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Accounts of infant-feeding advice received by mothers: Queensland, Australia, 1945-1965
Virginia Thorley
Nursing Reports , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/nursrep.2012.e12
Abstract: In the period 1945-1965 most women in the state of Queensland, Australia, gave birth in hospitals and thereafter they used a variety of services and individuals for advice on infant feeding. The services available were similar throughout the period. As mothers rarely worked outside the home, being good mothers was important to their identity. In this historical study, telephone interviews and written responses involving 44 mothers and former nurses from every region of this geographically vast state were used in order to investigate sources of personal advice on infant feeding used during this period, mothers’ experience relating to this advice, and the extent to which they followed the advice. The free, nurse-run well-baby clinics and related services conducted by the state’s Maternal and Child Welfare service were the most commonly mentioned services. However, the uptake of advice from this source showed considerable variation as women also drew upon family members, their general practitioners, advice columns, radio broadcasts, other mothers and their own judgment. Only rarely was a specialist pediatrician consulted. A minority of mothers was advised by pharmacists, private baby nurses, or entered residential mothercraft facilities. An important finding is that attendance at the baby clinics did not necessarily equate with compliance, especially as mothers became more experienced.
Mothers’ experiences of sharing breastfeeding or breastmilk, part 2: the early 21st century
Virginia Thorley
Nursing Reports , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/nursrep.2012.e2
Abstract: While women who informally shared breastfeeding or breastmilk (also called cross-nursing or co-feeding) in the latter part of the twentieth century were often reluctant to disclose this practice, media attention in the last few years has resulted in this practice being discussed more. Nurses may, therefore, encounter mothers who have shared or are sharing breastfeeding or their breastmilk at least once. This paper is the second of two to explore the experiences of mothers co-feeding in a variety of situations. Twenty-two mothers who had co-fed, and the coordinator of an online milk-sharing network, were recruited from online breastfeeding discussion networks, personal contacts and word of mouth. Sampling stopped when eight countries were included. Respondents came from a range of cultures and gave different reasons for this practice. They could choose whether to respond to a set of open-ended questions by email or telephone. A number of different situations were identified in which the women had cross-fed on one or more occasions. Cultural issues, including milk siblingship in Islamic and other cultures, were explored. Consent was important, but fully informed consent was not necessarily obtained. Although no formal screening was conducted, it was clear that the women informally screened those with whom they shared their milk. In this study, sharing of breastfeeding or breastmilk mostly occurred in kinship or close female relationships, or at least between women with similar lifestyles and values, and seldom through casual contacts. In most cases, there was informal screening and the women would not have cross-fed indiscriminately.
Evaluation of the effects of botulinum toxin A injections when used to improve ease of care and comfort in children with cerebral palsy whom are non-ambulant: a double blind randomized controlled trial
Megan Thorley, Samantha Donaghey, Priya Edwards, Lisa Copeland, Megan Kentish, Kim McLennan, Jayne Lindsley, Laura Gascoigne-Pees, Leanne Sakzewski, Roslyn N Boyd
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-120
Abstract: This study is a double blind randomized controlled trial. Forty participants will be recruited. In cycle I, participants will be randomized to either a treatment group who will receive BoNT-A injections into selected upper and/or lower limb muscles, or a control group who will undergo sham injections. Both groups will receive occupational therapy and /or physiotherapy following injections. Groups will be assessed at baseline then compared at 4 and 16 weeks following injections or sham control. Parents, treating clinicians and assessors will be masked to group allocation. In cycle II, all participants will undergo intramuscular BoNT-A injections to selected upper and/or lower limb muscles, followed by therapy.The primary outcome measure will be change in parent ratings in identified areas of concern for their child’s care and comfort, using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Secondary measures will include the Care and Comfort Hypertonicity Scale (ease of care), the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire (CP QoL–Child) (quality of life), the Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities Questionnaire (CPCHILD?) (health status) and the Paediatric Pain Profile (PPP) (pain). Adverse events will be carefully monitored by a clinician masked to group allocation.This paper outlines the theoretical basis, study hypotheses and outcome measures for a trial of BoNT-A injections and therapy for children with non-ambulant CP.Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry:N12609000360213Cerebral palsy (CP) is “a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain”. [1] p.9 Classification systems have been developed to indicate the severity of functional limitations in CP. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), developed by Palisano and colleagues in 1997, has bec
Teaching Feminist Poststructuralism: Founding Scholars Still Relevant Today  [PDF]
Megan Aston
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.715220
Abstract: This article presents the experiences of one academic educator/researcher learning about and ultimately teaching feminist poststructuralism (FPS) over 20 years. Ideas from foundational postructural and feminist theorists such as Foucault, Butler, Scott and Weedon are presented and brought together into to a particular understanding of FPS. A discussion of how FPS is applied to health education and research will be presented along with clinical examples. After many years of mentoring and teaching students and colleagues about FPS, the author has created a general guide for beginners to help them use FPS in research and practice. This guide has successfully been used with students and colleagues in Canada as well as with colleagues in Tanzania.
Evaluating Displayed Depression Symptoms on Social Media Sites  [PDF]
Megan A. Moreno, Erin Kelleher, Megan Pumper
Social Networking (SN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sn.2013.24018

Social networking sites (SNSs) are immensely popular and allow for display of personal information, including references to depression. Evaluating displayed content on a SNS for research purposes requires a systematic approach and a precise data collection instrument. The purpose of this paper is to describe one approach to the development of a research codebook for depression so that others may develop and test their own codebooks for use in SNS research. The depression SNS research codebook was grounded in ethics, theory and clinical criteria.The key elements in the codebook developmental process included an iterative team approach to develop variables of interest and data collection sheet layout. Training protocols involve coding practice and reliability assessments. Interrater reliability remains a critical assessment tool. Codebook successes include consistently high interrater reliability. Challenges include time investment in coder training, SNS server changes, and social or cultural norms regarding public displays of mental health. We provide detailed information about a systematic approach to codebook development so that other researchers may use this structure to develop and test their own codebooks for use in SNS research. Future directions for the codebook include expanding areas of interest such as anxiety or other depression evaluation criteria, and expansion to other SNSs such as Twitter.

