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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1258 matches for " Megan; Nardell "
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Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis: achievements and challenges to current knowledge
Murray,Megan; Nardell,Edward;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862002000600013
Abstract: over the past 10 years, molecular methods have become available with which to strain-type mycobacterium tuberculosis. they have allowed researchers to study certain important but previously unresolved issues in the epidemiology of tuberculosis (tb). for example, some unsuspected microepidemics have been revealed and it has been shown that the relative contribution of recently acquired disease to the tb burden in many settings is far greater than had been thought. these findings have led to the strengthening of tb control. other research has demonstrated the existence and described the frequency of exogenous reinfection in areas of high incidence. much recent work has focused on the phenotypic variation among strains and has evaluated the relative transmissibility, virulence, and immunogenicity of different lineages of the organism. we summarize the recent achievements in tb epidemiology associated with the introduction of dna fingerprinting techniques, and consider the implications of this technology for the design and analysis of epidemiological studies.
Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis: achievements and challenges to current knowledge
Murray Megan,Nardell Edward
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002,
Abstract: Over the past 10 years, molecular methods have become available with which to strain-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They have allowed researchers to study certain important but previously unresolved issues in the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB). For example, some unsuspected microepidemics have been revealed and it has been shown that the relative contribution of recently acquired disease to the TB burden in many settings is far greater than had been thought. These findings have led to the strengthening of TB control. Other research has demonstrated the existence and described the frequency of exogenous reinfection in areas of high incidence. Much recent work has focused on the phenotypic variation among strains and has evaluated the relative transmissibility, virulence, and immunogenicity of different lineages of the organism. We summarize the recent achievements in TB epidemiology associated with the introduction of DNA fingerprinting techniques, and consider the implications of this technology for the design and analysis of epidemiological studies.
Teaching Feminist Poststructuralism: Founding Scholars Still Relevant Today  [PDF]
Megan Aston
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.715220
Abstract: This article presents the experiences of one academic educator/researcher learning about and ultimately teaching feminist poststructuralism (FPS) over 20 years. Ideas from foundational postructural and feminist theorists such as Foucault, Butler, Scott and Weedon are presented and brought together into to a particular understanding of FPS. A discussion of how FPS is applied to health education and research will be presented along with clinical examples. After many years of mentoring and teaching students and colleagues about FPS, the author has created a general guide for beginners to help them use FPS in research and practice. This guide has successfully been used with students and colleagues in Canada as well as with colleagues in Tanzania.
Evaluating Displayed Depression Symptoms on Social Media Sites  [PDF]
Megan A. Moreno, Erin Kelleher, Megan Pumper
Social Networking (SN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sn.2013.24018
Abstract:

Social networking sites (SNSs) are immensely popular and allow for display of personal information, including references to depression. Evaluating displayed content on a SNS for research purposes requires a systematic approach and a precise data collection instrument. The purpose of this paper is to describe one approach to the development of a research codebook for depression so that others may develop and test their own codebooks for use in SNS research. The depression SNS research codebook was grounded in ethics, theory and clinical criteria.The key elements in the codebook developmental process included an iterative team approach to develop variables of interest and data collection sheet layout. Training protocols involve coding practice and reliability assessments. Interrater reliability remains a critical assessment tool. Codebook successes include consistently high interrater reliability. Challenges include time investment in coder training, SNS server changes, and social or cultural norms regarding public displays of mental health. We provide detailed information about a systematic approach to codebook development so that other researchers may use this structure to develop and test their own codebooks for use in SNS research. Future directions for the codebook include expanding areas of interest such as anxiety or other depression evaluation criteria, and expansion to other SNSs such as Twitter.

Elevated Stream Pathogenic Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in Livestock Grazing Areas across a Single National Forest  [PDF]
Lindsey Myers, Megan Fiske, Megan Layhee
Natural Resources (NR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2017.810042
Abstract:

Livestock presence in proximity to forest streams has been shown to contribute pathogenic bacteria in excess of water quality standards established to protect human health. However, the degree to which livestock fecal contamination in streams on national forest lands is either a limited or a potentially widespread occurrence is still debated. This study provides additional insight into the matter. We analyzed water in small streams near known cattle grazing areas within the Stanislaus National Forest in the Sierra Nevada, California from 2012 to 2016. Fourteen stream sites were sampled before and after cattle were released onto the forest (four of these sites were sampled across multiple years) to compare indicator bacteria concentrations (fecal coliform—FC, Escherichia coli—EC) to standards established for recreational contact for surface waters. One control site was also sampled. There were 194 water quality violations of either state or federal regulatory standards for recreational contact, all of which occurred once cattle were on the forest. Mean (max) FC and EC concentrations were on orders of magnitude higher after cattle were released onto the forest [FC 1307 (30,000) and EC 1033 (17,000) MPN/100 mL] than during the time period before cattle were on the forest [FC 19 (220) and EC 17 (220) MPN/100 mL; FC, F1,210 = 105, p < 0.001; EC, F1,210 = 85.5, p < 0.001]. In addition, the presence of cattle, visual evidence of recent cattle-related disturbances, and sampling week were important predictor variables of FC and EC. These findings support the link between cattle presence and increased levels of stream pathogenic bacteria, and also demonstrate that stream pathogenic bacteria pollution occurs widely across the forest. This research indicates the need to consider alternative range management practices to better protect water quality and human health.

