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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4136 matches for " Mayu Tanaka "
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Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review
Takuji Tanaka,Mayu Tanaka,Takahiro Tanaka
Pathology Research International , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/431246
Abstract: Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy. 1. Introduction Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common human cancer [1], representing 3% of all types of cancer. They are located in the oral cavity in 48% of cases, and 90% of these are oral squamous cell carcinoma [2]. They are sometimes preceded by precancerous lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia. More than 300,000 new cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma are diagnosed annually [3]. Approximately 35,000 new cases are recorded annually in the US [2], 40,000 new cases are recorded in the EU and 10915 new cases in Japan [4]. The most common site for intraoral carcinoma is the tongue, which accounts for around 40% of all cases in the oral cavity proper. Tongue cancers most frequently occur on the posterior-lateral border and ventral surfaces of the tongue. The floor of the mouth is the second most common intraoral location. Less common sites include the gingival, buccal mucosa, labial mucosa, and hard plate. The incidence of oral cancer has significant local variation. Oral and pharyngeal carcinomas account for up to half of all malignancies in India and other Asian countries, and this particularly high prevalence is attributed to the influence of carcinogens and region-specific epidemiological factors, especially tobacco and chewing betel quid. An increase in the prevalence of oral cancer among young adults is a cause of special concern. There has been a 60% increase in the number of under 40 years olds with tongue cancer over past 30 years. However, little has been published on the etiology and natural history of this increase [5]. Oral malignancy,
Cancer Chemoprevention by Citrus Pulp and Juices Containing High Amounts of β-Cryptoxanthin and Hesperidin
Takuji Tanaka,Takahiro Tanaka,Mayu Tanaka,Toshiya Kuno
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/516981
Abstract: β-Cryptoxanthin, a carotenoid, and hesperidin, a flavonoid, possess inhibitory effects on carcinogenesis in several tissues. We recently have prepared a pulp (CHRP) and citrus juices (MJ2 and MJ5) from a satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Mar.) juice (MJ). They contain high amounts of β-cryptoxanthin and hesperidin. We have demonstrated that CHRP and/or MJs inhibit chemically induced rat colon, rat tongue, and mouse lung tumorigenesis. Gavage with CHRP resulted in an increase of activities of detoxifying enzymes in the liver, colon, and tongue rats'. CHRP and MJs were also able to suppress the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory enzymes in the target tissues. This paper describes the findings of our in vivo preclinical experiments to develop a strategy for cancer chemoprevention of colon, tongue, and lung neoplasms by use of CHRP and MJs.
Biomarkers for Colorectal Cancer
Takuji Tanaka,Mayu Tanaka,Takahiro Tanaka,Rikako Ishigamori
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijms11093209
Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common epithelial malignancy in the world. Since CRC develops slowly from removable precancerous lesions, detection of the lesion at an early stage by regular health examinations can reduce the incidence and mortality of this malignancy. Colonoscopy significantly improves the detection rate of CRC, but the examination is expensive and inconvenient. Therefore, we need novel biomarkers that are non-invasive to enable us to detect CRC quite early. A number of validation studies have been conducted to evaluate genetic, epigenetic or protein markers for identification in the stool and/or serum. Currently, the fecal occult blood test is the most widely used method of screening for CRC. However, advances in genomics and proteomics will lead to the discovery of novel non-invasive biomarkers.
Post-ischemic inflammation in the brain
Mayu Suzuki,Akihiko Yoshimura
Frontiers in Immunology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2012.00132
Abstract: Post-ischemic inflammation is an essential step in the progression of brain ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this review, we focus on the post-ischemic inflammation triggered by infiltrating immune cells, macrophages, and T lymphocytes. Brain ischemia is a sterile organ, but injury-induced inflammation is mostly dependent on Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4. Some endogenous TLR ligands, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and peroxiredoxin family proteins, in particular, are implicated in the activation and inflammatory cytokine expression in infiltrating macrophages. Following macrophage activation, T lymphocytes infiltrate the ischemic brain and regulate the delayed phase inflammation. IL-17-producing γδT lymphocytes induced by IL-23 from macrophages promote ischemic brain injury, whereas regulatory T lymphocytes suppress the function of inflammatory mediators. A deeper understanding of the inflammatory mechanisms of infiltrating immune cells may lead to the development of novel neuroprotective therapies.
Investigation of Antibiotic Use at a Dental Teaching Hospital in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: A Review from Guidelines  [PDF]
Mayu Winnie Rachmawati, Naoko Yoshida, Hirohito Tsuboi, Kazuko Kimura
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.55062

