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Can a meta-analysis that mixes apples with oranges be used to demonstrate that levosimendan reduces mortality after coronary revascularization?
Massimo Meco, Silvia Cirri
Critical Care , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/cc10484
Abstract: The basic reason is that their meta-analysis did not include comparable studies, thus violating the basic principle of meta-analysis. We believe that the inclusion in meta-analyses of studies so radically different is a methodological bias: characteristics of patients, doses used and timing of drug administration were discordant enough to make a true meta-analysis impossible. What is missing is a critical analysis of individual studies: the authors have only tried to give a pooled estimate of effectiveness of levosimendan administration.As Green [2] points out about meta-analyses: 'Meta-analysis should only be performed when the studies are similar with respect to population, outcome and intervention.' The article of Moharaj and Metaxa does not follow these simple principles. We believe it is not correct to include in the same analysis studies where levosimendan is used for the treatment of postoperative cardiogenic shock and studies where it is used as ischemic preconditioning before cardiopulmonary bypass [3,4]. For example, the study of Tritapepe and colleagues [5] included in this meta-analysis describes the effects of a single low dose (24 mcg/kg) of levosimendan infused before cardiopulmonary bypass in patients undergoing surgical myocardial revascularization only for the assessment of the possible preconditioning effect of the drug.Although we believe that levosimendan is an effective drug for the treatment of cardiogenic shock, we also believe this meta-analysis does not provide enough evidence that levosimendan can decrease mortality after myocardial revascularization.Ritesh Maharaj and Victoria MetaxaWe would like to thank Dr Meco and colleagues for their interest in our recently published meta-analysis [1]. The main goal of meta-analyses is to obtain a summary estimate across data sets and is substantially different to the aims of an individual trial [6,7]. Accounting for trial level differences remains a significant analytical challenge when pooling resu
Les formations marines et continentales intervolcaniques des les Canaries orientales (Grande Canarie. Fuerteventura et Lanzarote): Stratigraphie et signiflcation paleoclimatique.
Meco, J.,Pomel, R.
Estudios Geologicos , 1985,
Abstract: More than 20 m. y. of continuous activity in the Canary Islands have brought about the fossilization of marine fauna and soils which prove the existence of alternating warm and numid conditions of guinean origen, and also of drier influences from the Sahara, connected with the arrival of cold waters from the Lusitanian Sea. The sea deposits of the lower Pleistocene with Strombus coronatus and those of the upper Pleistocene with Strombus bubonius, which are caracteristically warm and the deposits of middle and upper Pleistoeene and of the Holocene, with various species of Patella and caracteristically cold (Meco, 1977), have already been related to volcanic activities dated by K/Ar (Meco y Steams, 1981) and are new being related to rapid effects of soil formation, the result of evaporation an clayey neoformation of volcanic materials which are constantly being renoved. The fairly rapid fossilization caused by volcanic activity, eliminates some of the effects accumulated over a period of time on the paleosoils, The existence of Saharian quartz, a mineral not found in volcanic products, and the simultaneous existence of more distant matters on the evolution of soilformation, like crusts which contain gypsum or attapulgyte of desert origin and bauxites containing nickel and tale of tropical, humid origin (Pomel, 1985), all this permit to find coherents conclusions. Más de 20 m. a. de actividad volcánica continuada ha permitido en las Canarias la fosilización de faunas marinas y suelos que testimonian una alternancia de condiciones cálidas y húmedas, de origen guineano, y de influencias secas, saharianas, relacionadas con aportes de aguas frescas de procedencia lusitana. Los depósitos marinos del Plioceno inferior con Strombus coronatus y los del Pleistoceno superior con Strombus bubonius, que revelan un carácter cálido, y los depósitos del Pleistoceno medio y superior y del Holoceno, con varias especies de Patella, y de carácter fresco (Meco, 1977) se habían relacionado con episodios volcánicos datados por K/Ar (Meco y Stearns, 1981) y se relacionan ahora, por primera vez, con algunos trazos rápidos de la pedogénesis, consecuencia de la evaporación y neoformación arcillosa en materiales volcánicos constantemente renovados. A medida que las series volcánicas fosilizan alteraciones se eliminan algunos efectos acumulativos del tiempo en los paleosuelos. La presencia de cuarzo sahariano, mineral ausente en los productos volcánicos, y la coexistencia de los extremos más alejados de la evolución pedológica, como las costras yesíferas o con attapulgita desérticas y
Evolution of Soil Biochemical Parameters in Rainfed Crops: Effect of Organic and Mineral Fertilization
Marta M. Moreno,Carmen Moreno,Carlos Lacasta,Ramón Meco
Applied and Environmental Soil Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/826236
