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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1628 matches for " May Britt Postholm "
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Experienced Teachers Reflecting on Challenging Situations in School  [PDF]
May Britt Postholm
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.79136
Abstract: The aim of this study is to develop an understanding of how teachers in a lower secondary school deal with challenging situations in the classroom and whether or not they experience that they can obtain help in coping with these situations. Three teachers with five to nine years of teaching experience took part in semi-structured interviews. Before the interviews and before they started to write log book entries for fourteen days to document and reflect on these situations as they occurred in their work in school, the teachers were told that they were to focus on what they felt were challenging situations in their practice. The study shows that these three teachers have various experiences of what they find is difficult to tackle, and that these situations are related to experiences they have had before they started in their profession, and to their values and beliefs. The study also shows that there are common situations that the three teachers perceive as difficult. It becomes evident from the analysis of the data material that they think that good relations between teacher and pupils and between pupils themselves, thus a trustful learning environment, are a good foundation from which to learn to deal with challenging situations in the classroom. They also agree that sharing experiences and solving problems together helps them to tackle challenging situations in school. The teachers think that their basic teacher education has had little influence on their school practice, and they emphasise that further education taken either on campus or with school as the learning arena helps them in their daily practice when confronted with challenging situations.
Teachers’ and School Leaders’ Perceptions of Further Education and Learning in School  [PDF]
May Britt Postholm, Klara Rokkones
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.623252
Abstract: This article focuses on further education of teachers and the importance of the relationship between further education and the visions and development strategies of schools. The study shows that if further education is to contribute to change and development in schools beyond what individual teachers learn, the school has to be organized as a learning community. This means that the school must have a vision. This in turn demands that schools are led in a manner that allocates arenas and room for communication where visions and targets can be formulated and understood through common dialogue.
Developing Teaching in the "University Classroom": The Teacher as Researcher when Initiating and Researching Innovations
May Britt Postholm
Outlines : Critical Practice Studies , 2011,
Abstract: The teacher’s role in the university classroom has traditionally been to present the syllabus to listening students. In Norway new rules have been introduced for the activity in this classroom. The overarching goal for the teaching is to organize a learning situation that makes the students active learners. The article deals with the teacher as a researcher, and focuses on how innovative actions can be implemented by the teacher and studied from a researcher point of view. The text presents cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) as both the theoretical framework for the organized actions in the classroom and as an approach for studying the classroom processes. The article gives an overview over a material that can be gathered in a classroom characterized by student activity. It ends by reflections on how development in one classroom can be transferred to other classrooms.
Cultural historical activity theory and Dewey’s idea-based social constructivism: Consequences for Educational Research
May Britt Postholm
Outlines : Critical Practice Studies , 2008,
Abstract: Background: Our theoretical perspectives direct our research processes. The article contributes to the debate on Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) and Dewey’s idea-based social constructivism, and to the debate on methodology and how the researcher’s theoretical stance guides the researcher in his or her work. Purpose: The article presents fundamental ideas within CHAT and Dewey’s idea-based social constructivism. The purpose of the text is to discuss and examine how ideas in these two theories guide educational research conducted within the framework of these two approaches. Furthermore, the article aims to contribute to the discussion on CHAT and Dewey’s theory. Sources of evidence: Ideas based on Vygotsky’s theories, represented mainly by James Wertsch, Michael Cole, Barbara Rogoff and Yrj Engestr m, and Dewey’s ideas, are examined and discussed in relation to educational research. Furthermore, statements made by Mietinnen, Garrison and Rorty are taken into account in the discussion on the two outlined theories. Main argument: When CHAT and Dewey’s theory guide researchers in their work, they have to take the context or situation into consideration. Artefacts are treated as part of this context, and therefore have to be a focal point of the research. In educational research the classroom and the teacher are also central parts of the learning environment or context. The teacher is the one to form the learning environment in which the pupils think and act, and therefore, the teacher’s role in the classroom is important. If researchers are to manage to focus on pupils’ learning, they must direct their research focus both on the teacher as an organizer of the activities and on the collaborating and supporting processes between the teacher and the pupils, and between the pupils. This means that the research focus has to include both activity and dialogue, which includes processes in all their complexity. Conclusions: Mediating artefacts play a central role both in CHAT and Dewey’s theory. If the researcher is to ascertain what the pupils learn when using specific artefacts, he or she will have to study the activities or processes within which these learning aids are used. This indicates that the researcher has to study learning processes in progress. Garrison states that Dewey’s approach is a philosophy of cultural development. Miettinen
The Researcher's Role: An Ethical Dimension
May Britt Postholm,Janne Madsen
Outlines : Critical Practice Studies , 2006,
Abstract: Different paradigms or perspectives function as the point of departure and framework for research. In this article ethical issues in the positivist and constructivist paradigms are presented. The article points out that more or less the same ethical codes are used in these paradigms, but with some nuanced interpretations. CHAT (cultural historical activity theory) is presented as a third paradigm. While conducting research, one intention within this paradigm is to change and improve practice. This means that the researcher and the research participants during the research process together set the goals for the work and try to change practice en route to these goals. The relation between the researcher and the research participants is different than in the other two presented paradigms. This means that research in the CHAT paradigm also needs to be guided by different ethical codes. The purpose of this article is to show how some of the traditional ethical codes which direct research both in the positivist and constructivist paradigm change and are also inadequate in the CHAT paradigm. The article presents and discusses ethical codes that challenge the researchers’ communicative, social and knowledge competence.
