Abstract:
We introduce the notion of a hereditary property for rooted real trees and we also consider reduction of trees by a given hereditary property. Leaf-length erasure, also called trimming, is included as a special case of hereditary reduction. We only consider the metric structure of trees, and our framework is the space $\bT$ of pointed isometry classes of locally compact rooted real trees equipped with the Gromov-Hausdorff distance. Some of the main results of the paper are a general tightness criterion in $\bT$ and limit theorems for growing families of trees. We apply these results to Galton-Watson trees with exponentially distributed edge lengths. This class is preserved by hereditary reduction. Then we consider families of such Galton-Watson trees that are consistent under hereditary reduction and that we call growth processes. We prove that the associated families of offspring distributions are completely characterised by the branching mechanism of a continuous-state branching process. We also prove that such growth processes converge to Levy forests. As a by-product of this convergence, we obtain a characterisation of the laws of Levy forests in terms of leaf-length erasure and we obtain invariance principles for discrete Galton-Watson trees, including the super-critical cases.

Abstract:
Some, but not all processes of the form $M_t=\exp(-\xi_t)$ for a pure-jump subordinator $\xi$ with Laplace exponent $\Phi$ arise as residual mass processes of particle 1 (tagged particle) in Bertoin's partition-valued exchangeable fragmentation processes. We introduce the notion of a Markovian embedding of $M=(M_t,t\ge 0)$ in a fragmentation process, and we show that for each $\Phi$, there is a unique (in distribution) binary fragmentation process in which $M$ has a Markovian embedding. The identification of the Laplace exponent $\Phi^*$ of its tagged particle process $M^*$ gives rise to a symmetrisation operation $\Phi\mapsto\Phi^*$, which we investigate in a general study of pairs $(M,M^*)$ that coincide up to a random time and then evolve independently. We call $M$ a fragmenter and $(M,M^*)$ a bifurcator. For $\alpha>0$, we equip the interval $R_1=[0,\int_0^{\infty}M_t^{\alpha}\,dt]$ with a purely atomic probability measure $\mu_1$, which captures the jump sizes of $M$ suitably placed on $R_1$. We study binary tree growth processes that in the $n$th step sample an atom (``bead'') from $\mu _n$ and build $(R_{n+1},\mu_{n+1})$ by replacing the atom by a rescaled independent copy of $(R_1,\mu_1)$ that we tie to the position of the atom. We show that any such bead splitting process $((R_n,\mu_n),n\ge1)$ converges almost surely to an $\alpha$-self-similar continuum random tree of Haas and Miermont, in the Gromov-Hausdorff-Prohorov sense. This generalises Aldous's line-breaking construction of the Brownian continuum random tree.

Abstract:
We use a natural ordered extension of the Chinese Restaurant Process to grow a two-parameter family of binary self-similar continuum fragmentation trees. We provide an explicit embedding of Ford's sequence of alpha model trees in the continuum tree which we identified in a previous article as a distributional scaling limit of Ford's trees. In general, the Markov branching trees induced by the two-parameter growth rule are not sampling consistent, so the existence of compact limiting trees cannot be deduced from previous work on the sampling consistent case. We develop here a new approach to establish such limits, based on regenerative interval partitions and the urn-model description of sampling from Dirichlet random distributions.

Abstract:
We introduce the notion of a restricted exchangeable partition of $\mathbb{N}$. We obtain integral representations, consider associated fragmentations, embeddings into continuum random trees and convergence to such limit trees. In particular, we deduce from the general theory developed here a limit result conjectured previously for Ford's alpha model and its extension, the alpha-gamma model, where restricted exchangeability arises naturally.

Abstract:
We construct random locally compact real trees called Levy trees that are the genealogical trees associated with continuous-state branching processes. More precisely, we define a growing family of discrete Galton-Watson trees with i.i.d. exponential branch lengths that is consistent under Bernoulli percolation on leaves; we define the Levy tree as the limit of this growing family with respect to the Gromov-Hausdorff topology on metric spaces. This elementary approach notably includes supercritical trees and does not make use of the height process introduced by Le Gall and Le Jan to code the genealogy of (sub)critical continuous-state branching processes. We construct the mass measure of Levy trees and we give a decomposition along the ancestral subtree of a Poisson sampling directed by the mass measure.

