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Cartographie de la croissance urbaine de Kinshasa (R.D. Congo) entre 1995 et 2005 par télédétection satellitaire à haute résolution The mapping of the urban growth of Kinshasa (DRC) through high resolution remote sensing between 1995 and 2005
Matthieu KayembeWaKayembe,Mathieu De?Maeyer,Eléonore Wolff
Belgeo : Revue Belge de Géographie , 2013,
Abstract: La croissance spatiale de Kinshasa (RDC) est cartographiée par classification des espaces batis au départ d’images satellitaires SPOT datant de 1995 et 2005. D’après les résultats, la croissance de la ville est moins rapide que l’évolution démographique ; elle s’effectue désormais dans les espaces interstitiels en dépit de leurs fortes pentes et d’un certain éloignement des principales voies de communication (au delà d’1 km). The urban growth of Kinshasa (DRC) is mapped by classification of built-up areas using SPOT images dating from 1995 and 2005. From the results, the city growth is slower than the population growth; it is taking place within interstitial areas despite their steep slopes and their distance (1 km) from the main communication axes.
Maternal Knowledge of Tuberculosis and Bacillus Calmette Guerin Vaccination in Pediatric Health Services in Kinshasa  [PDF]
Loukia Aketi, Joseph Shiku Diayisu, Zacharie Kashongwe, Grace Nkabikueni, Patrick Kayembe Kalambay, Jean-Marie Kayembe
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2017.51004
Abstract: Introduction: To participate effectively in the fight against tuberculosis (TB), mothers need to have a good knowledge of TB and its prevention. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of mothers about TB and Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG). Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey performed from September to December 2015 in 4 health care facilities of Kinshasa. It concerned mothers of children who received BCG vaccine. The frequencies and chi-square of Pearson were used to report results. Results: A total of 380 couples of the children and their mothers were recruited. The median age of children was 16 months (ranges: 6 days to 59 months); 224 (58.9%) of them received BCG during the period recommended; 62 (16.3%) experienced a side effect. There was a significant association (p = 0.00) between sides effects and the delayed vaccination. The average age of the mothers was 29.3 ± 6.4 years; 352 (92.6%) had heard about TB; 28 (7.4%) never heard about it; 168 (44.2%) knew that TB is a contagious disease; only 111 (29.2%) knew the mode of transmission; 87 (22.9%) did not know any signs of TB, and 54 (14.2%) knew about prevention with the BCG vaccine. Factors significantly associated with the mothers’ lack of knowledge were a low level of education (p = 0.01), young age (p = 0.02), and place of residence (p = 0.04). Conclusion: There is an urgent need to improve the education of the population, particularly those who lives in poor conditions and who are uneducated.
Serum Lipase in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Kinshasa—A Hospital Based Study  [PDF]
M. K. Mbelu, J. J. Malemba, B. Kabengele, J. M. Kayembe, D. N. Kayembe
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.62015
Abstract: Context: The increase of serum lipase is established for pancreatic and bile duct disorders. However, the production of this enzyme by other organs, including the lungs, leads to the question of its potential role in the diagnosis of other conditions including lung diseases. Objective: The aim of the present study was to describe the profile of serum lipase in patients who suffered from the pulmonary tuberculosis and to identify its determinants. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study was performed from July to October 2013 in four hospitals of Kinshasa (The University Hospital of Kinshasa, Lisanga medical Center and 2 medical centers of Save Army). Patients who suffered from tuberculosis were included. The levels of serum lipase, triglyceridemia, cholesterolemia, c-reactive protein were noted, as so as the hemogram profile and the prescribed treatment (category and phase). Results: One hundred and twenty-eight patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis were included. Forty three women (33.6%) and 85 men (66.4%). The sex ratio M/F was 1:9. Hyperlipasemia was observed in 44.5% of patients. The average level of serum lipase was 36.6 ± 5.0 IU/L (normal value: ≤ 38 IU/L) in tuberculosis patients and 30 ± 2.3 IU/L in controls The lipid profile of the patients was normal. Conclusion: L Hyperlipasemia can be encountered, in varying proportions, during pulmonary tuberculosis. It would be an indication of inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma.