Membranes for Environmentally Friendly Energy Processes
Xuezhong He,May-Britt H?gg
Membranes , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/membranes2040706
Abstract: Membrane separation systems require no or very little chemicals compared to standard unit operations. They are also easy to scale up, energy efficient, and already widely used in various gas and liquid separation processes. Different types of membranes such as common polymers, microporous organic polymers, fixed-site-carrier membranes, mixed matrix membranes, carbon membranes as well as inorganic membranes have been investigated for CO 2 capture/removal and other energy processes in the last two decades. The aim of this work is to review the membrane systems applied in different energy processes, such as post-combustion, pre-combustion, oxyfuel combustion, natural gas sweetening, biogas upgrading, hydrogen production, volatile organic compounds (VOC) recovery and pressure retarded osmosis for power generation. Although different membranes could probably be used in a specific separation process, choosing a suitable membrane material will mainly depend on the membrane permeance and selectivity, process conditions (e.g., operating pressure, temperature) and the impurities in a gas stream (such as SO 2, NO x, H 2S, etc.). Moreover, process design and the challenges relevant to a membrane system are also being discussed to illustrate the membrane process feasibility for a specific application based on process simulation and economic cost estimation.
Conservation and co-option in developmental programmes: the importance of homology relationships
Matthias Sanetra, Gerrit Begemann, May-Britt Becker, Axel Meyer
Frontiers in Zoology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1742-9994-2-15
Abstract: Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) seeks to unravel the bases of developmental changes in body plan evolution of complex organisms such as animals and plants. The significance of this relatively new discipline is based on the premise that evolution cannot be fully understood without understanding the evolution of developmental programmes [1], and a number of novel conceptual frameworks have emerged from evo-devo research to supplement those of traditional evolutionary biology, such as DEVELOPMENTAL REPROGRAMMING [1-6]. The latter concept describes the process that acts between mutation and selection on the level of the organism, leading from an altered gene product to a new ontogeny and phenotype. Reprogramming has been proposed to constitute an additional evolutionary mechanism because some ontogenetic changes may be promoted by existing developmental mechanisms while other alterations are prevented [1,3,7] (referred to as 'developmental drive' and 'constraint', respectively [8]). It seems therefore likely that evolution can be biased by development, and this may have a powerful impact on the direction of evolutionary change [1,7,8].During the past two decades it was discovered that most animals, no matter how divergent in form, share specific gene families that regulate major aspects of body patterning, for instance many homeobox-containing genes [9,10], which are even present in the Cnidaria [11]. Recent findings show that morphologically simple organisms often possess genes, such as members of the pax gene family, that are homologous and show a high level of sequence similarity to those of higher vertebrates [12-15]. Despite this astonishing extent of evolutionary conservation in developmental regulatory genes across major taxonomic groups, there are also cases where gene expression patterns differ markedly among closely related taxa, for instance in the molecular mechanisms that determine the spatial axes of the tetrapod limb [16]. In the recent past
Pressure Retarded Osmosis and Forward Osmosis Membranes: Materials and Methods
Inger Lise Alsvik,May-Britt H?gg
Polymers , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/polym5010303
Abstract: In the past four decades, membrane development has occurred based on the demand in pressure driven processes. However, in the last decade, the interest in osmotically driven processes, such as forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), has increased. The preparation of customized membranes is essential for the development of these technologies. Recently, several very promising membrane preparation methods for FO/PRO applications have emerged. Preparation of thin film composite (TFC) membranes with a customized polysulfone (PSf) support, electorspun support, TFC membranes on hydrophilic support and hollow fiber membranes have been reported for FO/PRO applications. These novel methods allow the use of other materials than the traditional asymmetric cellulose acetate (CA) membranes and TFC polyamide/polysulfone membranes. This review provides an outline of the membrane requirements for FO/PRO and the new methods and materials in membrane preparation.
Tragisk grunnstruktur og strategisk ironi: En analyse av Raymond Carvers novelle "The Student's Wife"
Bj?rn Inge Berger Andersen,Gaute Espeland,May Britt Haugseth,Thor André Karstensen
Nordlit : Tidsskrift i litteratur og kultur , 2007,
Abstract:
Tragisk grunnstruktur og strategisk ironi: En analyse av Raymond Carvers novelle "The Student's Wife"
Bj?rn Inge Berger Andersen,Gaute Espeland,May Britt Haugseth,Thor André Karstensen
Nordlit : Tidsskrift i litteratur og kultur , 2007,
Abstract:
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