Abstract: In organic farming, crop fertilization is largely based on the decomposition of organic matter and biological fixation of nutrients. It is therefore necessary to develop studies conducted to know and understand the soil biological processes for the natural nutrient supplies. The effect of three fertilizer managements (chemical with synthetic fertilizers, organic with 2500?kg compost ha?1, and no fertilizer) in a rainfed crop rotation (durum wheat-fallow-barley-vetch as green manure) on different soil biochemical parameters in semi-arid conditions was investigated. Soil organic matter, microbial biomass carbon, organic matter mineralization, CO2 production-to-ATP ratio, and NO3-N content were analysed. Fertilization was only applied to cereals. The results showed the scarce effect of the organic fertilization on soil quality, which resulted more dependent on weather conditions. Only soil organic matter and NO3-N were affected by fertilization (significantly higher in the inorganic treatment, 1.28?g 100?g?1 and 17.3?ppm, resp.). Soil organic matter was maintained throughout the study period by the inclusion of a legume in the cropping system and the burying of crop residues. In fallow, soil microbial biomass carbon increased considerably (816?ng g?1), and NO3-N at the end of this period was around 35?ppm, equivalent to 100?kg N ha?1. 1. Introduction Conventional farming has been important for improving food to meet human demands but has been largely dependent on intensive inputs of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides [1, 2], both from an economic and energetic point of view. In recent years, the relationship between agriculture and the environment has changed, and concerns regarding the sustainability of agricultural production systems have come to the fore [3]. In this context, organic or ecological farming, focused on the environment and public health, is increasing worldwide [4]. Organic farming avoids the application of synthetic biocides and fertilizers [5, 6], promotes the use of renewable resources to prevent pollution [7], may reduce some negative effects attributed to conventional farming, and may have potential benefits in enhancing soil quality [2]. Thus, plant production in organic farming mainly depends on nutrient release as a function of the mineralization processes in soils. Therefore, to get an active soil microflora and an important amount of available nutrients is crucial in these productive systems, being the goal “fertilizing the soil rather than the plant” a priority among organic farmers to assure sufficient nutrient mineralization
High prevalence of extrapyramidal signs and symptoms in a group of Italian dental technicians
Edito Fabrizio, Nicola Vanacore, Marcella Valente, Alfonso Rubino, Giuseppe Meco
BMC Neurology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-7-24
Abstract: We performed an epidemiological and clinical study on all 27 dental technicians working in a school for dental technicians. We asked all the technicians to fill in a self-administered questionnaire on extrapyramidal symptoms, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), a self-administered screening instrument, to detect any psychiatric disorders. Moreover, we invited all 27 dental technicians to undergo a neurological examination and provide a detailed occupational history in our clinic.Of the 14 subjects who underwent the neurological examination, four had postural tremor and one had a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease.We found a high prevalence of extrapyramidal signs and symptoms in this group of male dental technicians working in a state technical high school in Rome. We believe that this finding may be due to the presence of toxins in the dental technician's work.Occupational and chronic exposure to solvents and metals is considered a possible risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD).Numerous case-control studies point to a role of these environmental toxins in the etiopathogenesis of PD.One study performed on 144 PD cases and 464 controls revealed a higher incidence of PD among subjects with more than 20 years' exposure to lead-iron (OR = 2.83; 95CI% 1.07–7.50) and iron-copper (OR = 3.69; 95 CI% 1.40–9.71) combinations [1].Another study, conducted on 341 cases and 357 controls, revealed that the incidence of PD was associated with occupational exposure to solvents (OR = 1.89; 95 CI% 1.2–2.7) [2].Yet another analytical epidemiological study indicated a possible association between exposure to mercury and PD [3]. Moreover, some case reports point to a link between parkinsonism and exposure to n-hexane and mercury [4,5]. An epidemiological review of this topic has been published [6]. Other case-control studies report contrasting results regarding a possible link between occupational exposure to metals and solvents and essential tremor (ET) [7,8]. Dental technician
Depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease and in non-neurological medical illnesses
Assogna F,Fagioli S,Cravello L,Meco G
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2013,
