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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 224550 matches for " Maureen P. Martin "
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Genetic Control of Variegated KIR Gene Expression: Polymorphisms of the Bi-Directional KIR3DL1 Promoter Are Associated with Distinct Frequencies of Gene Expression
Hongchuan Li,Véronique Pascal,Maureen P. Martin,Mary Carrington,Stephen K. Anderson
PLOS Genetics , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000254
Abstract: Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the detection and elimination of tumors and virus-infected cells by the innate immune system. Human NK cells use cell surface receptors (KIR) for class I MHC to sense alterations of class I on potential target cells. Individual NK cells only express a subset of the available KIR genes, generating specialized NK cells that can specifically detect alteration of a particular class I molecule or group of molecules. The probabilistic behavior of human KIR bi-directional promoters is proposed to control the frequency of expression of these variegated genes. Analysis of a panel of donors has revealed the presence of several functionally relevant promoter polymorphisms clustered mainly in the inhibitory KIR family members, especially the KIR3DL1 alleles. We demonstrate for the first time that promoter polymorphisms affecting the strength of competing sense and antisense promoters largely explain the differential frequency of expression of KIR3DL1 allotypes on NK cells. KIR3DL1/S1 subtypes have distinct biological activity and coding region variants of the KIR3DL1/S1 gene strongly influence pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS and other human diseases. We propose that the polymorphisms shown in this study to regulate the frequency of KIR3DL1/S1 subtype expression on NK cells contribute substantially to the phenotypic variation across allotypes with respect to disease resistance.
Wean Earlier and Automatically with New technology (the WEAN study): a protocol of a multicentre, pilot randomized controlled trial
Karen EA Burns, Maureen O Meade, Martin R Lessard, Sean P Keenan, Francois Lellouche
Trials , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-10-81
Abstract: A pilot weaning randomized controlled trial (RCT) is underway in the ICUs of 8 Canadian hospitals. We will randomize 90 critically ill adults requiring invasive ventilation for at least 24 hours and identified at an early stage of the weaning process to either Automated Weaning (SmartCare?) or Protocolized Weaning. The results of a National Weaning Survey informed the design of the Protocolized Weaning arm. Both weaning protocols are operationalized in Pressure Support mode, include opportunities for Spontaneous Breathing Trials, and share a common sedation protocol, oxygen titration parameters, and extubation and reintubation criteria. The primary outcome of the WEAN study is to evaluate compliance with the proposed weaning and sedation protocols. A key secondary outcome of the pilot RCT is to evaluate clinician acceptance of the weaning and sedation protocols. Prior to initiating the WEAN Study, we conducted a run-in phase, involving two patients per centre (randomizing the first participant to either weaning strategy and assigning the second patient to the alternate strategy) to ensure that participating centres could implement the weaning and sedation protocols and complete the detailed case report forms.Mechanical ventilation studies are difficult to implement; requiring protocols to be operationalized continuously and entailing detailed daily data collection. As the first multicentre weaning RCT in Canada, the WEAN Study seeks to determine the feasibility of conducting a large scale future weaning trial and to establish a collaborative network of ICU clinicians dedicated to advancing the science of weaning.ISRCTN43760151Weaning is the process during which mechanical ventilation is gradually or abruptly withdrawn. In addition, it is the time during which work of breathing is transferred from the ventilator back to the patient until fully autonomous breathing is resumed. Weaning accounts for approximately 40% of the total time spent on mechanical ventilation [1,
Retrospective review of pelvic malignancies undergoing total pelvic exenteration
Maureen P Kuhrt, Ravi J Chokshi, David Arrese, Edward W Martin
World Journal of Surgical Oncology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7819-10-110