Cognitive and Behavioral Effects of Participatory Sex Education on the Dual Prevention of STI/HIV/AIDS and Unwanted Pregnancies among Adolescents in Kinshasa High Schools, DR Congo  [PDF]
Gabriel Vodiena Nsakala, Yves Coppieters, Patrick Kalambayi Kayembe
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.44026

Context: With the view to reorient both STI/HIV/AIDS prevention and adolescents pregnancies, this research study aims at evaluating cognitive and behavioral acquisitions, as well as the process of interactive sex education participatory approach among adolescents in Kinshasa high schools. Methods: Based on a “pre and post” virtually experimental design, two crosswise surveys were conducted in Kinshasa, for six months in 2011-2012 on 484 high school students (pre-survey) and on 441 high school students (post-survey), whose age range from 14 - 19 years including both sexes. Two participatory educational talks (PET) “A” and “B”, covered weekly in two different schools, were compared to a control group school. The PET “A” consisted of interactive interpersonal communication sessions given by an external expert as a substitute for the life education course in one school. The PET “B” carried out in another school, included more educational talk sessions, led by the external expert and supplemented by a close follow-up of teenagers divided into small groups of 10 participants. The subjects’ assessment was based on their knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to STI/HIV/AIDS dual prevention as well as to unwanted pregnancies. Results: The subjects involved in the PET “B” displayed a better/higher performance based on their knowledge, attitudes and practices related to STI/HIV/AIDS dual prevention and unwanted pregnancies. Broadly speaking, knowledge has been improved 6 times with the PET “B” (OR = 6, 10, IC 95%) (3.24 - 11.9), and 3 times with the PET “A” (OR = 3, 45, IC 95%) (1.79 - 6.81), compared to control school. Similarly, findings on subjects’ attitudes show an improvement rated 12 times with the PET”B” (OR = 11, 99, IC 95%) (5.67 - 27.38) and 5 times for the PET “A” (OR = 5.51, IC 95%) (2.54 - 12.87). As far as the subjects’ practices are concerned, an improvement of 6 more times of protected sexual intercourses with the PET “B” compared with the control school group (OR = 6, 52, IC 95%) (3.60 - 12.0). The process assessment records a spontaneous involvement of schools enhanced by the positive contribution of Life Education and Biology teachers; add a massive participation of adolescents who requested permanent PET program. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that school sexual education programs can

Trends in Tuberculosis Epidemiology among Children in the Democratic Republic of Congo  [PDF]
Aketi Loukia, Shiku Diayisu Joseph, Kashongwe Zacharie, Lay Gertrude, Kibadi Kapay, Kayembe Kalambay Patrick
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2016.44026
Abstract: Setting: The epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) among children in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is not well known. Objective: This study aimed to describe the trends in TB epidemiology among children in the DRC and to compare these trends in children and adults. Design: Data from the National TB program, the WHO Global TB Report, and a demographic survey of health in the DRC were retrospectively analyzed. The study period was from 1995 to 2014. The notification rate, absolute incidence and incidence rate of TB per 100,000 population were reported. Results: In 2014, 12,785 (12.6% of adult cases) TB cases were reported in children and 101,303 in adults. Among children, 3438 (26.89%) had PTB+; 2828 (22.11%) had PTB; and 6519 (50.98%) had extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). Children under 5 years had a lower reported prevalence of TB (184 cases). The incidence rate per 100,000 population was 10 in children and 181 in adults. The TB incidence decreased between 2010 (11.47) and 2014 (10.46). The proportion of children in overall cases of PTB+ was 4% to 5% in all districts. Conclusion: Caring for childhood TB remains a challenge in the DRC. Improved diagnostic procedures and effective training of providers who care for childhood TB are needed.
