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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461 matches for " Megha Maheshwari "
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Rapid Point-of-Care Testing for Detection of HIV and Clinical Monitoring
D. R. Arora,Megha Maheshwari,B. Arora
ISRN AIDS , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/287269
Abstract: Reversing and arresting the epidemic of HIV are a challenge for any country. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of treatment remain a key strategy in the control of HIV. Technological advances in the form of low-cost rapid point-of-care tests have completely transformed the diagnosis and management of HIV, especially in resource limited settings, where health infrastructure is poor and timely access to medical care is a challenge. Point-of-care devices have proven to be easy to transport, operate, and maintain, and also lower-skilled staff is equally able to perform these tests as compared to trained laboratory technicians. Point-of-care tests allow rapid detection of HIV allowing for rapid initiation of therapy, monitoring of antiretroviral therapy and drug toxicity, and detection of opportunistic infections and associated illnesses. 1. Introduction Testing and treatment are key elements in the effort to control HIV, and testing services are rightly considered as the gateway to the treatment facilities. Data suggest that HIV-infected individuals who are aware of their status are more likely to adopt risk reduction behaviour than those who are not as discussed by Higgins et al. [1]. With a diagnosis of AIDS, consideration may be given to the initiation of antiretroviral treatment, which reduces viral load and infectivity as discussed by Rotheram-Borus et al. [2]. From a public health perspective, it is advisable to recommend testing to those at risk for HIV and to make testing easily accessible. The idea is to detect every HIV positive whether it belongs to high risk group, a pregnant woman, or a patient of tuberculosis or reproductive tract infection approaching the health system for health needs and refer him/her to the nearest antiretroviral therapy (ART) centre. Providing quality laboratory services for HIV testing to all those who need it is a challenging task. 2. Point-of-Care Tests for HIV Point-of-care (POC) testing of HIV refers to the practice undertaken by health care professionals of providing pretest counseling, posttest counseling, and a preliminary HIV antibody result at the time of testing outside of a designated laboratory. The standard methods of HIV testing (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or western blot with confirmatory testing using p24 antigen detection or viral nucleic acid detection) can take several days for result availability as discussed by Arora et al. [3]. A significant proportion of individuals who agree to undergo HIV serologic testing do not return to the HIV testing site to receive their test results as
Eco-friendly spectrophotometic estimation of atenolol tablets using metformin hydrochloride as hydrotropic solubilizing agent
R K Maheshwari,Archana Agrawal,Amit Rathore,Megha Agrawal
Journal of Global Pharma Technology , 2010, DOI: 10.1234/jgpt.v2i4.141
Abstract: Hydrotropy has been widely used to enhance the aqueous solubilites of a large number of poorly water-soluble drugs. In the present investigation, 1 M solution of an economic drug, metformin hydrochloride (a hydrotropic solution) was employed as solubilizing agent to extract out the poorly water-soluble, antihypertensive drug, atenolol from fine powder of its tablets precluding the use of an organic solvent, methanol (used in British Pharmacopoeial method). Results of analysis by the proposed method compared well with results obtained by British Pharmacopoeial method. Hydrotropic agent, metformin hydrochloride and commonly used tablet excipients did not interfere in spectrophotometric determination at λmax 275 nm. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 50-300μg/ml. The results of analysis have been validated statistically. The proposed method was found to be new, simple, ecofriendly, accurate, safe, reproducible and cost-effective and can be successfully employed in routine analysis of atenolol tablets. The proposed method is advantageous in a way that organic solvents (costlier and toxic) are avoided in the analysis with an economic drug, metformin hydrochloride but not at the expense of accuracy. Certainly, there is further scope of 1 M metformin hydrochloride solution as solubilizing agent for the spectrophotometric analysis of other poorly water-soluble drugs (metformin hydrochloride does not interfere above 245 nm). The proposed method is worth adopting in respective pharmacopoeia.