Abstract: Francesca Assogna,1 Sabrina Fagioli,1 Luca Cravello,1 Giuseppe Meco,2 Mariangela Pierantozzi,3 Alessandro Stefani,3 Francesca Imperiale,2 Carlo Caltagirone,1,3 Francesco E Pontieri,4 Gianfranco Spalletta11I.R.C.C.S. Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Neurology and Psychiatry (Parkinson’s Centre) and Research Centre of Social Diseases (CIMS), University “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Neuroscience, University “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Neuroscience, Mental Health and Sensory Systems, University “Sapienza”, Movement Disorder Unit, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome, ItalyBackground: Patients with neurological and non-neurological medical illnesses very often complain of depressive symptoms that are associated with cognitive and functional impairments. We compared the profile of depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with that of control subjects (CS) suffering from non-neurological medical illnesses.Methods: One-hundred PD patients and 100 CS were submitted to a structured clinical interview for identification of major depressive disorder (MDD) and minor depressive disorder (MIND), according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR), criteria. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were also administered to measure depression severity.Results: When considering the whole groups, there were no differences in depressive symptom frequency between PD and CS apart from worthlessness/guilt, and changes in appetite reduced rates in PD. Further, total scores and psychic and somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI did not differ between PD and CS. After we separated PD and CS in those with MDD, MIND, and no depression (NODEP), comparing total scores and psychic/somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI, we found increased total depression severity in NODEP PD and reduced severity of the psychic symptoms of depression in MDD PD, with no differences in MIND. However, the severity of individual symptom frequency of depression was not different between PD and CS in MDD, MIND, and NODEP groups.Conclusion: Although MDD and MIND phenomenology in PD may be very similar to that of CS with non-neurological medical illnesses, neurological symptoms of PD may worsen (or confound) depression severity in patients with no formal/structured DSM-IV-TR, diagnosis of depressive mood disorders. Thus, a thorough assessment of depression in PD should take into consideration the different impacts of neurological manifestations on MDD, MIND, and NODEP
Los carófitos ibéricos
Fernández Zamudio, Rocío,Meco, Ana,García Murillo, Pablo,Cirujano, Santos
Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid , 2007,
Abstract: A critical check-list of the Charophytes from the Iberian Peninsula, based on literature records and original data, is presented. It includes 46 taxa, including 26 species, 14 varieties and 6 forms, from 5 genera: Chara, Lamprothamnium, Nitella, Nitellopsis and Tolypella. Se presenta un catálogo crítico de los carófitos citados para la Península Ibérica, que comprende 46 táxones, correspondientes a 26 especies, 14 variedades y 6 formas, incluidos en 5 géneros: Chara, Lamprothamnium, Nitella, Nitellopsis y Tolypella. Para cada taxon se incluyen los sinónimos más utilizados, y su distribución ibérica.
Depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease and in non-neurological medical illnesses
Assogna F, Fagioli S, Cravello L, Meco G, Pierantozzi M, Stefani A, Imperiale F, Caltagirone C, Pontieri FE, Spalletta G
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S40013
Abstract: essive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease and in non-neurological medical illnesses Original Research (36) Total Article Views Authors: Assogna F, Fagioli S, Cravello L, Meco G, Pierantozzi M, Stefani A, Imperiale F, Caltagirone C, Pontieri FE, Spalletta G Published Date March 2013 Volume 2013:9 Pages 389 - 396 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S40013 Received: 07 November 2012 Accepted: 23 January 2013 Published: 21 March 2013 Francesca Assogna,1 Sabrina Fagioli,1 Luca Cravello,1 Giuseppe Meco,2 Mariangela Pierantozzi,3 Alessandro Stefani,3 Francesca Imperiale,2 Carlo Caltagirone,1,3 Francesco E Pontieri,4 Gianfranco Spalletta1 1I.R.C.C.S. Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Neurology and Psychiatry (Parkinson’s Centre) and Research Centre of Social Diseases (CIMS), University “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Neuroscience, University “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Neuroscience, Mental Health and Sensory Systems, University “Sapienza”, Movement Disorder Unit, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy Background: Patients with neurological and non-neurological medical illnesses very often complain of depressive symptoms that are associated with cognitive and functional impairments. We compared the profile of depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with that of control subjects (CS) suffering from non-neurological medical illnesses. Methods: One-hundred PD patients and 100 CS were submitted to a structured clinical interview for identification of major depressive disorder (MDD) and minor depressive disorder (MIND), according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR), criteria. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were also administered to measure depression severity. Results: When considering the whole groups, there were no differences in depressive symptom frequency between PD and CS apart from worthlessness/guilt, and changes in appetite reduced rates in PD. Further, total scores and psychic and somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI did not differ between PD and CS. After we separated PD and CS in those with MDD, MIND, and no depression (NODEP), comparing total scores and psychic/somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI, we found increased total depression severity in NODEP PD and reduced severity of the psychic symptoms of depression in MDD PD, with no differences in MIND. However, the severity of individual symptom frequency of depression was not different between PD and CS in MDD, MIND, and NODEP groups. Conclusion: Although MDD and MIND phenomenology in PD may be very similar to that of CS with non-neurological medical illnesses, neurological symptoms of PD may worsen (or confound) depression severity in patients with no formal/structured DSM-IV-TR, diagnosis of depressive mood disorders. Thus, a thorough assessment of depression in PD should take into consideration the different impacts of neurological mani
