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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462533 matches for " Maxwell A. Ruby "
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Acute Overactive Endocannabinoid Signaling Induces Glucose Intolerance, Hepatic Steatosis, and Novel Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Responsive Genes
Maxwell A. Ruby, Daniel K. Nomura, Carolyn S. S. Hudak, Anne Barber, John E. Casida, Ronald M. Krauss
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026415
Abstract: Endocannabinoids regulate energy balance and lipid metabolism by stimulating the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1). Genetic deletion and pharmacological antagonism have shown that CB1 signaling is necessary for the development of obesity and related metabolic disturbances. However, the sufficiency of endogenously produced endocannabinoids to cause hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance, independent of food intake, has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that a single administration of isopropyl dodecylfluorophosphonate (IDFP), perhaps the most potent pharmacological inhibitor of endocannabinoid degradation, increases hepatic triglycerides (TG) and induces insulin resistance in mice. These effects involve increased CB1 signaling, as they are mitigated by pre-administration of a CB1 antagonist (AM251) and in CB1 knockout mice. Despite the strong physiological effects of CB1 on hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism, little is known about the downstream targets responsible for these effects. To elucidate transcriptional targets of CB1 signaling, we performed microarrays on hepatic RNA isolated from DMSO (control), IDFP and AM251/IDFP-treated mice. The gene for the secreted glycoprotein lipocalin 2 (lcn2), which has been implicated in obesity and insulin resistance, was among those most responsive to alterations in CB1 signaling. The expression pattern of IDFP mice segregated from DMSO mice in hierarchal cluster analysis and AM251 pre-administration reduced (>50%) the majority (303 of 533) of the IDFP induced alterations. Pathway analysis revealed that IDFP altered expression of genes involved in lipid, fatty acid and steroid metabolism, the acute phase response, and amino acid metabolism in a CB1-dependent manner. PCR confirmed array results of key target genes in multiple independent experiments. Overall, we show that acute IDFP treatment induces hepatic TG accumulation and insulin resistance, at least in part through the CB1 receptor, and identify novel cannabinoid responsive genes.
Isolation, Partial Purification and Characterization of Texas Live Oak (Quercus fusiformis) Lectin  [PDF]
Ruby A. Ynalvez, Carmen G. Cruz, Marcus A. Ynalvez
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2015.67049
Abstract: Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins with agglutination properties. There is a continuous interest in lectins due to their biological properties that can be exploited for medicinal and therapeutic purposes. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize lectin activity in Texas Live Oak (Quercus fusiformis). More specifically, the study aimed to determine the lectin’s blood group specificity and pH stability, determine effects of seasonal variation, soil moisture and soil pH on lectin activity. The study also aimed to determine the presence of antifungal activity in Q. fusiformis extracts. Lectin activity was detected and compared via agglutination and protein assays. Protein partial purification was accomplished using diethylaminoethyl ion-exchange chromatography matrix. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to assess purity of the lectin. Results showed that Q. fusiformis extracts’ lectin activities are stable at a pH range of 5.2 - 9.2 but with a significant decrease in activity above pH 9.2. The lectin activity was significantly higher when assayed against sheep red blood cells as compared to other blood groups tested. Quercus fusiformis extract is devoid of antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer. The effects of seasonal variation, soil moisture and soil pH do not significantly correlate with lectin activity. Results from HPLC showed presence of three peaks indicating a partial purification of the Q. fusiformis lectin.
The State of Democracy in the Andes: Introduction to a thematic issue of Revista de Ciencia Política
CAMERON,MAXWELL A;
Revista de ciencia política (Santiago) , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-090X2010000100002
Abstract: this overview finds evidence for concern about the ability of the governments in colombia and venezuela to hold free and fair elections and a trend toward the concentration of executive power in most countries in the sub-region. the separation of powers has been most sharply eroded in venezuela; but bolivia and ecuador are moving in a similar direction. colombia has a robust constitutional order, including a remarkably independent judiciary, which has resisted the concentration of executive power by refusing to let the president stand for a third term. at the same time, most andean countries are experimenting with new mechanisms of participation. there are sharp contrasts between the model of participation in bolivia and venezuela, two countries often lumped together by observers; and, despite ideological differences, striking similarities in the presidential styles of presidents uribe and chávez. among andean nations, only chile is not undergoing a revolution in participation. finally, venezuela, bolivia, and ecuador have re-written their constitutions in an attempt to encourage the exercise of constituent power. these cases exhibit variation in terms of the degree to which deliberative, pluralistic, lawful, and constitutional procedures were used.
