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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 135 matches for " Mediastinum "
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Contrast Enhancement of Posterior Mediastinal Ganglioneuromas—Correlation between the Level of Enhancement and Histopathological Features  [PDF]
Yoshiyuki Ozawa, Masaki Hara, Maho Kato, Shigeki Shimizu, Yuta Shibamoto
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2014.41016
Abstract:

Purpose: Relationship between CT or MR images and histological findings, especially vascularity, has not been adequately evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate correlation between contrast enhancement on CT and MRI and histological findings in posterior mediastinal ganglioneuromas. Materials and Methods: Contrast-enhanced (CE) CT (n = 11) and CE MRI (n = 5) of 12 patients with ganglioneuroma were reviewed. The attenuation, signal intensity, and dynamic enhancement pattern of the tumors were evaluated. The vascularity was histologically evaluated by the numbers of vessels. Results: Enhancement on CE-CT was none, mild, moderate, and high enhancement in 5 (45%), 2 (18%), 3 (27%), and 1 (9%) of the 11 lesions, respectively. Dynamic MRI showed mild, moderate and high enhancement in 3 (60%), 1 (20%) and 1 (20%) cases, respectively. The level of contrast enhancement correlated well only with the number of capillary vessels (r = 0.79, P = 0.0037). Conclusion: The posterior mediastinal ganglioneuromas sometimes show insufficient enhancement particularly on CE-CT. The level of enhancement might correlate with the amount of capillary vessels.