Regularities in Sequences of Observations  [PDF]
Mahkame Megan Khoshyaran
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2012.24049
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to propose an adjustment to the three methods of calculating the probability that regularities in a sample data represent a systemic influence in the population data. The method proposed is called data profiling. It consists of calculating vertical and horizontal correlation coefficients in a sample data. The two correlation coefficients indicate the internal dynamic or inter dependency among observation points, and thus add new information. This information is incorporated in the already established methods and the consequence of this integration is that one can conclude with certainty that the probability calculated is indeed a valid indication of systemic influence in the population data.
The Impact of Vehicular Networks on Urban Networks  [PDF]
Mahkame Megan Khoshyaran
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2014.44027
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to study the impact of a vehicular network on a physical (road) network consisting of several intersections controlled by traffic lights. The vehicular network is considered to be a random graph superimposed on a regular Hamiltonian graph. The two graphs are connected by hyperlinks. The evolution of traffic at intersections given the existence of vehicular networks is measured by the method of reflective triangles.
Analyzing Capitalism  [PDF]
Mahkame Megan Khoshyaran
Modern Economy (ME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/me.2015.61004
Abstract: The intent of this paper is to show that for the capitalist system to survive some specific form of economic activities have to be practiced. These economic activities are introduced in this paper in the form of economic theorems. Their existence and credibility are exhibited through structured proofs. Six economic theorems are introduced in total. In theorem 1 it is stated that for a capitalistic system to survive the domestic and international market share of territorial manufacturing and businesses should be kept limited. In theorem 2, it is stated that both manufacturing and businesses should have a limited life span. In theorem 3, it is stated that growth should be based on production and creation of real values. In theorem 4, it is stated that the relationship between (manufacturing, businesses) and banks should be based on wealth collected out of production activities and creation of real values in manufacturing and services. In theorem 5, it is stated that monopolistic and oligopolistic based economic activities are in conflict with small manufacturing and service activities. In theorem 6, it is stated that the capitalist system should evolve into a Parallel-Multi-Layer Capitalism (PMLC) where small and large economic activities can work on parallel levels with no interference.
The Active Role of Material Things: An Environment-Based Conceptual Framework to Understand the Well-Being of People with Dementia  [PDF]
Hui Ren, Megan Strickfaden
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.66002
Abstract:
This study discusses the relationships of material things to people with dementia and proposes the development of material environments to enhance their well-being. Integrating research on well-being from existential, ecological, and place-based perspectives, this study develops a new understanding of the well-being of people with dementia when considering the active role of material things in the process of developing well-being. “Well-being of people with dementia” refers to the awareness of self-existence in a real-world environment established by the interactions of people and material things. Based on this understanding, this study integrates four types of environmental embodiments, including obliviousness, watching, noticing, and heightened contact, providing specific guides to understand people’s associations with their material environments. An environment-based conceptual framework, based on the new understanding of the meanings of well-being and its association with material things, allows designers and professional/family caregivers to understand the lived experiences of people with dementia, in order to enhance the well-being of their clients and their families by using material things to create a more holistic environment.
Predictors of Depressive Symptoms: What Are the Roles of Geography and Informal Social Support?  [PDF]
Timothy S. Killian, Megan Penfield
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2012.24041
Abstract: Using data from the 2004 wave of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), three central research questions were examined. First, are there variations in depressive symptoms by geographic region? Second, are variations in depressive symptoms related to informal social support? Third, are there interactions between geography and informal social support in regard to predicting depressive symptoms? Results from this study found a small, but significant difference in depressive symptoms by geography region. Also, informal social support from children and friends were predictive of lower levels of depression. Furthermore, informal social support interacted with region to explain additional variation in depressive symptoms. Participants’ perceptions that they could rely on their adult children to meet their needs was more salient in regard to reducing depressive symptoms for exurban than non-exurban participants, and increased limitations in mobility, strength, and fine motor skills were more influential in explaining depressive symptoms in exurban than other persons.
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