The State of Democracy in the Andes: Introduction to a thematic issue of Revista de Ciencia Política
MAXWELL A CAMERON
Revista de Ciencia Política , 2010,
Abstract: This overview finds evidence for concern about the ability of the governments in Colombia and Venezuela to hold free and fair elections and a trend toward the concentration of executive power in most countries in the sub-region. The separation of powers has been most sharply eroded in Venezuela; but Bolivia and Ecuador are moving in a similar direction. Colombia has a robust constitutional order, including a remarkably independent judiciary, which has resisted the concentration of executive power by refusing to let the president stand for a third term. At the same time, most Andean countries are experimenting with new mechanisms of participation. There are sharp contrasts between the model of participation in Bolivia and Venezuela, two countries often lumped together by observers; and, despite ideological differences, striking similarities in the presidential styles of Presidents Uribe and Chávez. Among Andean nations, only Chile is not undergoing a revolution in participation. Finally, Venezuela, Bolivia, and Ecuador have re-written their constitutions in an attempt to encourage the exercise of constituent power. These cases exhibit variation in terms of the degree to which deliberative, pluralistic, lawful, and constitutional procedures were used. Esta síntesis concluye con preocupación respecto a la habilidad de los gobiernos de Colombia y Venezuela para celebrar elecciones libres y justas. También se reporta una tendencia presente en la mayoría de los países de la subregión, en cuanto a la concentración de poder en la rama ejecutiva del gobierno. La separación de poderes se encuentra profundamente comprometida en Venezuela, al tiempo que tanto en Bolivia como en Ecuador se vislumbran movimientos en la misma dirección. Colombia tiene un orden constitucional robusto, incluyendo la meritoria presencia de un Poder Judicial independiente capaz de frenar la creciente concentración de poder en el Ejecutivo con su rechazo a la posibilidad de una tercera elección presidencial. Sin embargo, la creciente concentración de poder en el Ejecutivo compromete el orden constitucional. Al mismo tiempo, la mayoría de los países andinos están experimentando con nuevos mecanismos de participación ciudadana. En este sentido, se verifica un amplio contraste entre dos casos usualmente vistos como similares en la literatura (Bolivia y Venezuela), junto con tendencias convergentes, entre casos cuyos liderazgos presidenciales (Alvaro Uribe y Hugo Chávez) poseen orientaciones ideológicas muy diferentes (Venezuela y Colombia). Entre los países andinos, sólo Chile no se encuentra
An Empirical Analysis of the Liquidity and Tax Disadvantage of TIPS and Their Effect on Treasury Borrowing Costs
Maxwell A. Frost
Michigan Journal of Business , 2013,
Abstract: Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (TIPS) are unique in that they are inflation-indexed, default risk-free bonds. However, TIPS are not free from all risk— they are still subject to liquidity risk (due to a thin secondary market) and tax disadvantage risk (due a specific tax liability in their cash flows).In this thesis, I demonstrate through various empirical models that liquidity and tax disadvantage premia are priced into TIPS yields in order to compensate for these risks. I determine that since mid-2004 the TIPS liquidity premium is relatively stable and averages 27 bp. My results also weakly support a time-variant TIPS tax disadvantage premium that averages 56 bp over the same time period. Furthermore, I find that these two premia are principally driven by the uncertain volatility of expected future inflation. Consequently, as a result of these premia, it is on average 3 bp more expensive for the Treasury to issue a TIPS rather than a conventional nominal bond, which has cost the Treasury over $221 million. So why does the Treasury continue to issue TIPS if they do not in fact lower borrowing costs, as was the intention of the program? It is possible that TIPS offer several nonmarketable public benefits that offset their additional cost, thus making the program worthwhile for the Treasury and market participants alike.
