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Cerebellar and Hippocampal Activation During Eyeblink Conditioning Depends on the Experimental Paradigm: A MEG Study
Peter Kirsch,Caroline Achenbach,Martina Kirsch,Matthias Heinzmann,Anne Schienle,Dieter Vaitl
Neural Plasticity , 2003, DOI: 10.1155/np.2003.291
Abstract: The cerebellum and the hippocampus are key structures for the acquisition of conditioned eyeblink responses. Whereas the cerebellum seems to be crucial for all types of eyeblink conditioning, the hippocampus appears to be involved only in complex types of learning. We conducted a differential conditioning study to explore the suitability of the design for magnetencephalography (MEG). In addition, we compared cerebellar and hippocampal activation during differential delay and trace conditioning. Comparable conditioning effects were seen in both conditions, but a greater resistance to extinction for trace conditioning. Brain activation differed between paradigms: delay conditioning provoked activation only in the cerebellum and trace conditioning only in the hippocampus. The results reflect differential brain activation patterns during the two types of eyeblink conditioning.
ANCA-Associated Vasculitides—An Update  [PDF]
Johanna Kegel, Torsten Kirsch
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.614209
Abstract: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides are characterized by destruction of small vessels, granulomatous inflammation of the respiratory tract and necrotizing glomerulonephritis. This review describes the clinical diagnosis and therapy as well as the patho-physiology of ANCA-associated vasculitides with a specific focus on the interplay of ANCAs with activated neutrophils and the deleterious pathophysiological consequences of neutrophil-endothelium interaction.
An Extremely Rare, Remote Intracerebral Metastasis of Oral Cavity Cancer: A Case Report
Mario Leimert,Tareq A. Juratli,Claudia Lindner,Kathrin D. Geiger,Johannes Gerber,Gabriele Schackert,Matthias Kirsch
Case Reports in Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/257046
Abstract: Distant brain metastases from oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) are extremely rare. Here we describe a case of a 53-year-old man with a primary OSCC who referred to the neurosurgical department because of epileptic seizures. MR imaging revealed an enhancing lesion in the right parietal lobe. A craniotomy with tumor removing was performed. Histopathological examination verified an invasive, minimally differentiated metastasis of the primary OSCC. The patient refused whole brain radiation therapy and died from pulmonary metastatic disease 10 months after the neurosurgical intervention without any cerebral recurrence. To the authors’ knowledge, only two similar cases have been previously reported. 1. Introduction Remote brain metastases from oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) are an extremely rare occurrence. To date, only few cases have been reported previously [1, 2]. In contrast, direct intracranial invasion is not infrequent in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) at a locally advanced stage [3]. Incidence of brain metastases following NPC may be increasing secondary to advancements in the treatment of systemic disease and earlier detection by more sensitive imaging modalities [4]. Most distant metastases from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are reported to occur in the liver, lungs, and bones [5]. Therefore, preoperative tumor staging is focussed on these sites (CT scan of the chest, radionuclide bone scans, and ultrasound of the liver). In the following case study, we present a patient who developed a histologically confirmed brain metastasis of OSCC. The patient developed symptoms from his cerebral metastasis 29 months after the primary disease was diagnosed. 2. Case Description A 53-year-old man with a 29-month history of a slowly enlarging ulcer on the bottom of the right lateral oral cavity was referred to our Department of Head and Neck surgery. After biopsy, a radical surgical resection of the tumor with supraomohyoid and functional neck dissection in continuity and reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap was performed. Histopathological work-up diagnosed a primary oral squamous cell carcinoma stage T3N3 (Figure 3(a)). Based on the stage of this diagnosis, adjuvant radiotherapy was initiated with a total dose of 64?Gy delivered in 32 fractions to both sides of the neck and the primary site. A CT scan revealed bilateral small pulmonary nodules, which were diagnosed as pulmonary metastases, but the patient declined chemotherapy. After radiation therapy, he was well and with stable disease for 26 months. Then, after a 3-week