Abstract: Fifty-three patients with various pelvic pathologies underwent TPE between 2004 and 2010. Patients were divided into two groups based on pathology: colorectal (n?=?36) versus non-colorectal (n?=?17) malignancies. Demographics, operative reports, pathology reports, periprocedural events, and outcomes were analyzed. Comparison of the two groups was performed using student’s?t-test and Fisher’s exact test. Survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan–Meier method and compared using the log rank test.The colorectal and non-colorectal groups were similar in demographics, operative times, length of stay, estimated blood loss, and rates of preoperative and intraoperative radiation use. Chemotherapy use was increased in the colorectal group compared with the non-colorectal group (55.6% vs. 23.5%, P?=?0.04). Complication rates were similar: 86% in the colorectal group and 76% in the non-colorectal group. In the colorectal group, 27.8% of patients developed perineal abscesses, whereas no patients developed these complications in the non-colorectal group (P?=?0.02). No survival difference was seen in primary versus recurrent colorectal tumors; however, within the colorectal group there was a survival advantage when comparing R0 resection to R1 and R2 resection combined. Median survival rates were 27.3?months for R0 resection and 10.7?months for R1 and R2 resection combined. The median survival was 21.4?months for the colorectal group and 6.9?months for the non-colorectal group (P?=?0.002).Patients undergoing TPE for colorectal tumors have improved survival when compared with patients undergoing exenteration for pelvic malignancies of other origins. Within the colorectal group, the extent of resection demonstrated a significant survival benefit of an R0 resection compared with R1 and R2 resections. Despite TPE carrying a high morbidity rate, mortality rates have improved and careful patient selection can optimize outcomes.
Efficacy of Clindamycin Vaginal Ovule (3-Day Treatment) vs. Clindamycin Vaginal Cream (7-Day Treatment) in Bacterial Vaginosis
Jack Sobel,Jeffrey F. Peipert,James A. McGregor,Charles Livengood,Maureen Martin,Jill Robbins,Charles P. Wajszczuk
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology , 2001, DOI: 10.1155/s1064744901000035
Abstract: Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of a 3-day regimen of clindamycin vaginal ovules with a 7-day regimen of clindamycin vaginal cream for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV)
KIR/HLA Pleiotropism: Protection against Both HIV and Opportunistic Infections
Ying Qi,Maureen P Martin,Xiaojiang Gao,Lisa Jacobson,James J Goedert,Susan Buchbinder,Gregory D Kirk,Stephen J O'Brien,John Trowsdale,Mary Carrington
PLOS Pathogens , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0020079
Abstract: The compound genotype KIR3DS1/HLA-B Bw4-80I, which presumably favors natural killer cell activation, has been implicated in protection against HIV disease. We show that this genotype confers dual protection over the course of HIV disease; early direct containment of HIV viral load, and late specific defense against opportunistic infections, but not AIDS-related malignancies. The double protection of KIR3DS1/Bw4-80I in an etiologically complex disease such as AIDS, along with the disease specificity of its effects is conceptually novel and underscores the intricacy of host immunogenetics against HIV/AIDS.
Update of the Anopheles gambiae PEST genome assembly
Maria V Sharakhova, Martin P Hammond, Neil F Lobo, Jaroslaw Krzywinski, Maria F Unger, Maureen E Hillenmeyer, Robert V Bruggner, Ewan Birney, Frank H Collins
Genome Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2007-8-1-r5
Abstract: Polytene chromosome in situ hybridization with cDNA clones was used to place 15 unmapped scaffolds (sizes totaling 5.34 Mbp) in the pericentromeric regions of the chromosomes and oriented a further 9 scaffolds. Additional analysis by in situ hybridization of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones placed 1.32 Mbp (5 scaffolds) in the physical gaps between scaffolds on euchromatic parts of the chromosomes. The Y chromosome sequence information (0.18 Mbp) remains highly incomplete and fragmented among 55 short scaffolds. Analysis of BAC end sequences showed that 22 inter-scaffold gaps were spanned by BAC clones. Unmapped scaffolds were also aligned to the chromosome assemblies in silico, identifying regions totaling 8.18 Mbp (144 scaffolds) that are probably represented in the genome project by two alternative assemblies. An additional 3.53 Mbp of alternative assembly was identified within mapped scaffolds. Scaffolds comprising 1.97 Mbp (679 small scaffolds) were identified as probably derived from contaminating bacterial DNA. In total, about 33% of previously unmapped sequences were placed on the chromosomes.This study has used new approaches to improve the physical map and assembly of the A. gambiae genome.The genome of Anopheles gambiae, the major vector of malaria in