Abstract:
The interaction of hydrogen with many transition metal surfaces is characterized by a coexistence of activated with non-activated paths to adsorption with a broad distribution of barrier heights. By performing six-dimensional quantum dynamical and classical molecular dynamics calculations using the same potential energy surface derived from ``ab initio'' calculations for the system H_2/Pd(100) we show that these features of the potential energy surface lead to strong steering effects in the dissociative adsorption dynamics. The adsorption dynamics shows only a small isotope effect which is purely due to the quantum nature of hydrogen.

Abstract:
Among other things (e.g. steering and steric effects in dissociative adsorption) we had predicted that the initial sticking probability of H_2 molecules impinging at clean Pd(100) exhibits oscillations, reflecting the quantum nature of the scattering process. In the preceding comment Rettner and Auerbach (RA) analyze experimental results and conclude that these oscillations are not detectable and thus either not existing or at least very small. In this reply we argue that the experimental study of RA is not conclusive to rule out the existence of quantum oscillations in the scattering of H_2 and note several problems and incongruities in their study.

Abstract:
The influence of molecular vibrations on dissociative adsorption is studied by six-dimensional quantum dynamical calculations. For the system H_2 at Pd(100), which possesses non-activated pathways, it is shown that large vibrational effects exist and that they are not due to a strongly curved reaction path and a late dissociation-hindering minimum barrier, as was previously assumed. Instead, they are caused by the lowering of the H-H vibrational frequency during the dissociation and the multi-dimensionality of the potential energy surface. Still there are quantitative discrepancies between theory and experiment identified.

Abstract:
Six-dimensional quantum dynamical calculations of the scattering of H_2 from a Pd(100) surface using a potential energy surface derived from density-functional theory calculations are presented. Due to the corrugation and anisotropy of the PES strong off-specular and rotationally inelastic diffraction is found. The dependence of the diffraction intensitities on the incident kinetic energy is closely examined. In particular we focus on the quantum oscillations for normal and off-normal incidence.

Abstract:
According to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics, particles which are localized in space by a bounding potential must have a finite distribution of momenta. This leads, even in the lowest-possible energy state, to vibrations, and thus, to the so-called zero-point energy. For chemically bound hydrogen the zero-point energy can be quite substantial. For example, for a free H_2 molecule it is 0.26 eV, a significant value in the realm of chemistry, where often an energy of the order of 0.1 eV/atom (or 2.3 kcal/mol) decides whether or not a chemical reaction takes place with an appreciable rate. Yet, in many theoretical studies the dynamics of chemical reactions involving hydrogen has been treated classically or quasi-classically, assuming that the quantum mechanical nature of H nuclei, i.e. the zero-point effects, will not strongly affect the relevant physical or chemical properties. In this paper we show that this assumption is not justified. We will demonstrate that for very basic and fundamental catalytic-reaction steps, namely the dissociative adsorption of molecular hydrogen at transition metal surfaces and its time-reverse process, the associative desorption, zero-point effects can not only quantitatively but even qualitatively affect the chemical processes and rates. Our calculations (treating electrons as well as H nuclei quantum-mechanically) establish the importance of additional zero-point effects generated by the H_2-surface interaction and how energy of the H-H stretch vibration is transferred into those and vice versa.

Abstract:
The interaction of hydrogen with many transition metal surfaces is characterized by a coexistence of activated with non-activated paths to adsorption with a broad distribution of barrier heights. By performing six-dimensional quantum dynamical calculations using a potential energy surface derived from ab initio calculations for the system H_2/Pd(100) we show that these features of the potential energy surface lead to strong steering effects in the dissociative adsorption and associative desorption dynamics. In particular, we focus on the coupling of the translational, rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom of the hydrogen molecule in the reaction dynamics.

Abstract:
The dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on Pd(100) has been studied by ab initio quantum dynamics and ab initio molecular dynamics calculations. Treating all hydrogen degrees of freedom as dynamical coordinates implies a high dimensionality and requires statistical averages over thousands of trajectories. An efficient and accurate treatment of such extensive statistics is achieved in two steps: In a first step we evaluate the ab initio potential energy surface (PES) and determine an analytical representation. Then, in an independent second step dynamical calculations are performed on the analytical representation of the PES. Thus the dissociation dynamics is investigated without any crucial assumption except for the Born-Oppenheimer approximation which is anyhow employed when density-functional theory calculations are performed. The ab initio molecular dynamics is compared to detailed quantum dynamical calculations on exactly the same ab initio PES. The occurence of quantum oscillations in the sticking probability as a function of kinetic energy is addressed. They turn out to be very sensitive to the symmetry of the initial conditions. At low kinetic energies sticking is dominated by the steering effect which is illustrated using classical trajectories. The steering effects depends on the kinetic energy, but not on the mass of the molecules. Zero-point effects lead to strong differences between quantum and classical calculations of the sticking probability. The dependence of the sticking probability on the angle of incidence is analysed; it is found to be in good agreement with experimental data. The results show that the determination of the potential energy surface combined with high-dimensional dynamical calculations, in which all relevant degrees of freedon are taken into account, leads to a detailed understanding of the dissociation dynamics of hydrogen at a transition metal surface.

Abstract:
We report six-dimensional quantum dynamical calculations of dissociative adsorption and associative desorption of the system H_2/Pd(100) using an ab-initio potential energy surface. We focus on rotational effects in the steering mechanism, which is responsible for the initial decrease of the sticking probability with kinetic energy. In addition, steric effects are briefly discussed.

Abstract:
Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations of deuterium desorbing from Si(100) have been performed in order to monitor the energy redistribution among the various D$_2$ and silicon degrees of freedom during the desorption process. The calculations show that a considerable part of the potential energy at the transition state to desorption is transferred to the silicon lattice. The deuterium molecules leave the surface vibrationally hot and rotationally cold, in agreement with thermal desorption experiments; the mean kinetic energy, however, is larger than found in a laser-induced desorption experiment. We discuss possible reasons for this discrepancy.