Atypical Central Neurocytoma with Recurrent Spinal Dissemination over a Period of 20 Years: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Tareq A. Juratli,Kathrin Geiger,Mario Leimert,Gabriele Schackert,Matthias Kirsch
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/925647
Abstract: We present an unusual case of a late recurrent central neurocytoma that was rediagnosed as an ependymoma and neurocytoma in accordance with changes in histological classifications. Case Description. A 56-year-old male teacher presented with incomplete transverse syndrome due to several intradural extramedullary tumors at the level of lumbar vertebrae 1–3. The histological diagnosis at the time was atypical ependymoma. One year later, two additional tumors were removed at the L5-S1 vertebral level. For 12 years, the patient remained tumor free on followup. Fourteen years after the initial diagnosis, the patient presented with thoracic paresthesias due to two new extramedullary tumors in the C7-T1 and the T8-T9 vertebral levels. After complete removal of the tumors, a radiological survey revealed an intracranial lesion in the third ventricle. Five months later, an additional lesion recurrence was removed surgically. The most recent histological diagnosis revealed an atypical central neurocytoma. In retrospect, the previous tumors were reclassified as neurocytoma according to the additional immunohistochemistry evidence. Discussion. There is no standard adjuvant treatment regimen for atypical neurocytoma; therefore, the patient is currently under close followup. Modern histopathological diagnosis is essential in these cases. Potential routes for dissemination of the tumor should be considered upon first recurrence. 1. Introduction Central neurocytomas are rare benign tumors of the central nervous system, characterized by their intraventricular localization. They are considered to arise from precursor cells of the septum pellucidum. They predominantly occur in young adults and generally have a favorable outcome, although cases with an aggressive clinical course and recurrences have been described. Historically, many of these lesions were regarded as either intraventricular oligodendroglioma or as ependymoma until detailed immunohistological clarification of their neuronal phenotypes was established. Neurocytoma was first described by Hassoun et al. [1] and is now a well-established diagnosis included in the latest WHO Classification [2]. In the literature, only a few neurocytomas were reported with an extraventricular location, including cerebral hemispheres [3], thalamus [4], cerebellum [5], pons [6], amygdala [7], retina [8], and in some rare cases the spinal cord [9]. Herein, we report a case of an atypical central neurocytoma with recurrent spinal dissemination over a period of 20 years. 2. Case Report A 56-year-old Caucasian male teacher was first seen
The PAX Toolkit and its Applications at Tevatron and LHC
Steffen Kappler,Martin Erdmann,Ulrich Felzmann,Dominic Hirschbuehl,Matthias Kirsch,Guenter Quast,Alexander Schmidt,Joanna Weng
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2006.870179
Abstract: At the CHEP03 conference we launched the Physics Analysis eXpert (PAX), a C++ toolkit released for the use in advanced high energy physics (HEP) analyses. This toolkit allows to define a level of abstraction beyond detector reconstruction by providing a general, persistent container model for HEP events. Physics objects such as particles, vertices and collisions can easily be stored, accessed and manipulated. Bookkeeping of relations between these objects (like decay trees, vertex and collision separation, etc.) including deep copies is fully provided by the relation management. Event container and associated objects represent a uniform interface for algorithms and facilitate the parallel development and evaluation of different physics interpretations of individual events. So-called analysis factories, which actively identify and distinguish different physics processes and study systematic uncertainties, can easily be realized with the PAX toolkit. PAX is officially released to experiments at Tevatron and LHC. Being explored by a growing user community, it is applied in a number of complex physics analyses, two of which are presented here. We report the successful application in studies of t-tbar production at the Tevatron and Higgs searches in the channel t-tbar-Higgs at the LHC and give a short outlook on further developments.