Objective: To investigate prescription of antibiotics by dental practitioners at a dental teaching hospital in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, and to establish whether it conforms to major guidelines. Methods: A cross-sectional study of adult outpatients’ medical records was conducted in order to scrutinize antibiotic prescriptions. The results were compared with recommendations in four published guidelines. Results: Dental practitioners prescribed a wide range of antibiotics to treat 121 diagnoses. Amoxicillin (78.8%) was most commonly prescribed, followed by clindamycin (9.9%), metronidazole (5.0%), and lincomycin (2.1%). Among all prescriptions, 79.5% were for generic antibiotics. The most common diagnoses were dental pulp gangrene followed by dental pulp necrosis (26.7% and 8.8%, respectively). According to guidelines-1 through-4, the percentages of antibiotic prescriptions that were evaluated as appropriate for the reported diagnosis were 15.1%, 7.2%, 7.5%, and 16.3%, respectively. However, 9.9%, 84.0%, 83.7% and 67.8% of prescriptions could not be classified as appropriate or inappropriate because the respective guidelines neither listed the antibiotic nor gave statement regarding appropriate indications. Conclusion: Our results suggest that significant inappropriate antibiotic prescribing occurred at a dental teaching hospital in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, according to major antibiotics guidelines. However, the four guidelines failed to list some antibiotics, failed to list indications for prescription in some cases, and were inconsistent in their recommendations. There is a need to introduce specific institutional guidelines. Our findings should be helpful for developing public health policy guidelines to minimize inappropriate antibiotic prescribing at dental hospitals.

Evaluation of Effective Vehicle Probe Information Delivery with Multiple Communication Methods  [PDF]
Tatsuya Yamada, Mayu Mitsukawa, Hideki Shimada, Kenya Sato
Communications and Network (CN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2015.72007
Abstract: Vehicle probe information delivery systems can be broadly divided into the center type and center-less type. Since conventional center-type information delivery systems generate a large load on the communications infrastructure and data center, research efforts have come to be focused on the centerless type. However, existing vehicle probe information delivery systems suffer from various problems including a limited service area, low delivery efficiency, and lack of immediacy in delivery. Our objective in this study is efficient delivery of vehicle probe information as needed. We propose a delivery scheme that uses vehicle-to-vehicle communication, infrastructure-to-vehicle communication, and mobile communication as well as Geo cast. This combined use of multiple communication methods achieves efficient information delivery by changing the communication method to fit the current situation. The results of an evaluation by simulation showed that the proposed scheme could deliver information efficiently in a variety of environments.
Sizes of Anode and Cathode Affect Electricity Generation in Rice Paddy-Field Microbial Fuel Cells  [PDF]
Nagayoshi Ueoka, Naoko Sese, Mayu Sue, Atsushi Kouzuma, Kazuya Watanabe
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2016.61002
Abstract: Rice paddy-field microbial fuel cells (RPF-MFCs) are devices that exploit rhizosphere bacteria to generate electricity from soil organic matter, including those excreted from roots. Previous studies have examined factors affecting electric outputs from RPF-MFCs and demonstrated that RPFMFC was able to generate electricity up to 80 mW·m-2 (based on the projected area of anode). The present study operated RPF-MFCs with different sizes of anodes and cathodes and examined how electrode sizes affected electricity generation. We show that anodes are the limiting factor for electricity generation immediately after commencing the operation, while cathodes become the limiting factor after anode performances are sufficiently increased. RPF-MFC achieved the maximum power density of 140 mW·m-2 (based on the projected area of anode), when the cathode is sufficiently larger than the anode. Results suggest that the cathode needs to be improved for eliciting the maximum capacity of rhizosphere bacteria for electricity generation in RPF-MFC.
Benefit of Using Sick Child Care Facilities to the Children and Their Parents  [PDF]
Kyoko Fukumoto, Mao Kawamura, Mayu Yoshitsugu, Ikuko Sobue
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.811118
Abstract: Introduction: Sick child care is a form of nursing care provided temporarily for sick children when they cannot be cared for by their parents at home. To clarify the benefits of using sick child care facilities for children and their parents, we surveyed these parents about the benefits of such care and their needs. Method: Study design: Descriptive research. We studied parents whose children had used one of the 11 sick child care facilities for sick children in Hiroshima City in 2014. A total of 156 parents consented to participate in the study. We investigated their usage situation of sick child care, perceived benefits of such care, and care-related requests in a quantitative and qualitative manner. Results: Both nuclear families consisting of the dual income parents and their children and single-mother households reported that their children (mean age: 2.46 years [SD: 1.77 years]) had used sick child care because of infectious diseases. Approximately 10% of the parents were using the fee reduction systems of sick child care intended for people with a low income. Parents viewed sick child care as beneficial both in early the health recovery of children, and as support for child raising and working. On the other hand, some parents left their children at home alone when sick child care was not available due to the limited number of sick child care facilities and an insufficient capacity to accept children. Some parents desired an increased number of care facilities, as well as a reduction in or subsidies for care fees. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that, to ensure children’s health and safety, and support their parents for working and child raising, there is a need to increase the number of sick child care facilities along with expanding care services.
Objective Assessment of Skin Tightening Using Multisource, Phase-Controlled Radiofrequency in Asians  [PDF]
Yohei Tanaka
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2013.31016