Africa, was sequenced by a whole-genome shotgun approach [1]. Physical mapping of the genome was conducted by in situ hybridization of about 2,000 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones on ovarian nurse cell polytene chromosomes. As a result, in the first publication of the A. gambiae physical map, 67 scaffolds equivalent to 227 mega-base-pairs (Mbp) were assigned to chromosomes. Of these, 52 scaffolds were oriented. However, approximately 18% of the assembled A. gambiae genome was represented in scaffolds that did not have a chromosomal location assigned. About 50 Mbp in the assembly were assigned with arbitrary order and orientation to an unmapped chromosome [2]. In this study, new approa
Reliability of upright posture measurements in primary school children
Maureen P McEvoy, Karen Grimmer
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-6-35
Abstract: Sagittal plane photographs of usual, relaxed upright standing posture of 38 boys and girls aged 5–12 years were taken twice within an hour. Reflective markers were placed over the canthus, tragus, C7 spinous process, greater trochanter and lateral malleolus. Digitising software was used to calculate the x,y plane coordinates, from which five postural angles were calculated (trunk, neck, gaze, head on neck, lower limb). Height, weight, motor control estimates (as measured by the Brace Tests) and presence of recent pain were recorded for each child, and the association between the first test measure of posture angles and these factors was assessed using linear regression and ANOVA models. Multiple ANOVA models were applied to analyse the effect of repeated testing, and significant predictors on the angles.Four of the five postural angles (trunk, neck, head on neck, lower limb) were significantly influenced by age. As age was strongly associated with height (r2 = 0.84) and moderately associated with weight and motor control (r2 = 0.67, 0.56 respectively), these developmental parameters may well explain the age effect on angles. There was no relationship between age and pain reported on either the testing day, or recently, and there was no gender influence on any angle. There was no significant effect of repeated testing on any angle (ICC>0.93). None of the hypothesized predictors were associated with differences in angles from repeated testing.This study outlined the variability of relaxed upright standing posture of children aged 5–12 years, when measured twice in an hour. Age influenced the size of the angles but not the variability. While the subject numbers in this study are small, the findings provide useful information on which further studies in posture and its development in pre-adolescent children can be based.Posture reflects the relationship between spinal segments, and the influence of the environment on spinal segments [1]. Correct upright posture is consi
Mitochondrial Variants in Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Major Depressive Disorder
Brandi Rollins, Maureen V. Martin, P. Adolfo Sequeira, Emily A. Moon, Ling Z. Morgan, Stanley J. Watson, Alan Schatzberg, Huda Akil, Richard M. Myers, Edward G. Jones, Douglas C. Wallace, William E. Bunney, Marquis P. Vawter
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004913
Abstract: Background Mitochondria provide most of the energy for brain cells by the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial abnormalities and deficiencies in oxidative phosphorylation have been reported in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) in transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic studies. Several mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence have been reported in SZ and BD patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) from a cohort of 77 SZ, BD, and MDD subjects and age-matched controls (C) was studied for mtDNA sequence variations and heteroplasmy levels using Affymetrix mtDNA resequencing arrays. Heteroplasmy levels by microarray were compared to levels obtained with SNaPshot and allele specific real-time PCR. This study examined the association between brain pH and mtDNA alleles. The microarray resequencing of mtDNA was 100% concordant with conventional sequencing results for 103 mtDNA variants. The rate of synonymous base pair substitutions in the coding regions of the mtDNA genome was 22% higher (p = 0.0017) in DLPFC of individuals with SZ compared to controls. The association of brain pH and super haplogroup (U, K, UK) was significant (p = 0.004) and independent of postmortem interval time. Conclusions Focusing on haplogroup and individual susceptibility factors in psychiatric disorders by considering mtDNA variants may lead to innovative treatments to improve mitochondrial health and brain function.