Anemia and Hematologic Characteristics in Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients at Diagnosis in Kinshasa  [PDF]
Christophe Mbombo Mulenga, Jean-Marie Ntumba Kayembe, Benoit Obel Kabengele, Alain Bakebe
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2017.54026
Abstract: Context: The burden of TB in Africa tends to be exacerbated by the socio-economic situation and the high prevalence of intercurrent infections such as HIV, malaria and non-specific bacterial infections. These factors often result in anemia, making patients at high risk for anemia. Objective: We aimed to gain insights into the characteristics of anemia, hematologic variations and socio-economic status in untreated pulmonary TB patients (PTB) in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 200 smear-positive pulmonary TB patients (PTB) recruited at the initiation of TB treatment. Complete Blood Count, Iron profile, BMI, CRP and albuminemia were assessed. Data were analyzed using Student t or Mann Whitney tests as appropriate, and logistic regression was performed to assess the strength of associations. Results: Anemia was a regular finding in (69%). This anemia was mostly moderate (92.2%) and with iron deficiency pattern (48%). Hypoalbuminemia was observed in half of the subjects and appears to be correlated with the severity of anemia. Surprisingly, the severity of inflammation, as reflected by the CRP, was inversely correlated with the anemia. In the multivariate analysis, alcohol intake (OR: 2.38; IC 95%: 1.05 - 5.38), hypoalbuminemia (OR: 1.98; IC 95%: 1.02 - 3.82) and CRP rate were significantly associated with the presence of anemia among pulmonary tuberculosis at the diagnostic. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the heavy burden of the iron responsive anemia and risky life conditions in newly diagnosed TB patients, and underscores the potential usefulness of iron supplementation in the Congolese context.
Determination of the Root Canal Length of Teeth of Bantu Patients Attending the Teaching Hospital of Kinshasa University  [PDF]
Jean Marie Kayembe Bukama, Jean Paul Sekele Issourdi, Fidele Nyimi Bushabu, Augustin Mantshumba Milolo, Steve Sekele Masin, M. A. Agbor, Dieudonne Nyembue Tshipukana, Alain Nyengele Kayembe, Hubert Ntumba Mulumba
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2018.81002
Abstract: Background: There is paucity of literature on the determination of the root canal length of Bantu subjects in dental professional practicing in Africa and Democratic Republic of Congo in particular. Aims: The aim of the present study was to determine the root canal length of teeth of Bantu patients extracts attending the Teaching Hospital of Kinshasa University. Methods and Material: Prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in the service of Conservative Dentistry. The patients suffering with pulpitis of permanent teeth which were selected for root canal treatment during the period of January 2014 to December 2016 were included. All patients whose main root canals were inaccessible, teeth carrying prosthesis, teeth with large coronal decay, teeth having periapical periodontitis, supernumerary teeth, wisdom and primary teeth were excluded. Results: The upper canines presented some significant longer canals compared to the lower canine (23.4 ± 2.3 mm and 21.6 ± 1.8 mm). Palatal canals of the first and second molar were respectively longer as compared to the superior teeth canals (21.5 ± 1 mm, 21.3 ± 2 mm). The distal canals of the first and second molar were the longest in the mandibular arch respectively measuring 20.7 ± 2.0 mm and 21.5 ± 1.7 mm. Conclusion: Data obtained from Bantu patients show slightly shorter roots compared to some European populations, but longer than some Asian populations.
Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Analysis of Continuous Surveillance Data from 2007 to 2016  [PDF]
Serge Bisuta-Fueza, Jean Marie Kayembe-Ntumba, Marie-Jose Kabedi-Bajani, Pascale Mulomba Sabwe, Hippolyte Situakibanza-Nani Tuma, Jean-Pierre Simelo, Ernest Sumaili-Kiswaya, John Ditekemena-Dinanga, Patrick Kayembe-Kalambayi
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2019.71004
Abstract: Background: For countries with limited resources such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the diagnosis of Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is still insufficient. The MDR-TB identification is done primarily among at-risk groups. The knowledge of the true extent of the MDR-TB remains a major challenge. This study tries to determine the proportion of MDR-TB in each group of presumptive MDR-TB patients and to identify some associated factors. Methods: This is an analysis of the DRC surveillance between 2007 and 2016. The proportions were expressed in Percentage. The logistic regression permits to identify the associated factors with the RR-/MDR-TB with adjusted Odds-ratio and 95% CI. Significance defined as p ≤ 0.05. Results: Overall, 83% (5407/6512) of the MDR-TB presumptive cases had each a TB test. 86.5% (4676/5407) had each a culture and drug sensitive testing (DST) on solid medium, and 24.3% (1312/5407) had performed an Xpert MTB/RIF test. The proportion of those with at least one first-line drug resistance was 59.3% [95% CI 57.2 - 61.4] among which 50.1%, [95% CI 47.9 - 52.3] for the isoniazid, 45.6% [95% CI 43.4 - 47.8] for the rifampicin, 49.9% [95% CI 47.8 - 52.1] for ethambutol and 35.8% [95% CI 33.7 - 37.9] for streptomycin. The confirmation of MDR-TB was 42.8% [95% CI 38.4 - 47.8]. Combining both tests, the proportion of RR-/MDR-TB was 49.6% [95% CI 47.9 - 51.4] for all presumptives. This proportion was 60.0% for failures, 40.7% for relapses and 34.7% for defaulters. Associated factors with the diagnosis of MDR-TB were: aged less than 35 years; prior treatment failure; defaulters; the delay between the collection of sputum and the test completion. Conclusion: The proportion of RR-/MDR-TB among the presumptives has been higher than those estimated generally. The National tuberculosis programme (NTP) should improve patient follow-up to reduce TB treatment failures and defaulting. Moreover, while increasing the use of molecular tests, they should reduce sample delivery times when they use culture and DST concomitantly.