Mediastinoscopy in Assessing Mediastinal Lymphadenopathy and Lung Disease  [PDF]
Iskander Al-Githmi
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery (OJTS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojts.2017.74008
Abstract: Background: Mediastinoscopy is the gold standard procedure for the pathological staging and diagnosis of mediastinal diseases. The aim of the study is to describe the significance of anterior cervical Mediastinoscopy in evaluating patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy and lung parenchymal disease. Material and Methods: From January 2014 until June 2017 we conducted a retrospective study of 52 consecutive patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy and lung parenchymal disease who underwent anterior cervical Mediastinoscopy. The main indications for cervical Mediastinoscopy were isolated mediastinal lymphadenopathy, undetermined lung mass with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and the clinical staging of patients with lung cancer. Results: The study subjects consisted of 37 men and 15 women, aged 13 to 87 (mean age 50.8). Eight patients had mediastinoscopy for staging lung cancer, 27 patients had mediastinoscopy to diagnose isolated mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and 17 patients had mediastinoscopy for an undetermined lung parenchymal mass. Among the patients with isolated mediastinal lymphadenopathy, sarcoidosis was diagnosed in 6, tuberculosis in 9, reactive lymph nodes in 4, metastasis in 5 and lymphoma in 3. Lymph node metastasis (N2, N3) was found in 5 patients with lung cancer. There was no surgical-related mortality or morbidity. Conclusions: Mediastinoscopy is a safe and reliable procedure in diagnosing mediastinal diseases and is still the first choice among the investigative modalities in the clinical staging of bronchogenic carcinoma.
Unusual Location of Coelomic Cysts  [PDF]
Smadhi Hanen, Ben Jemai Emna, Diouani Mohamed Fethi, Abdennadhar Mahdi, Attia Monia, Ayadi-Kaddour Aida, Megdiche Mohamed Lamine
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2018.83004
Abstract: Intrathoracic mesothelial cysts are congenital lesions due to an abnormal development of the pericardial coelom. They are generally unilocular and can develop in various sites. We describe a case of multicystic lesions in the anterior mediastinum of a 53-year-old woman discovered in a context of an encysted pleural effusion. Chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed multiple cystic lesions in the anterior and posterior mediastinum. Surgery was carried out and histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of multiple coelomic cysts of the mediastinum.
Tumor extragonadal de células germinales en mediastino: aportación de un caso
Zavala Elizondo,A.; Martínez Montelongo,R.; González,J.E.;
Actas Urológicas Espa?olas , 2008, DOI: 10.4321/S0210-48062008000300016
Abstract: the germ cell tumors of extragonadal origin are infrequent cases being described in literature less than 1000 cases. the frequent origin sites are mediastinum, retroperitoneum, sacrococcygeal region, and the pineal gland. there was a primary case of germinoma in mediastinum in a 27 years patient. in the image studies a mediastinal mass was demonstrated, a biopsy was taken arriving at the diagnosis. normal tumor markers, testicular ultrasonography reported the presence of bilateral microlitiasis. it was treating with polychemotherapy and later residual mass was dried. the evolution was satisfactory with complete answer.
Liposarcoma gigante de mediastino
Fontes Maestri,Manuel César; Armas Pérez,Bárbaro Agustín; Rubino de la Rosa,Jorge; Reyes Balseiro,Evelio Salvador; Armas Moredo,Karina;
Revista Cubana de Cirug?-a , 2007,
Abstract: liposarcoma is the most frequent malignant soft tissue tumor. this article presented a case of well-differentiated liposarcoma located in the mediastinum, which is a rare location. the patient was a 48 years-old man that was admitted to the pneumothysiology service because he was short of breath and had a mediastinal mass located near left hemithorax. he was studied using anteroposterior and lateral thoracic radiography in addition to computerized tomography. it was necessary to urgently perform thorachotomy due to his acute clinical picture with mediastinal compression. the patient evolved positively during surgery and afterwards; at present, he has finished his adjuvant treatment based on radiotherapy and chemotherapy and he feels good
Cardiac changes in mediastinal seminoma - a case report
Ivanovi? Branislava,Vujisi?-Te?i? Bosiljka D.,Jovanovi? Dragana,Kalimanovska-O?tri? Dimitra V.
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/sarh0310403i
Abstract: Primary pure cell seminoma of the mediastinum is a rare and potentially fatal lesion. Encroachment or invasion of adjacent structures is common, as are distant metastases. We present an unusual case of mediastinal seminoma with directly intracavitary invasion into the right atrium and extension to the left atrium. A 22-year-old male with right side chest pain, progressive cough, dispnea, fever and right arm swelling lasting about a month is presented. Chest radiography on admission revealed a large mass in the anterior mediastinum. A cardiac ultrasonographic examination showed right atrial compression by the mass, with invasion of the right atrium wall. We also found polyp-like (about 2.5 cm in diameter) masses in left atrium near the area of the right pulmonary veins and a circumferential pericardial effusion. Percutaneous needle biopsy revealed mediastinal seminoma. To our knowledge, no similar case has been previously reported.
Ancient (Sclerosing) Thymoma: Case Report
Duygu GüREL,Aydanur KARGI,Erkan YILMAZ,Ayd?n ?ANLI
Türk Patoloji Dergisi , 2010,
Abstract: A 43-year-old female who had dyspnea and had been diagnosed as myasthenia gravis was found to have a mass lesion of the anterior mediastinum that protruded to the left and contained calcified areas on radiological investigation. The patient was operated on with a preliminary diagnosis of thymoma. Macroscopically the tumoral lesion was 5x4.5 cm in size and was light tan, firm and solid without necrosis or hemorrhage. Histological investigation showed epithelial islands without atypical features scattered within large areas of hyalinized collagenous tissue and the presence of immature T lymphocytes some of which were TdT positive, which led to a preliminary diagnosis of sclerosing thymoma. Sclerosing thymoma is a rare type of thymoma and has first been reported in 1994. Since there are only a few reports in the literature detailed information on clinical features and pathogenesis is needed. The possibility of sclerosing thymoma should always be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal lesions with marked sclerosis that can lead diagnostic difficulties especially when evaluating small mediastinoscopic biopsies.
Anterior Mediastinal Fat Changes in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Preliminary Study  [PDF]
Wafaa Ali Hassan, Eman Abo-Elhamd
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2014.41003
Abstract:
Background: The mediastinum is composed primarily of fatty tissue that is surrounded by the lungs bilaterally.
There is a lack in the published literature in studying changes in mediastinal fat in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
(IPF). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the shape and dimensions of the anterior mediastinal fat in patients with IPF are different from that of a normal control group and to correlate the changes with disease severity. Design and Setting: This prospective case control study was done at the chest department of Assiut University Hospital on IPF patients from May 2010-September 2012. A questionnaire containing questions such as age, sex, clinical findings, high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) score and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) was filled for patients and normal controls. Results: The IPF retrosternal AP dimension was significantly shorter (p = 0.03) and the transverse dimension was longer (p = 0.001) than that in the normal control group. The convex shape of the anterior mediastinum was predictive of IPF (p = 0.001), whereas concave shape was predictive of normal controls (p = 0.001). The change in anteroposterior diameter (AP) and transverse diameters showed significant correlation with the changes in FVC, DLCO and HRCT score. Conclusions: IPF patients had reduced retrosternal AP and increased transverse dimensions than those of the controls with convex shape of their anterior mediastinal fat. Changes in anterior mediastinal fat dimensions are correlated with lower FVC, DLCO and higher HRCT score. A larger sample size, better multicenteric study is needed to confirm the results of this study.
Case Report: Mediastinal Ganglioneuroma Presented as Chronic Diarrhea in a Young Saudi Girl  [PDF]
Khaled I. Alqoaer, Muflih Albalawi, Mohammed S. Alnoaiji, Amjad Khan
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.57057
Abstract:

Ganglioneuromas (GN) are rare, benign neurogenic tumors that arise from sympathetic ganglia. They are often asymptomatic. However, in rare cases, they may secrete catecholamines, vasoactive intestinal polypeptides (VIP), or androgenic hormones and manifest with flushing, symptoms of catecholamine excess or chronic diarrhea. We report a young Saudi girl with chronic secretory diarrhea, severe hypokalemia and abdominal distension. After an extensive work up, a well-defined hypodense heterogeneous mediastinal mass was noted in radio imaging. A complete recovery was seen after surgical removal of that mediastinal mass which turned to be a ganglioneuroma.

Thoracic Duct Cyst of the Anterior Mediastinum  [PDF]
Masao Saito, Tatsuo Nakagawa, Naohisa Chiba, Yasuto Sakaguchi, Shinya Ishikawa
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery (OJTS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojts.2014.44017
Abstract: Mediastinal thoracic duct cyst is a rare benign cystic disease. The lesion is generally in the post-erior or superior mediastinum, where the thoracic duct passes. We herein report an extremely rare case of surgically resected anterior mediastinal thoracic duct cyst. A thoracic duct cyst should be considered as an uncommon differential diagnosis of an anterior mediastinal lesion.
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