Background: Radiofrequency has been proven to penetrate deeper than optical light sources independent of skin color allowing a safer treatment for the Asian skin type. Many studies have indicated the efficacy of various types of devices, but have not included a sufficient objective evaluation. Multisource radiofrequency uses multiple phase controlled radiofrequency generators with real time impedance control, allowing painless, deeper dermal heating with better adaptation to differences in individual skin impedance. In this study we used three-dimensional imaging for the objective evaluation of facial skin tightening by multisource phase-controlled radiofrequency. Methods: Twenty Japanese patients were treated with a multisource phase-controlled radiofrequency device. Three-dimensional imaging was performed with a Canfield Scientific Vectra camera and software, and quantitative volume measurements were taken to evaluate the change in the post-treatment volume. The patients then provided subjective assessments. Results: Objective assessments of the treated cheek volume evaluated by a three-dimensional color schematic representation with quantitative volume measurements showed significant improvement three months after the final treatment. The mean volume reduction at the last post-treatment visit was 3.878 ± 2.86 mL. The post-treatment volume was significantly reduced compared to the pretreatment volume in all of the volunteers (P = 0.0007). Ninety-five percent of volunteers reported satisfaction with the improvement of skin laxity, and ninety percent of volunteers reported satisfaction with the improvement of wrinkles, such as the nasolabial folds. Conclusions: The advantages of these multisource phase-controlled radiofrequency treatments are its high efficacy for skin tightening associated with minimal level of discomfort, minimal side effects, and low cost. Taken together,

Matrix Isolation and Computational Study on the Photolysis of CHCl2COCl  [PDF]
Nobuaki Tanaka
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry (OJPC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2014.43014

UV light photolysis of dichloroacetyl chloride (CHCl2COCl) has been investigated by infrared spectroscopy in cryogenic Ar, Kr, Xe, and O2 matrices. The formation of CHCl3 and CO was found to be the dominant process over the ketene formation. The C-C bond cleaved products CHCl2 and COCl were also observed. As the number of the chlorine atom substitution to methyl group of acetyl chloride increased, the C-C bond cleaved product yield in the triplet state increased, which can be attributed to an internal heavy-atom effect where the intersystem crossing rate was enhanced.

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