Abstract:
Pruning processes $(\mathcal{F}(\theta),\theta\geq 0)$ have been studied separately for Galton-Watson trees and for L\'evy trees/forests. We establish here a limit theory that strongly connects the two studies. This solves an open problem by Abraham and Delmas, also formulated as a conjecture by L\"ohr, Voisin and Winter. Specifically, we show that for any sequence of Galton-Watson forests $\mathcal{F}_n$, $n\geq 1$, in the domain of attraction of a L\'evy forest $\mathcal{F}$, suitably scaled pruning processes $(\mathcal{F}_n(\theta),\theta\geq 0)$ converge in the Skorohod topology on cadlag functions with values in the space of (isometry classes of) locally compact real trees to limiting pruning processes. We separately treat pruning at branch points and pruning at edges. We apply our results to study ascension times and Kesten trees and forests.

Abstract:
This article is about right inverses of Levy processes as first introduced by Evans in the symmetric case and later studied systematically by the present authors and their co-authors. Here we add to the existing fluctuation theory an explicit description of the excursion measure away from the (minimal) right inverse. This description unifies known formulas in the case of a positive Gaussian coefficient and in the bounded variation case. While these known formulas relate to excursions away from a point starting negative continuously, and excursions started by a jump, the present description is in terms of excursions away from the supremum continued up to a return time. In the unbounded variation case with zero Gaussian coefficient previously excluded, excursions start negative continuously, but the excursion measures away from the right inverse and away from a point are mutually singular. We also provide a new construction and a new formula for the Laplace exponent of the minimal right inverse.

Abstract:
Trees in Brownian excursions have been studied since the late 1980s. Forests in excursions of Brownian motion above its past minimum are a natural extension of this notion. In this paper we study a forest-valued Markov process which describes the growth of the Brownian forest. The key result is a composition rule for binary Galton--Watson forests with i.i.d. exponential branch lengths. We give elementary proofs of this composition rule and explain how it is intimately linked with Williams' decomposition for Brownian motion with drift.

Abstract:
We study certain consistent families $(F_\lambda)_{\lambda\ge 0}$ of Galton-Watson forests with lifetimes as edge lengths and/or immigrants as progenitors of the trees in $F_\lambda$. Specifically, consistency here refers to the property that for each $\mu\le\lambda$, the forest $F_\mu$ has the same distribution as the subforest of $F_\lambda$ spanned by the black leaves in a Bernoulli leaf colouring, where each leaf of $F_\lambda$ is coloured in black independently with probability $\mu/\lambda$. The case of exponentially distributed lifetimes and no immigration was studied by Duquesne and Winkel and related to the genealogy of Markovian continuous-state branching processes. We characterise here such families in the framework of arbitrary lifetime distributions and immigration according to a renewal process, related to Sagitov's (non-Markovian) generalisation of continuous-state branching renewal processes, and similar processes with immigration.

Abstract:
We introduce regenerative tree growth processes as consistent families of random trees with n labelled leaves, n>=1, with a regenerative property at branch points. This framework includes growth processes for exchangeably labelled Markov branching trees, as well as non-exchangeable models such as the alpha-theta model, the alpha-gamma model and all restricted exchangeable models previously studied. Our main structural result is a representation of the growth rule by a sigma-finite dislocation measure kappa on the set of partitions of the natural numbers extending Bertoin's notion of exchangeable dislocation measures from the setting of homogeneous fragmentations. We use this representation to establish necessary and sufficient conditions on the growth rule under which we can apply results by Haas and Miermont for unlabelled and not necessarily consistent trees to establish self-similar random trees and residual mass processes as scaling limits. While previous studies exploited some form of exchangeability, our scaling limit results here only require a regularity condition on the convergence of asymptotic frequencies under kappa, in addition to a regular variation condition.