture content, individuals with lower levels of vitamin D had lower average skin moisture. Subsequently, a 3-week split leg, randomized, vehicle controlled clinical study was conducted on a subset of 61 of the above individuals who were identified with non-sufficient vitamin D serum levels. Topical supplementation with cholecalciferol significantly increased measurements of skin moisturization and resulted in improvements in subjective clinical grading of dry skin. Taken together our finding suggest a relationship between serum vitamin D 3 (25(OH)D) levels and hydration of the stratum corneum and further demonstrate the skin moisture benefit from topical application of vitamin D 3.
A Comparative Study of Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Meghan GUNN, Simon G. M. KOO
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2009.28080
Abstract: One of the major constraints in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is power consumption. In recent years, a lot of efforts have been put into the design of medium access control (MAC) protocols for WSN, in order to reduce energy consumption and enhance the network’s lifetime. In this paper, we surveyed some MAC protocols for WSN and compared their design tradeoffs. The goal is to provide a foundation for future MAC design, and to identify important design issues that allow us to improve the overall performances.
Growth Kinetics of Wildlife E. coli Isolates in Soil and Water  [PDF]
Meghan A. Gallagher, Raghupathy Karthikeyan, Saqib Mukhtar
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.328098
Abstract: Bacteria are the major cause of surface water contamination in the United States. US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) uses the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) process to regulate the E. coli loads from fecal sources in a watershed. Different point and non-point sources can contribute to the fecal contamination of a waterbody including municipal and on-site wastewater treatment plants, livestock, birds, and wildlife. Unfortunately, wildlife sources in many rural watersheds are poorly characterized. E. coli is also known to persist in waterbodies when no known fecal sources are present. In this study, E. coli from wildlife fecal material was enumerated and the fate of E. coli under different environmental factors was studied. No growth was observed in soil at 4% moisture content and in water at 10℃. The highest E. coli growth was recorded in water at 30℃. It can be seen from these results that there was variation in the fate of E. coli under different environmental conditions. The fate of E. coli in the environment is a complex process and is influenced by many factors and their interactions, making it difficult to predict. The findings from this study along with additional studies can be used to improve the accuracy of model predictions to estimate the E. coli loads in watersheds.
Global Rates and Prevalence of Urogenital Mycoplasmosis: Assembly of a Dataset from Peer-Reviewed Literature*  [PDF]
Jennifer A. Jones, Nufar Chaban, Meghan May
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2013.32017
Abstract: Rates of urogenital mycoplasmosis associated with Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Ureaplasma parvum have been reported numerous times, and frequently show a wide range of findings. Differing diagnostic techniques, population targeting, temporal and spatial data collection, and coincident infections make the conclusions from these analyses difficult to compare. We generated a single data set including the infection rate, geographic location, year, study population, diagnostic method, and clinical signs for these organisms by performing literature searches with the species names and compiling the findings. Studies focusing on basic research or reporting clinical surveys where these criteria were not reported were excluded. A statistical analysis of the dataset parameters found that: diagnostic method does not significantly correlate with positive specimen rate but does correlate with the year of publication, and the number of publications correlated significantly with year, indicating that this topic is of growing interest. Further analysis indicated that Ureaplasma species infection rate is significantly higher in pregnant women across all studies. Associations with distinct clinical presentation could not be made on datasets assembled across studies due to the number of confounding variables presented in each. The generated data set represents a large amount of temporal, geographic, and clinical data that can be utilized in future communications.

The Middle Ground in Action Research: Integrating Practical and Critical Inquiry
Meghan McGlinn Manfra
Journal of Curriculum and Instruction , 2009,
Abstract: Advocates of action research propose formalizing teacher inquiry to empower teachers to leverage their “insider” knowledge to change classroom practice. Currently there is disagreement between theorists who promote action research as practical or critical inquiry. This article defines the characteristics and history of action research in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. This review provides evidence of the theoretical divide between practical and critical action research, promoting the exploration of a middle ground. By encouraging a dialogue between proponents of both forms of action research, educators will gain new insights about teacher practice and the factors that promote or hinder critical teacher reflection.
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