Cerebrospinal fluid promotes survival and astroglial differentiation of adult human neural progenitor cells but inhibits proliferation and neuronal differentiation
Judith Buddensiek, Alexander Dressel, Michael Kowalski, Uwe Runge, Henry Schroeder, Andreas Hermann, Matthias Kirsch, Alexander Storch, Michael Sabolek
BMC Neuroscience , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-11-48
Abstract: Adult CSF increased the survival rate of adult human NSCs compared to standard serum free culture media during both stem cell maintenance and differentiation. The presence of CSF promoted differentiation of NSCs leading to a faster loss of their self-renewal capacity as it is measured by the proliferation markers Ki67 and BrdU and stronger cell extension outgrowth with longer and more cell extensions per cell. After differentiation in CSF, we found a larger number of GFAP+ astroglial cells compared to differentiation in standard culture media and a lower number of β-tubulin III+ neuronal cells.Our data demonstrate that adult human leptomeningeal CSF creates a beneficial environment for the survival and differentiation of adult human NSCs. Adult CSF is in vitro a strong glial differentiation stimulus and leads to a rapid loss of stem cell potential.Neural stem cells (NSCs) are a promising source for cell replacement therapies in the brain and the spinal cord [1]. It is common knowledge that NSCs can be extracted from fetal brain [2-4] or generated from embryonic stem cells [2,5-8]. Furthermore, NSCs can also be isolated from different regions of the adult brain such as the hippocampus and the subventricular zone and from some non-neurogenic regions such as the spinal cord [2,3,9-13] or the periventricular regions of the whole neuroaxis [14]. NSCs are able to replicate and generate all neuroectodermal lineages, namely neurons, astroglia and oligodendroglia [2,3,15]. During in vitro expansion, NSCs grow in so-called "neurospheres" or adherent cultures. Neurospheres are either multicellular aggregates or clones originating from one single cell depending on the cell density [3,9,11,15]. In previous studies, the isolation and successful long-term expansion of human NSCs from the adult hippocampus, the adult olfactory bulb and adult post-mortem tissues have been reported [16-20]. In these studies, ahNSCs have successfully been expanded for more than 30 population doublings
PD-0332991, a CDK4/6 Inhibitor, Significantly Prolongs Survival in a Genetically Engineered Mouse Model of Brainstem Glioma
Kelly L. Barton, Katherine Misuraca, Francisco Cordero, Elena Dobrikova, Hooney D. Min, Matthias Gromeier, David G. Kirsch, Oren J. Becher
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077639
Abstract: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an incurable tumor that arises in the brainstem of children. To date there is not a single approved drug to effectively treat these tumors and thus novel therapies are desperately needed. Recent studies suggest that a significant fraction of these tumors contain alterations in cell cycle regulatory genes including amplification of the D-type cyclins and CDK4/6, and less commonly, loss of Ink4a-ARF leading to aberrant cell proliferation. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic approach of targeting the cyclin-CDK-Retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway in a genetically engineered PDGF-B-driven brainstem glioma (BSG) mouse model. We found that PD-0332991 (PD), a CDK4/6 inhibitor, induces cell-cycle arrest in our PDGF-B; Ink4a-ARF deficient model both in vitro and in vivo. By contrast, the PDGF-B; p53 deficient model was mostly resistant to treatment with PD. We noted that a 7-day treatment course with PD significantly prolonged survival by 12% in the PDGF-B; Ink4a-ARF deficient BSG model. Furthermore, a single dose of 10 Gy radiation therapy (RT) followed by 7 days of treatment with PD increased the survival by 19% in comparison to RT alone. These findings provide the rationale for evaluating PD in children with Ink4a-ARF deficient gliomas.
La trasformazione politica del monarca europeo nel XIX secolo
Martin Kirsch
Scienza & Politica : per una Storia delle Dottrine , 2006, DOI: 10.6092/issn.1825-9618/2849
Abstract: La trasformazione politica del monarca europeo nel XIX secolo
An Invitation to Random Schroedinger operators
Werner Kirsch
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: This review is an extended version of my mini course at the Etats de la recherche: Operateurs de Schroedinger aleatoires at the Universite Paris 13 in June 2002, a summer school organized by Frederic Klopp. These lecture notes try to give some of the basics of random Schroedinger operators. They are meant for nonspecialists and require only minor previous knowledge about functional analysis and probability theory. Nevertheless this survey includes complete proofs of Lifshitz tails and Anderson localization.
A Wegner estimate for multi-particle random Hamiltonians
Werner Kirsch
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: We prove a Wegner estimate for a large class of multiparticle Anderson Hamiltonians on the lattice. These estimates will allow us to prove Anderson localization for such systems. A detailed proof of localization will be given in a subsequent paper.
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