Multimodal imaging and detection approach to 18F-FDG-directed surgery for patients with known or suspected malignancies: a comprehensive description of the specific methodology utilized in a single-institution cumulative retrospective experience
Stephen P Povoski, Nathan C Hall, Douglas A Murrey, Andrew Z Chow, Jay R Gaglani, Eamonn E Bahnson, Cathy M Mojzisik, Maureen P Kuhrt, Charles L Hitchcock, Michael V Knopp, Edward W Martin
World Journal of Surgical Oncology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7819-9-152
Abstract: From June 2005-June 2010, 145 patients were injected with 18F-FDG in anticipation of surgical exploration, biopsy, and possible resection of known/suspected malignancy. Each patient underwent one or more of the following: (1) same-day preoperative patient diagnostic PET/CT imaging, (2) intraoperative gamma probe assessment, (3) clinical PET/CT specimen scanning of whole surgically resected specimens (WSRS), research designated tissues (RDT), and/or sectioned research designated tissues (SRDT), (4) micro PET/CT specimen scanning of WSRS, RDT, and/or SRDT, (5) total radioactivity counting of each SRDT piece by an automatic gamma well counter, and (6) same-day postoperative patient diagnostic PET/CT imaging.Same-day 18F-FDG injection dose was 15.1 (± 3.5, 4.6-26.1) mCi. Fifty-five same-day preoperative patient diagnostic PET/CT scans were performed. One hundred forty-two patients were taken to surgery. Three of the same-day preoperative patient diagnostic PET/CT scans led to the cancellation of the anticipated surgical procedure. One hundred forty-one cases utilized intraoperative gamma probe assessment. Sixty-two same-day postoperative patient diagnostic PET/CT scans were performed. WSRS, RDT, and SRDT were scanned by clinical PET/CT imaging and micro PET/CT imaging in 109 and 32 cases, 33 and 22 cases, and 49 and 26 cases, respectively. Time from 18F-FDG injection to same-day preoperative patient diagnostic PET/CT scan, intraoperative gamma probe assessment, and same-day postoperative patient diagnostic PET/CT scan were 73 (± 9, 53-114), 286 (± 93, 176-532), and 516 (± 134, 178-853) minutes, respectively. Time from 18F-FDG injection to scanning of WSRS, RDT, and SRDT by clinical PET/CT imaging and micro PET/CT imaging were 389 (± 148, 86-741) and 458 (± 97, 272-656) minutes, 619 (± 119, 253-846) and 661 (± 117, 433-835) minutes, and 674 (± 186, 299-1068) and 752 (± 127, 499-976) minutes, respectively.Our multimodal imaging and detection approach to 18F-FDG-directed s
An Explanatory Model to Guide Assessment, Risk and Diagnosis of Psychological Distress after Abortion  [PDF]
Maureen Curley
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2014.415133
Abstract: Background: Emerging data report 30% of women worldwide who obtain elective abortion experience negative and persistent psychological distress afterward. Studies find higher rates of psychological stress, depressive, substance, and anxiety disorders as well as suicidal behaviors, among some populations after abortion as compared to other reproductive events. Of concern, is that currenttheory and practice which promote abortion to relieve the stress of an unwanted pregnancy do not reflect new evidence. Moreover, the controversy on abortion inhibits research and treatment on its impact on women’s mental health. Thus, clinicians do not identify adverse psychological outcomes to abortion leaving many women untreated. Indeed, this knowledge-practice gap among healthcare providers may be the major reason that the incidence of adverse psychological outcomes after abortion continues to rise. Method: This paper proposes a theoretical understanding of psychological distress after abortion based on new data. A bio-psychosocial framework, including a psychological and biological theory, as well as a conceptual model is presented to explain the development of psychological distress after abortion. A comparison of risk factors between postpartum and post-abortion disorders is presented. Conclusion: A new theoretical model of psychological distress after abortion deepens understanding of the range of women’s responses to abortion and promotes evidence based practice. A scientific framework provides a much needed understanding of abortion aftermath as opposed to a political one. By providing assistance to clinicians in the identification, screening, and treatment of psychological disorders after abortion, this thesis aims to close the practice gap, and increase services after abortion to women who need them.
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