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Range Expansion of Heterogeneous Populations
Matthias Reiter,Steffen Rulands,Erwin Frey
Quantitative Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.148103
Abstract: Risk spreading in bacterial populations is generally regarded as a strategy to maximize survival. Here, we study its role during range expansion of a genetically diverse population where growth and motility are two alternative traits. We find that during the initial expansion phase fast growing cells do have a selective advantage. By contrast, asymptotically, generalists balancing motility and reproduction are evolutionarily most successful. These findings are rationalized by a set of coupled Fisher equations complemented by stochastic simulations.
Therapeutic lung lavages in children and adults
Christian Paschen, Karl Reiter, Franz Stanzel, Helmut Teschler, Matthias Griese
Respiratory Research , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-6-138
Abstract: In 4 pediatric and 6 adult PAP patients 45 therapeutic half lung lavages were investigated retrospectively. Total protein, protein concentration and, in one child with a surfactant protein C mutation, aberrant pro-SP-C protein, were determined during wash out.The removal of protein from the lungs followed an exponential decline and averaged for adult patients 2 – 20 g and <0.5 to 6 g for pediatric patients. The average protein concentration of consecutive portions was the same in all patient groups, however was elevated in pediatric patients when expressed per body weight. The amount of an aberrant pro-SP-C protein, which was present in one patient with a SP-C mutation, constantly decreased with ongoing lavage. Measuring the optical density of the lavage fluid obtained allowed to monitor the wash out process during the lavages at the bedside and to determine the termination of the lavage procedure at normal protein concentration.Following therapeutic half lung lavages by biochemical variables may help to estimate the degree of alveolar filling with proteinaceous material and to improve the efficiency of the wash out, especially in children.Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare respiratory disease characterized by the accumulation of surfactant-derived material in the lung of patients [1]. Currently PAP is categorized into acquired, congenital, and secondary PAP [2,3].The acquired form of PAP is clinically characterized by cough, dyspnea and progression to respiratory failure. The presence of anti-GM-CSF auto-antibodies in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is of diagnostic value for this entity[3,4]. The congenital form of PAP is characterized by an acute onset immediately after birth with respiratory distress and rapid progression[5]. Pathogenetically mutations of the genes encoding surfactant protein B [6,7] and C[8,9], the GM-CSF receptor β subunit[10], or ABC-A3 [11] may lead to the accumulation of proteinaceous alveolar material. Secondary PAP is u
Meaningful Learning in Special Education Teaching and Learning Based on the Cycle of Internalized Learning: A Review  [PDF]
Shunit Reiter
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.39016

Meaningful Learning implies the active involvement of the learners/students in whatever is being taught. It is based on a holistic approach to the learners, calling for their cognitive, emotional and behavioral attention. It is also holistic in the sense that it takes into account the ecological status of the learners, their family ties; the neighborhood where they live; their formal milieu, be it a school, a social club, place of work, etc.; and their ethnic and national backgrounds. In holistic teaching the learner is perceived as a person—a subject who is undergoing development, rather than an object that is called upon to learn by rote, so that retention of information can be assessed by tests and scores. The Cycle of Internalized Learning—CIL model (Reiter, 2008) was established on the premise that individuals with disabilities were highly influenced by their environment, in the sense that there was an inseparable connection between the disability and the environment. The model addresses three levels of social behavior: the operative—what, the cultural normative—when and the moral—why. The CIL, founded on the humanistic philosophy, is relevant and applicable to people in general, and specifically to people with disabilities. Its premise states that individuals possess cognitive and rational abilities, are capable of introspection based on their understanding of their surroundings, and are capable of gaining an insight into their own motives. Thus, they are responsible for their behavior and can regulate it, by critically evaluating the outcome of their behavior and making changes, if necessary. The CIL focuses on personal progression and development. The article describes in some detail evidence-based research studies that are performed in order to further validate the CIL’s contribution to student development.

Fitness Ranking of Individual Mutants Drives Patterns of Epistatic Interactions in HIV-1
Javier P. Martínez,Gennady Bocharov,Anna Ignatovich,Jochen Reiter,Matthias T. Dittmar,Simon Wain-Hobson,Andreas Meyerhans
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018375
Abstract: Fitness interactions between mutations, referred to as epistasis, can strongly impact evolution. For RNA viruses and retroviruses with their high mutation rates, epistasis may be particularly important to overcome fitness losses due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations and thus could influence the frequency of mutants in a viral population. As human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) resistance to azidothymidine (AZT) requires selection of sequential mutations, it is a good system to study the impact of epistasis. Here we present a thorough analysis of a classical AZT-resistance pathway (the 41–215 cluster) of HIV-1 variants by fitness measurements in single round infection assays covering physiological drug concentrations ex vivo. The sign and value of epistasis varied and did not predict the epistatic effect on the mutant frequency. This complex behavior is explained by the fitness ranking of the variants that strongly depends on environmental factors, i.e., the presence and absence of drugs and the host cells used. Although some interactions compensate fitness losses, the observed small effect on the relative mutant frequencies suggests that epistasis might be inefficient as a buffering mechanism for fitness losses in vivo. While the use of epistasis-based hypotheses to make general assumptions on the evolutionary dynamics of viral populations is appealing, our data caution their interpretation without further knowledge on the characteristics of the viral mutant spectrum under different environmental conditions.