An Investigation of the Southern Ocean Surface Temperature Variability Using Long-Term Optimum Interpolation SST Data
Megha Maheshwari,Rajkumar Kamaljit Singh,Sandip Rashmikant Oza,Raj Kumar
ISRN Oceanography , 2013, DOI: 10.5402/2013/392632
Abstract: An attempt is made to understand the long-term variability of SST using NOAA optimum interpolation SST data for the period (1982–2011) in the Southern Ocean. This dataset has been used (i) to study the interannual variability in SST anomaly and (ii) to carry out regression analysis to compute linear trend in the annual averaged Southern Ocean SST. It is observed that summer season exhibits more variability than winter. Moreover, El Nino/La Nina events apparently play a critical role in the variability of Southern Ocean SST. Thus, higher SST anomalies were observed in El Nino years (e.g., 1983), while cooler anomalies were seen during La Nina years (e.g., 1985). In addition, the eastern and western sides of Antarctica experience episodes of warm and cold SST. Western parts of the Southern Ocean experienced higher anomalies during 1992, 1993, and 1994, while the eastern part experienced positive anomalies in 1997, 1998, 2002, and 2003. The paper also highlights the different regions of the Southern Ocean showing statistically significant positive/negative trends in the variability of interannual average SST. However, in general, the Southern Ocean as a whole is showing a weak interannual cooling trend in SST. 1. Introduction Sea surface temperature (SST) plays an important role in oceanic heat content controlling the interactions between ocean and atmosphere [1]. Changes in SST can be considered as one of the most important indicators of climate change. Oceans are huge reservoirs of heat, and the heat release plays a major role in climate both in regional as well as global scale. SST is a one of the parameters directly related to this heat release. Thus, studying the variations of SST over a long period is important in understanding the nature of global climate change. As observed by many researchers [2–5], the distribution of temperature on the sea surface is apparently zonal in behaviour, with the warmest water near the equator and the colder ones in the polar regions. Deviations from this behaviour are small. However, Deser et al. [6] evaluated the 20th century SST trends using 5 different datasets, and a significant global warming trend was observed, except in some regions like the northwestern Atlantic. They reported the largest warming trends in the midlatitudes. In the polar regions, surface temperature regulates the growth of sea ice, its melt, and the energy exchange between surface and atmosphere [7]. Comiso [8] evaluated the thermal infrared (TIR) data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) for the period from 1979 to 1998
Prevalence of Trichomoniasis, Vaginal Candidiasis, Genital Herpes, Chlamydiasis, and Actinomycosis among Urban and Rural Women of Haryana, India
Brij Bala Arora,Megha Maheshwari,Naiya Devgan,D. R. Arora
Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/963812
Abstract: Despite being curable reproductive tract infections (RTIs) including sexually transmitted infections continue to be a major health problem in developing countries. The present study was undertaken to know the prevalence of trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis, genital herpes, chlamydiasis, and actinomycosis in rural and urban women of Haryana by using wet mount, PAP smear, and fluorescent microscopic examination. Patients suspected of suffering from bacterial vaginosis were given treatment and were not included in the study. RTIs were seen in 16.6% of urban and 28.7% of rural women. The highest prevalence seen was that of trichomoniasis in both rural (24.2%) and urban (15.7%) women, followed by candidiasis (4.2% in rural and 0.6% in urban women), genital herpes (0.3% in rural and 0.2% in urban women), and chlamydiasis (0.02% in rural and 0.05% in urban women). Pelvic actinomycosis was seen in 1.4% of rural and 0.06% of urban women using intrauterine contraceptive devices. Mixed infection of Trichomonas vaginalis with Candida spp. was seen in 6.3% of rural women only. It is desirable to have a baseline profile of the prevalence of various agents causing RTIs in a particular geographic area and population which will help in better syndromic management of the patients. 1. Introduction Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) including sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to be major health problem in developing countries leading to considerable morbidity. Most of the RTIs are prevalent in India; however, their profile varies with changes in socioeconomic, cultural, geographic, and environmental factors prevalent in different parts of the country. Information regarding the laboratory data on RTIs is lacking due to syndromic diagnosis which is adopted by the clinicians. Lack of adequate laboratory infrastructure, limited resources, associated stigma, and poor attendance of female patients in the RTI/STI clinics are few reasons for lack of RTI data as discussed by Ray et al. [1]. The causes, presenting symptoms, and the perception of symptoms may vary in different populations. The prevalence of different causative agents of RTIs may be different in urban and rural population. RTIs in many cases are asymptomatic among women, making their detection and diagnosis difficult. Routine Papanicolaou (PAP) smear examination can be very useful in such cases. PAP smear has become a routine procedure for women at their annual gynecologic visit because of its success in the prevention of cervical cancer and precursor lesions as discussed elsewhere [2]. In addition
Effect of Periodontal Infection on Birth Weight of Infants: A Clinical and Microbiological Study*  [PDF]
Shaila Kothiwale, Megha Gandhi
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2013.32016