SQSTM1/p62 Interacts with HDAC6 and Regulates Deacetylase Activity
Jin Yan, Michael Lamar Seibenhener, Luis Calderilla-Barbosa, Maria-Theresa Diaz-Meco, Jorge Moscat, Jianxiong Jiang, Marie W. Wooten, Michael C. Wooten
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076016
Abstract: Protein aggregates can form in the cytoplasm of the cell and are accumulated at aggresomes localized to the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) where they are subsequently degraded by autophagy. In this process, aggregates are engulfed into autophagosomes which subsequently fuse with lysosomes for protein degradation. A member of the class II histone deacetylase family, histone deacetylase 6(HDAC6) has been shown to be involved in both aggresome formation and the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes making it an attractive target to regulate protein aggregation. The scaffolding protein sequestosome 1(SQSTM1)/p62 has also been shown to regulate accumulation and autophagic clearance of protein aggregates. Recent studies have revealed colocalization of HDAC6 and p62 to ubiquitinated mitochondria, as well as, ubiquitinated protein aggregates associated with the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM50. HDAC6 deacetylase activity is required for aggresome formation and can be regulated by protein interaction with HDAC6. Due to their colocalization at ubiquitinated protein aggregates, we sought to examine if p62 specifically interacted with HDAC6 and if so, if this interaction had any effect on HDAC6 activity and/or the physiological function of cortactin-F-actin assembly. We succeeded in identifying and mapping the direct interaction between HDAC6 and p62. We further show that this interaction regulates HDAC6 deacetylase activity. Data are presented demonstrating that the absence of p62 results in hyperactivation of HDAC6 and deacetylation of α-tubulin and cortactin. Further, upon induction of protein misfolding we show that p62 is required for perinuclear co-localization of cortactin-F-actin assemblies. Thus, our findings indicate that p62 plays a key role in regulating the recruitment of F-actin network assemblies to the MTOC, a critical cellular function that is required for successful autophagic clearance of protein aggregates.
Gender Effect in Experimental Models of Human Medulloblastoma: Does the Estrogen Receptor β Signaling Play a Role?
Alessandra Ciucci, Daniela Meco, Ilaria De Stefano, Daniele Travaglia, Gian Franco Zannoni, Giovanni Scambia, Riccardo Riccardi, Anna Saran, Mariateresa Mancuso, Daniela Gallo
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101623
Abstract: Background The male-to-female sex ratio for medulloblastoma (MB) is approximately 1.5:1, female gender being also a favorable prognostic factor. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of gender on MB tumorigenesis. Methods In vitro activity of 17β-estradiol (E2), DPN [2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile, a selective estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-agonist], PPT [4,4′,4″-(4-Propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-t?riyl)trisphenol, a selective ERα-agonist] or DHT (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone) was evaluated in three human MB cell lines. D283 Med cells were transplanted into athymic mice. Results A significant expression of ERβ, with little or no ERα, and low AR (androgen receptor) was found in MB cell lines. The compounds tested did not affect cell proliferation. In vivo, we observed a significantly lower growth of D283 Med in nude female mice compared to males. At microscopic examination, tumors from females showed a shift towards differentiation, as evaluated by lower nestin, and higher NSE (neuron-specific enolase) and GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) expression compared to males. Tumors from females also showed lower Ki67 and p53 expression. The wild-type ERβ protein (ERβ1) was lost in male tumors, while it was a permanent feature in females, and a strong negative correlation was found between Ki67 and ERβ1 expression. Conversely, tumor levels of ERβ2 and ERβ5 did not significantly differ between genders. Increased levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 were observed in females, suggesting that estrogen may decrease tumor growth through blocking cell cycle progression. An inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) signaling was also evident in females. Conclusion We provides mechanistic evidence supporting the idea that ERβ1 signaling may have pro-differentiation and tumor suppressive function in medulloblastomas.
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