El giro a la izquierda frustrado en Perú: el caso de Ollanta Humala
Maxwell A. Cameron
Convergencia , 2009,
Abstract: En Perú, la campa a de elecciones de 2006 fue perturbada por el levantamiento inesperado del candidato nacionalista radical, Ollanta Humala. A pesar de ganar una pluralidad de 31% del voto en la primera vuelta, Humala perdió en la segunda votación, con un margen de 47 a 53%, frente a Alan García Pérez de la Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (apra). Perú no sólo decidió no elegir a un presidente de izquierda, sino que fue el único país en los Andes que votó en elecciones nacionales en los últimos a os por un líder que venía del sistema de partidos establecidos. Este trabajo analiza el origen y la naturaleza de la candidatura de Humala, evalúa hasta qué punto su campa a reflejó la debilidad del sistema de partidos, y determina si su candidatura reflejó un repudio a las políticas neoliberales y el descontento con el estado de la democracia o el rendimiento de los gobiernos elegidos.
Citizenship deficits in Latin America's democracies
Maxwell A. Cameron
Convergencia , 2007,
Abstract: Hay poca evidencia de una crisis de la democracia electoral en América Latina, sin embargo muchos regímenes democráticos de la región son inestables. Recientemente, las democracias latinoamericanas han sido amenazadas más por las acciones inconstitucionales e ilegales de líderes elegidos democráticamente que por intentos de golpe de Estado o fraude sistemático electoral. La separación de poderes es a veces violada en forma sutil sin que interrumpa necesariamente la democracia electoral. Tales amenazas han sido inadecuadamente teorizadas en la literatura. Un esfuerzo por teorizar la separación de poderes podría ayudar a la comunidad internacional a vigilar el progreso o la erosión de la democracia en el hemisferio occidental. La agenda propuesta para la evaluación de la democracia está alineada con el argumento de que las instituciones electorales de la democracia requieren un Estado de derecho capaz de respaldar los derechos y las libertades fundamentales de todos los ciudadanos, sin lo cual las democracias latinoamericanas enfrentarían un déficit de ciudadanía insuperable.
Chi-square Intervals for a Poisson Parameter - Bayes, Classical and Structural
E. A. Maxwell
Statistics , 2011,
Abstract: The 'standard' confidence interval for a Poisson parameter is only one of a number of estimation intervals based on the chi-square distribution that may be used in the estimation of the mean or mean rate for a Poisson model. Other chi-square intervals are available for experimenters using Bayesian or structural inference methods. Exploring these intervals also leads to other alternate approximate chi-square intervals. Although coverage probability may not always be of interest for Bayesian or structural intervals, coverage probabilities are useful for validating 'objective' priors. Coverage probabilities are explored for all of the intervals considered.
Contribución al estudio analítico y físico-químico del sistema cementos portland -puzolanas y escoria siderúrgica- cloruros y agua
Mejía Rentería, Ruby
Informes de la Construccion , 1997,
Abstract:
Blood and Gastrointestinal Parasites of Chickens and Turkeys Reared in the Tropical Rainforest Zone of Southeastern Nigeria  [PDF]
M. N. Opara, D. K. Osowa, J. A. Maxwell
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2014.412037
Abstract: The blood and gastrointestinal (GI) parasites of chickens and turkeys reared in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria were studied. Out of 5600 birds, 5040 (90%) were chickens and 560 (10%) were turkeys. Of these birds, 672 (12%) were infected with blood parasites, of which 448 (8.9%) were chickens and 224 (40%) turkeys. The blood parasites found in chickens were Leucocytozoon sp., with a prevalence rate of 448 (8.9%) occurring in both male and female chickens examined. Plasmodium sp. was found in the turkeys and it gave a prevalence of 224 (40%). 1792 (32%) of the birds were infected with faecal parasites, out of which, 1456 (28.9%) were chickens and 336 (60%) turkeys examined. Ascaridia sp. infected 1232 (24.4%) of the chickens and 336 (60%) of the turkeys were examined. The only cestode observed was Raillietina spp., which infected 224 (4.4%) of the chickens, but none in the turkeys. Generally, low blood and faecal infections were observed in the chickens, while infections in the turkeys were slightly higher.
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