Education reform, race, and politics in Bahia, Brazil
Reiter, Bernd;
Ensaio: Avalia??o e Políticas Públicas em Educa??o , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-40362008000100009
Abstract: this article discusses the main findings and conclusions from my field research evaluating education reform in the state of bahia, brazil. data collection was done during two exploratory research trips to salvador, the state capital, in 2001 and in 2005. the bahian education reform, initiated by the state government in 1999 and funded to a great extent by the world bank, has achieved some very significant goals, most importantly the expansion of high school education and the broadening of access to primary education in areas where access was far from universal. my research nevertheless points to some sever shortcomings, namely with regard to the situation of afro-brazilians. structural racism provides one of the strongest explanations for this shortcoming. structural racism in bahia lowers teachers' and principals' expectations about the potential for academic achievement of poor afro-brazilians; structural racism widens the gap between students and principals, contributing to a mutual alienation of this two groups and jeopardizing the creation of strategic alliances and synergies inside schools; and it alienates schools from neighborhoods, impeding meaningful community and parental involvement in school management. finally, the low recognition that public teachers receive from society as a whole, reflected by low salaries, and a general lack of institutional incentive structures that reward outstanding performance and sanction under-average performance have transformed bahian public education into a desperado system, where the motivations of teachers and students are systematically grinded and their hopes frustrated.
Barriers to effective treatment of vaginal atrophy with local estrogen therapy
Reiter S
International Journal of General Medicine , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S43192
Abstract: arriers to effective treatment of vaginal atrophy with local estrogen therapy Review (171) Total Article Views Authors: Reiter S Published Date March 2013 Volume 2013:6 Pages 153 - 158 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S43192 Received: 24 January 2013 Accepted: 19 February 2013 Published: 15 March 2013 Suzanne Reiter Mid-County Health Center, Largo, FL, USA Abstract: Vaginal atrophy is a common condition among postmenopausal women, among whom many exhibit both vulvovaginal symptoms (eg, dryness, irritation, itching, and pain with intercourse) and urinary symptoms (eg, increased frequency, urgency, incontinence, urinary tract infections, and dysuria). Unfortunately, few women with symptoms of vaginal atrophy report seeking treatment from a health care provider. The goal of this article is to examine reasons why patients and health care providers do not engage in discourse regarding this important topic. It is important to initiate conversations with postmenopausal women and counsel them on both why the changes occur and potential treatment options.
Motiva, MyHeart and HeartCycle: approaches to investigate and offer evidence-based solutions
Harald Reiter
International Journal of Integrated Care , 2011,
Contexto, experiencia, expectativa, y acción. Hacia un modelo general, empíricamente fundado para el análisis de la incertidumbre biográfica Kontext, Erfahrung, Erwartung und Handeln – ein empirisch begründetes, allgemeines Modell zur Analyse biografischer Unsicherheit Context, Experience, Expectation, and Action—Towards an Empirically Grounded, General Model for Analyzing Biographical Uncertainty
Herwig Reiter
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2010,
Abstract: El artículo propone un modelo general, empíricamente fundado para el análisis de la incertidumbre biográfica. El modelo se basa en los hallazgos de un estudio exploratorio cualitativo de la transformación de los significados de desempleo entre los jóvenes en la Lituania post-soviética. En una primera etapa, se discuten brevemente las características particulares del rompecabezas de la incertidumbre en las transiciones de la juventud postcomunista. Un hecho histórico como el colapso del socialismo de estado en Europa, similar a la crisis financiera y económica reciente, es un generador de incertidumbre por excelencia: socava los cimientos de las sociedades y "lo que se da por hecho" de las expectativas relacionadas. En este contexto, se presenta el caso de una mujer joven y cómo responde a la nueva amenaza de desempleo en la transición al mundo del trabajo. Su gestión de la incertidumbre en la perspectiva de tiempo específico de la producción de seguridad es entonces conceptualmente reformulado para distinguir tres tipos o niveles de incertidumbre biográfica: incertidumbre de conocimiento, incertidumbre de resultados e incertidumbre de reconocimiento. Se argumenta que la incertidumbre biográfica es empíricamente observable a través del análisis de la actuación y la proyección en el plano biográfico. En la parte final se resumen los resultados empíricos y la discusión conceptual en un modelo de estratificación de la incertidumbre biográfica como una herramienta general para el análisis biográfico de los fenómenos de incertidumbre. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100120 Auf der Grundlage einer qualitativ-explorativen Untersuchung der Bedeutung von Arbeitslosigkeit unter Jugendlichen im post-sowjetischen Litauen schl gt der Artikel ein empirisch begründetes Model zur Analyse biografischer Unsicherheit vor. Der erste Teil widmet sich der Diskussion der besonderen Unsicherheitsfaktoren in überg ngen Jugendlicher in die Arbeitswelt im post-kommunistischen Kontext. Der Zusammenbruch sozialistischer Regime in Europa ist, wie die gegenw rtige Wirtschaftskrise, ein historisches Ereignis von besonderer Tragweite und gleichzeitig Ausl ser von Unsicherheit schlechthin: er erschüttert nicht nur die Grundlagen von Gesellschaften, sondern auch die Selbstverst ndlichkeit damit verbundener Erwartungen. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird der Fall einer jungen Frau vorgestellt und wie sie mit der, im übergang in die Arbeitswelt durch den Systemwechsel nunmehr drohenden Arbeitslosigkeit umgeht. In einem n chsten Schritt wird ihre besondere Art der Bearbeitung von Unsicherheit in der Zeitper
Die Freizügigkeit auf dem Schubkarren - Zum Spannungsverh ltnis von Ausweisungsrecht und Bewegungsfreiheit in der Habsburgermonarchie im ausgehenden 19. Jahrhundert
Ilse Reiter
Forum Historiae Iuris , 2001,
Die autochthonen Volksgruppen sterreichs - Ein überblick über die Rechtslage von 1848 bis in die Gegenwart
Ilse Reiter
Forum Historiae Iuris , 2001,
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