Elevated Stream Pathogenic Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in Livestock Grazing Areas across a Single National Forest  [PDF]
Lindsey Myers, Megan Fiske, Megan Layhee
Natural Resources (NR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2017.810042

Livestock presence in proximity to forest streams has been shown to contribute pathogenic bacteria in excess of water quality standards established to protect human health. However, the degree to which livestock fecal contamination in streams on national forest lands is either a limited or a potentially widespread occurrence is still debated. This study provides additional insight into the matter. We analyzed water in small streams near known cattle grazing areas within the Stanislaus National Forest in the Sierra Nevada, California from 2012 to 2016. Fourteen stream sites were sampled before and after cattle were released onto the forest (four of these sites were sampled across multiple years) to compare indicator bacteria concentrations (fecal coliform—FC, Escherichia coli—EC) to standards established for recreational contact for surface waters. One control site was also sampled. There were 194 water quality violations of either state or federal regulatory standards for recreational contact, all of which occurred once cattle were on the forest. Mean (max) FC and EC concentrations were on orders of magnitude higher after cattle were released onto the forest [FC 1307 (30,000) and EC 1033 (17,000) MPN/100 mL] than during the time period before cattle were on the forest [FC 19 (220) and EC 17 (220) MPN/100 mL; FC, F1,210 = 105, p < 0.001; EC, F1,210 = 85.5, p < 0.001]. In addition, the presence of cattle, visual evidence of recent cattle-related disturbances, and sampling week were important predictor variables of FC and EC. These findings support the link between cattle presence and increased levels of stream pathogenic bacteria, and also demonstrate that stream pathogenic bacteria pollution occurs widely across the forest. This research indicates the need to consider alternative range management practices to better protect water quality and human health.

Regularities in Sequences of Observations  [PDF]
Mahkame Megan Khoshyaran
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2012.24049
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to propose an adjustment to the three methods of calculating the probability that regularities in a sample data represent a systemic influence in the population data. The method proposed is called data profiling. It consists of calculating vertical and horizontal correlation coefficients in a sample data. The two correlation coefficients indicate the internal dynamic or inter dependency among observation points, and thus add new information. This information is incorporated in the already established methods and the consequence of this integration is that one can conclude with certainty that the probability calculated is indeed a valid indication of systemic influence in the population data.
The Impact of Vehicular Networks on Urban Networks  [PDF]
Mahkame Megan Khoshyaran
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2014.44027
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to study the impact of a vehicular network on a physical (road) network consisting of several intersections controlled by traffic lights. The vehicular network is considered to be a random graph superimposed on a regular Hamiltonian graph. The two graphs are connected by hyperlinks. The evolution of traffic at intersections given the existence of vehicular networks is measured by the method of reflective triangles.
Analyzing Capitalism  [PDF]
Mahkame Megan Khoshyaran
Modern Economy (ME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/me.2015.61004
Abstract: The intent of this paper is to show that for the capitalist system to survive some specific form of economic activities have to be practiced. These economic activities are introduced in this paper in the form of economic theorems. Their existence and credibility are exhibited through structured proofs. Six economic theorems are introduced in total. In theorem 1 it is stated that for a capitalistic system to survive the domestic and international market share of territorial manufacturing and businesses should be kept limited. In theorem 2, it is stated that both manufacturing and businesses should have a limited life span. In theorem 3, it is stated that growth should be based on production and creation of real values. In theorem 4, it is stated that the relationship between (manufacturing, businesses) and banks should be based on wealth collected out of production activities and creation of real values in manufacturing and services. In theorem 5, it is stated that monopolistic and oligopolistic based economic activities are in conflict with small manufacturing and service activities. In theorem 6, it is stated that the capitalist system should evolve into a Parallel-Multi-Layer Capitalism (PMLC) where small and large economic activities can work on parallel levels with no interference.
The Active Role of Material Things: An Environment-Based Conceptual Framework to Understand the Well-Being of People with Dementia  [PDF]
Hui Ren, Megan Strickfaden
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.66002
This study discusses the relationships of material things to people with dementia and proposes the development of material environments to enhance their well-being. Integrating research on well-being from existential, ecological, and place-based perspectives, this study develops a new understanding of the well-being of people with dementia when considering the active role of material things in the process of developing well-being. “Well-being of people with dementia” refers to the awareness of self-existence in a real-world environment established by the interactions of people and material things. Based on this understanding, this study integrates four types of environmental embodiments, including obliviousness, watching, noticing, and heightened contact, providing specific guides to understand people’s associations with their material environments. An environment-based conceptual framework, based on the new understanding of the meanings of well-being and its association with material things, allows designers and professional/family caregivers to understand the lived experiences of people with dementia, in order to enhance the well-being of their clients and their families by using material things to create a more holistic environment.
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