Relationship between Uricemia and Other Biochemical Markers with the Materno-Fetal Complications during Pre-Eclampsia  [PDF]
B. D. Tshibuela, N. N. Kayembe, M. J. Muwonga, N. K. Nganga, N. Ngole, J. P. Elongi
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2017.713128
Abstract: Goal: Determining the place of Uricemia associated with other biochemical makers in the prediction of fetal-maternal complications during preeclampsia. Material and method: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study of 75 pre-eclamptic women in three maternities in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, during the January to December 2013. The values of the following biochemical markers: uricemia, proteinuria and creatinemia were correlated with maternal and fetal prognosis. Results: This study showed that hyper uricemia associated with massive proteinuria and a high creatinine level correlated with an unfavorable pregnancy outcome and the occurrence of major materno-fetal complications such as eclampsia (X-squared = 24.3598, ddl = 2, p-value = 0.000005) and low birth weight (p = 0.001, R2 = 0.08). Conclusion: In view of these results, it appears necessary to ensure these biochemical markers systematically in the monitoring of pre-eclampsia.
Immunisation-related knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
MA Mapatano, K Kayembe, L Piripiri, K Nyandwe
South African Family Practice , 2008,
Abstract: Background: In the Democratic Republic of Congo, it was reported in 1995 that the routine coverage for BCG was as low as 47%, and that it was 27% for DPT3, 28% for OPV3 and 39% for measles vaccine. The trend also was declining unevenly. This study aimed to determine the reasons for such low coverage, examining the socio-demographic characteristics of mothers and health system factors such as health services barriers. It further sought to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers associated with routine immunisation. Methods: In 1999, a cross-sectional household survey applied a systematic sampling technique in a sample of eight out of the 22 health zones that then served the population of Kinshasa. These were dichotomised into low- and high-coverage health zones, based on BCG immunisation coverage. Mothers of children aged from zero to four years were the respondents to a standardised questionnaire. Results: A total of 1 613 children aged zero to four years participated in the study. Awareness of immunisation and its importance in protecting a child against diseases was universal, although most mothers could not tell exactly against which diseases. Mothers had positive attitudes towards immunisation (98%). Coverage based on the immunisation card, however, was as low as 37%, indicating a discrepancy between the high level of knowledge and positive attitudes, with the observed low immunisation coverage. The father's education and the mother's experience of an EPI-targeted disease in the family emerged as significant predictors of complete immunisation of the child. The father's involvement and the mother's ability to cite signs of severity of EPI diseases were associated with the child's vaccination status in the high-coverage health zone. The mother's vaccine-related knowledge was a predictor of immunisation status only in the low-coverage zone. Conclusion: Different factors determine the complete vaccination status, depending on whether the child lives in a zone with low or high routine EPI coverage. For example, the father's involvement is associated with the child's vaccination status in the high- coverage zone, but not in the low-coverage zone. Programmes and policy makers should take these factors into account when designing strategies to increase immunisation coverage. South African Family Practice Vol. 50 (2) 2008: pp. 61-61e
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