Abstract: Background: Maternal periodontal infection has been proposed to influence pre-term delivery and low birth weight infants through mechanisms involving inflammatory mediators or direct bacterial assault on the amnion. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the presence of periodontal pathogens in maternal periodontal infection and their effect on the birth weight of infants. Materials and Methods: The case-control study included 30 mothers with a singleton gestation and gestational age of >37 weeks. Data regarding the periodontal status, pregnancy outcome variables, hemoglobin levels (Hb%) and other factors that may influence adverse pregnancy outcomes were collected. A qualitative analysis of the predominant anaerobic organisms was conducted. The data was analysed using one-way ANOVA test and Scheffe’s test. Results: The microbiological results showed that prevalent colonies of organisms isolated from the experimental groups were of Bacteroides spp. (n = 3), Fusobacterium spp. (n = 3) and Peptostreptococcus spp. (n = 9). In the control group, Peptostreptococcus spp. (n = 15) were predominant. In the experimental group, it was seen that Bacteroides spp. (p = 0.003) and Fusobacterium spp. (p = 0.050) were statistically significant with the birth weight of the infant. The one-way ANOVA test showed that the birth weight of the infant was inversely proportionate with increase in severity of the periodontal disease. Scheffe’s test showed that presence of a periodontal pocket showed most significance to the birth weight of an infant as compared to presence of local factors or bleeding on probing. Conclusion: The study revealed that the gram negative organisms, Bacteroides spp. and Fusobacterium spp. were significantly associated with the low birth weight (LBW) of the infants, although there was not a significant difference in the clinical periodontal status between the experimental groups and the controls. It could
Software Agent Structure for Performance Index Improvement of Cellular Network  [PDF]
Megha Kamble, Roopam Gupta
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2014.79035
Abstract:

Efficient reuse of limited radio spectrum is vital issue to support increasing number of mobile terminals and heterogeneous traffic scenarios. Dynamic channel allocation (DCA) technique is suitable to solve the problem. The drawback of dynamic channel allocation is it may upgrade performance of one cluster and degrade performance of other cluster in large scale cellular network. To balance performance of clusters and increase carried traffic in network, there is need of enhancement of DCA techniques. To introduce improvement in the dynamic channel approach, the paper suggested Multi Agent System (MAS) of physical agents ported at base stations working on the principle of cooperative negotiation to improve the QoS of the network. We formulated an integrated framework which includes fundamental mechanism of call admission control and resource management using hybrid channel allocation (HCA). To balance performance index of various clusters of network, agent negotiation is executed. Our simulation results show that it is possible to significantly enhance performance index of network due to MAS-HCA approach when compared with ES based and ILP based HCA schemes proposed in literature.

Multicentric Reticulohistiocytosis (MRH): First Case Report with Tenosynovial Fluid Analysis and Tenosynovial Histology Demonstrating the Classic Histologic Findings  [PDF]
Megha Sawhney, Peter Levitin
Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases (OJRA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojra.2016.62004
Abstract: Multicent ricreticulohistiocytosis (MRH) is a rare systemic disease of unclear etiology characterized by destructive, deforming arthritis, nodules in the skin, mucous membrane and internal organs and can be associated with malignancy. The tenosynovial fluid and tenosynovium histologic findings have not been reported in any case reports of MRH in the literature. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of tenosynovial fluid and tenosynovium demonstrating the classic histologic findings of histiocytes with a foamy eosinophilic cytoplasm. This case also demonstrates a non-deforming arthritis.
Lattice Paths and Rogers Identities  [PDF]
Ashok Kumar Agarwal, Megha Goyal
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2011.12011
Abstract: Recently we interpreted five q-series identities of Rogers combinatorially by using partitions with “n +t cop-ies of n” of Agarwal and Andrews (J. Combin. Theory Ser.A, 45(1987), No.1, 40-49). In this paper we use lattice paths of Agarwal and Bressoud (Pacific J. Math. 136(2) (1989), 209-228) to provide new combinatorial interpretations of the same identities. This results in five new 3-way combinatorial identities.
ε-Optimality in Multivalued Optimization  [PDF]
S. K. Suneja, Megha Sharma
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2013.34039
Abstract:

In this paper we apply the directional derivative technique to characterize D-multifunction, quasi D-multifunction and use them to obtain ε-optimality for set valued vector optimization problem with multivalued maps. We introduce the notions of local and partial-ε-minimum (weak) point and study ε-optimality, ε-Lagrangian multiplier theorem and ε-duality results.

Versatile Voltage-Mode Universal Filter Using Differential Difference Current Conveyor  [PDF]
Sudhanshu Maheshwari, Ankita Gangwar
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2011.23030
Abstract: A novel four-input three-output voltage-mode differential difference current conveyor (DDCC) based universal filter is presented. The circuit uses three DDCCs as active elements, two resistors and two capacitors as passive elements. The circuit along with its versatility enjoys the advantage of minimum number of passive elements employment. SPICE simulation results are given to confirm the theoretical analysis. The proposed circuit is a novel addition to the existing knowledge on the subject.
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